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History of 

St. Paul and Vicinity 

A Chronicle of Progress and a Narrative Account of the 

Industries, Institutions and People of the City 

and its Tributary Territory 










R 1916 L 


St. Paul and Vicinity 



St. Paul's First Schools — First Public Schoolhouse — Pioneer 
Public School Teachers — High School and Board of Educa- 
LIC Schools — The St. Paul High School — Present Public 
School System — For Those Who Must Cut Their Schooling — 
Physical Conservation and Safety — "The Little Red School" 
—Private and Select Schools — Public Schools as Social Cen- 
ters — Another New Departure. 

Few cities of a corresponding population are so well supplied with 
educational facilities as St. Paul. There are fifty-six public schools, in- 
cluding four new high schools. St. Paul has fifteen colleges; a large 
number of exceptionally successful Catholic day-boarding schools ; nearly 
a score of schools divided among various Protestant denominations 
(principally Lutheran) and several Hebrew schools. There are many 
business and commercial colleges, and a goodly number of private schools 
ranging from kindergartens to college preparatory. The enrollment in 
the public schools is over 28,500 and in other schools about 12,000, con- 
stituting altogether nearly a fifth of the entire population. The University 
of Miimesota, one of the largest in the country, every year gaining in com- 
pleteness of equipment, is situated just outside the city's border, and one 
department, the School of Agriculture, with its experiment farm, is 
within the city limits. The St. Paul Institute of Arts and Sciences, a 
recently established but powerful organization, is working along the 
most advanced lines to raise the standard of educational methods as well 
as of artistic and literary culture. 

The history of the city's progress in educational matters has been 
fairly well preserved. A fond parent, aiding a puzzled son with his 
algebra, often finds that "a" plus "b" divided by "x square" equals some 
things that have entirely faded from his memory, but the everyday events 
of his school days, divorced from the tedium of multiplication and syntax 
and the orthography of polysyllables, have a human interest that is un- 
forgotten and unforgetable. The pioneer children of earliest St. Paul, 
some of them still in the flesh, preserved their traditions ; their children 
and grandchildren made printed records. 

St. Paul's First Schools 

In 1845 Mrs. Matilda Rumsey established a small school for children 
in a log building on the bottom near the upper levee. This was the first 
school of any kind in St. Paul. At that time there were only about 



thirty families in the place, half-breeds and all, and there were but few 
scholars in attendance. On the 2d of June of that year, Mrs. Rumsey 
married Alexander Mege, a Frenchman, and the school was discontinued. 
Shortly afterward an attempt was made by Mr. S. Cowden, Jr., to re- 
open the Rumsey school, but the enterprise was soon abandoned. No 
records remain of either of these episodes ; hence Miss Bishop's title to 
the primacy. 

In 1847, under the auspices of the Board of National Popular Edu- 
cation, with a commission which covered the entire extent of territory 
"between Wisconsin and the Rocky Mountains north of Iowa down to 
the North Pole," Miss Harriet E. Bishop opened what must be regarded 
as the first regular English school in St. Paul. She thus describes her 
primitive schoolhouse: "On a commanding point, which is now the cor- 
ner of St. Peter and Third streets, stood a log hovel with bark roof and 
mud chinkings, in size 10 by 12 feet; a limited space in one corner was 
occupied by a stick chimney and a mud fireplace. This room had, in its 
early days, served consecutively the triple use of dwelling, stable and 
blacksmith shop. When the shaky door swung back on its wooden hinges 
to admit the week day school, the Dakotas at once complimentively dubbed 
it "good book woman's house." From roof and walls came the fra- 
grance of cedar boughs, which had charmed hideousness into a rural ar- 
bor. On three sides of the interior of this humble log cabin, pegs were 
driven into the logs, upon which boards were laid for seats. Another 
seat was made by placing one end of a plank between the cracks of the 
logs, and the other upon a chair. This was for visitors." 

The school opened early in August with nine pupils, only two of 
whom were white. Nearly all of the seven others wore blankets. This 
proportion of pure whites and those with more or less of Indian blood 
was maintained for some time. Even when the attendance reached forty, 
only eight of the number were "pure whites." Only the elementary 
branches were taught. The "Good Book Woman" labored faithfully in 
the discharge of her duties. Bible reading was practiced daily. In a 
few months the number of scholars had increased to forty-two. 

First Public Schoolhouse 

In August, 1848, by the aid of citizens and the resident officers of 
Fort Snelling, a small but neat schoolhouse was erected near the north- 
west corner of St. Peter and Third streets. The building was also used 
for church purposes. The task of raising funds to pay for this house 
was not an easy one. A ladies' sewing society aided very materially in 
the work. There were eight members of this sewing society and the 
names of five of them have been handed down to us. They were Miss 
Bishop, Miss Harriet Patch, Mrs. Henry Jackson, Mrs. John R. Irvine, 
and Mrs. J. W. Bass. Mrs. Bass still lives in St. Paul. What a marvel- 
ous transformation in educational methods and processes has this good 
lady witnessed! This struggling little school comprised all of Minne- 
sota's educational facilities, which have expanded into a great system of 
schools, colleges and universities, with an invested school fund now 
amounting to $22,000,000, and destined, ultimately, to reach $100,000,000. 

The ladies met with success in earning money for the building and 
received fiftv dollars from tlie officers at Fort Snelling. The lot was 
a donation from John R. Irvine. The specified object of the building 
was the accommodation of the school, church, court, occasional lee- 


tures, elections and all public assemblages. It was expected that an 
expenditure of three hundred dollars on a building 25 by 30 feet would 
suffice for at least ten years. The house was used for the various pur- 
poses designated until 1851, when some of the religious denominations 
had churches of their own. It was burned in the fire of August, 1857. 
which swept the entire north side of Third street between Market and 
St. Peter. Prior to its destruction, having become the property of the 
school district, and a debt of eighty dollars incurred in its construction 
remaining unpaid through the neglect, indisposition, or inability of the 
citizens to pay the school tax, it had been sold for debt. 

Pioneer Public School Te.achers 

The legislative assembly of 1849 enacted a law for the establishment 
and support of common schools, but owing to the fact that the citizens 
failed to elect school trustees at the general election, no legal organiza- 
tion was effected that year. The first meeting of citizens in reference to 
education, held in St. Paul, was on the evening of December i, 1849, ^^ 
which a provisional committee on schools was appointed, consisting of 
William H. Forbes, Edmund Rice, E. D. Neill, J. P. Parsons and B. F. 
Hoyt. This committee engaged Rev. Mr. Hobart to teach a school for 
boys in the Methodist church on Market street, beginning December loth. 
Miss Bishop was engaged to teach on Bench street, and Miss Scofield 
was engaged to teach in a school building to be erected in lower town. 
These teachers were engaged "until such time as a legal organization 
of one or more school districts shall take place, but not to exceed three 
months." The compensation allowed was "three dollars per scholar by 
the quarter." The provisional committee on schools resolved "that the nec- 
essary fuel for the several schools be obtained by subscription and when 
delivered, that the young men of the place be requested to meet at a 
given time and cut the same for use." 

Miss Scofield's school was on Jackson street, near Sixth, in a one story 
frame building 18 by 36 feet in area. The lot was donated by William 
H. Randall, and the building was paid for by subscriptions. There were 
now three schools, with room for one hundred and fifty pupils. Miss 
Julia A. Barnum, afterwards Mrs. S. P. Folsom, taught this school in 
1850 and D. A. J. Baker in 1851. In that year Mr. Baker, for forty 
years afterwards prominent in local politics, got a bill through the legis- 
lature authorizing the trustees of school district No. 2 to confer college 
degrees. Against this Mr. Neill protested in his report as superintendent 
of schools, in the following year, declaring the law a burlesque and an 
infringement on the prerogatives of the regents of the State University. 
We have not been able to learn that the trustees ever conferred any 
degrees, or that the law has ever been repealed. 

High School and Board of Education 

In 1852 a high school was established and G. H. Spencer elected prin- 
cipal. The room hired for the purpose was the third floor of Stees and 
Hunt's furniture store, corner of Third and Minnesota streets. There 
were also four primary schools taught by Misses Bishop, Sorin, Merrill 
and Esson. In 1853 the public schools were taught by Miss Bishop, Mrs. 
Parker and Miss Esson. During the winter of 1853-4 Horace Bigelow, 
later a prominent lawyer of the city, taught the school on Jackson street. 


and when his salary became due, the treasury being empty, the trustees 
borrowed the money to pay him at two and a half per cent per month. 

In 1856 an act was passed making St. Paul one school district, and 
creating "The Board of Education of the city of St. Paul," to consist 
of nine members, three from each ward. The mayor and president of 
the council, by provision of this act, were "declared ex-ofiScio school in- 
spectors." The board organized in June of that year and consisted of 
the following members : Mayor George L. Becker, and president of the 
council, William L. Ames ; H. E. Baker, Theodore French, P. O. Fur- 
ber, William R. Marshall, Rev. E. D. Neill, Rev. A. M. Torbit, Par- 
ker Paine and E. C. Palmer. When the board organized they found 
neither funds nor buildings in their possession. 


The Washington schoolhouse was erected in 1857, under the direction 
of Messrs. Paine, Torbit and Furber, at a cost of $8,433, ^"d was dedi- 
cated August 31st of that year. In order to have the house as large and 
commodious as seemed desirable, Parker Paine advanced the board 
$2,000. Many complained that the building was too large and even "larger 
than the necessities of the town would ever require." But so rapid was 
the growth of the school population that two more buildings were re- 
quired the following year. 

Next came the Adams schoolhouse, at Tenth and Robert streets, 
which was erected in 1858, at a cost of about $S,ooo, and dedicated No- 
vember 13. The Jefferson school was also completed this year and dedi- 
cated a few weeks after the Adams. It fronted on Pleasant avenue, 
had about the seating capacity of the Adams, cost substantially the same, 
but was the more elegant structure. The cost of the site was $300 in 
city orders. The building burned in June, 1866, and the schoolhouse was 
subsequently rebuilt on another site at an expense of six times the origi- 
nal cost of construction. All the schoolhouses thus provided were soon 
filled to overflowing. On January 31, 1859, the average daily attend- 
ance was reported to be 682. 

Superintendents of Public Schools 

Upon the organization of the board in 1856, Rev. E. D. Neill was 
chosen secretary and treasurer, which office he held by annual reelection 
until his resignation in March, i860. His successor was Rev. John 
Mattocks, who continued to act as secretary and superintendent until 
September, 1872. Dr. Mattocks was not only an able educator, but was 
very efficient in his position, and his long term of service — a period of 
more than eleven years — indicates his popularity. His salary was at 
first $500 per annum, but it was subsequently increased to $600. Dur- 
ing his term as superintendent he was pastor of the First Presbyterian 
church and faithfully discharged the duties of both positions. He died 
in November, 1875. 

In 1866 a separate school was established for the colored youth of 
the citv, which, in 1869, was abandoned, by virtue of a law of the state, 
which made it a penal oiTense to maintain such a school. 

Gradually the organization of the schools was improved, and in 1867 
there was a general examination of candidates for teachers. Since that 
date, with rare exceptions, no teachers have been allowed to enter on 






the work of instruction in our schools without having passed a satis- 
factory examination. 

In September, 1872, George M. Gage became superintendent of 
schools, and for the first time in the history of St. Paul schools, the 
superintendent was required to give his whole time to the work. In 
September, 1874, Mr. Gage was succeeded as superintendent by Rev. 
L. M. Burrington, who, in 1878, gave place to B. F. Wright, a graduate 
of Union College, who brought to his work riper scholarship and wider 
professional experience than any of his predecessors. He was the first 
superintendent, after the establishment of the high school, whose scholar- 
ship was adequate to its intelligent supervision. Major Wright served 
as superintendent until September, 1886, when he was succeeded by Prof. 
S. S. Taylor, who died March 18, 1889. His successor, Prof. Charles B. 
Gilbert, formerly principal of the high school, whose tenure continued 
until 1898. The Board of School Inspectors, in 1912, is composed of 
A. E. Horn, president ; D. Wallblom, vice president ; W. H. Egan, Emil 
Geist, O. E. Holman, W. E. Boeringer and Miss Mary Cunningham. 
Octave Savard is secretary. In 1912, Prof. A. L. Heeter, who had served 
for six years with great public acceptance as city superintendent of 
schools, acquiring distinction as a constructive educator and executive 
manager, resigned. Prof. Milton C. Potter succeeded him as superin- 

The St. Paul High School 

The St. Paul High School which is an integral part of the city's pub- 
lic school system, was practically in its incipiency in 1868, though it had 
been in existence for some years previously. In that year B. F. Wright 
was made principal and found only about a dozen pupils. This year the 
first public examination for the admission of pupils was held, and two 
classes were formed in the third story of the Franklin school building. 
Mrs. H. M. Haynes was made assistant. Up to this time no regular 
course of study had been prescribed for this department, but under 
Professor Wright it was thoroughly reconstructed and made available for 
any pupil desiring an advanced education. The school grew rapidly in 
numbers and in popular favor from the first. In 1872 the high school 
was removed to the corner of Seventh and Jackson streets. In 1883 the 
building was erected at the corner of JNIinnesota and Tenth streets. An 
addition of fourteen rooms was made in 1888. Pupils were received in 
this school from all parts of the city. The course of study is very thor- 
ough and complete, embracing generally the higher English branches as 
well as Latin, Greek, German, French, music, etc. The full course occupies 
four years. There are fully equipped laboratories for the study of 
physics, chemistry and the biological sciences ; indeed all the instruction 
in these courses is conducted on the laboratory plan, students doing 
the work and teachers guiding and aiding. This is as true in history 
and literature as in chemistry, and the result is seen in the ready power 
which the student gains to attack and master new problems. 

In 1905, the capacity of the high school building was so outgrown that 
temporary branch schools were established in other localities and in 1909 
the erection of four new high school buildings was commenced, in widely 
separated districts. When these are all completed and occupied, they 
will, with the manual training schools, and the teachers' training school, 
form a school system where the children of rich and poor alike can ac- 
quire a thorough education. State official reports for 191 1 show that the 


iiuniber of liigli scliools in .Minnesota has increased 80 per cent and tlic 
gain in high school enrolhnent has been 134 per cent during the last ten 
years. That is an encouraging development. The high school pupils in 
the state last year numbered 29,971, or 1.4 per cent of all the population. 
There were 5,051 graduated, an increase of 1.144 over the total for the 
preceding year. The reports also show that there not only is improve- 
ment m the e.xtent but the quality of instruction the voung people of the 
state are receiving. Manual training is provided in '148 of the 207 high 
schools of the state and instruction in agriculture is given in 73. 

Presext Public School System 


The public schools of the city are classified into five grades, ... 
The primary, the intermediate, the grammar schools, the manual train- 
ing school and the high school. The primar\- schools are divided into 
two grades, the first and second ; the intermediate, into four grades, de- 
nominated the third, fourth, fifth and si.xth ; the grammar into two grades, 
the seventh and eighth. The manual training school is under the super- 
vision of a principal and a full course occupies three years. The high 
schools are under the supervision of principals and the full course of study 
occupies four years. A]\ of these schools are under stringent but whole- 
some regulations. They are for the sole purpose of imparting thorough 
scholastic education and moral training to the pupils. Nothing is per- 
mitted that may have a tendency to impair their efficiency. The teach- 
ers are prohibited from awarding medals or other prizes to the pupils, 
and from receiving any presents or testimonials by subscription at the 
hands of those under their charge. They are required not to interfere 
in any manner with the religion of their pupils. No collection or sub- 
scription for any purpose can be taken up in any of the schools. Regu- 
lar monthly and annual reports are required from the principals show- 
ing the condition of their several schools, giving the enrollment, average 
attendance, standing of the pupils, etc. The .superintendent is also re- 
quired to submit to the board reports at the end of each month and 
term, and at the close of each year. 

The iniblic schools of the city represent property worth nearly four 
million dollars. They cost the city nearly a million dollars a vear to 
maintain, and employ about seven hundred and fiftv teachers, whose 
salaries range from $450 to $3,000, In progressive and modern methods 
these schools are fully abreast of the times, and are every year widening 
their scope and developing new lines of work. Courses is domestic 
science were established in 1912 in the Adams, Jefferson. Cleveland and 
Crowley schools. Other grade schools had "this course previously. 
More and more the school and the schoolhouse is becoming an important 
factor in the life of the city and extending its influence to the manners, 
morals, habits of thought and mode of living of the children, and through 
them reaching families. 

Great advances are being made in school construction; and the new 
high schools have embodied the latest ideas in this type of building. 
Clarence H. Johnston, the architect of the fine new Central High school, 
niade a careful study of the best educational buildings in many other 
cities, and this school, now completed and occupied, besides being an 
exceptionally handsome structure, is sanitary, fireproof, light and con- 
venient. In addition to the twenty-six recitation rooms, and ample lec- 
ture rooms and laboratories, it has an auditorium y2 bv Rf, feet, with a 


balcony, and with a stage 22 l)y 57 feet. It has dressing, scenery and 
property rooms ; a large gymnasium with shower and dressing rooms : a 
students' lunch room with kitchen and pantry, and all manner of rooms 
for domestic and manual training, including kitchen and dining rooms, 
sewing room, machine shop, 'forge room and foundry. It cost a million 
and a quarter dollars, and is a building of which not the school board 
alone, but the entire city may well be proud. 

The large space in the new Central High school devoted to the audit- 
orium emphasizes the growing tendency to make the school the center 
of social life for the young people. Just as the grounds are equipped as 
playgrounds to be used after school hours and during vacation, so the 
students are encouraged to use the building for entertainments of all 
sorts, as well as outside classes and lectures. 

The progress of the school system of St. Paul from 1847-8 to igi2 
has been in full proportion to the advancement of the city itself. Be- 
tween Miss Bishop's little school in the old blacksmith shop, with its 
dilapidated fioor and shaky door, its rude furniture and its baker's dozen 
of half-breed and half-civilized pupils, to the fifty-six magnificent struc- 
tures of today, and the nearly 30,000 pupils in daily attendance upon 
them, there is a contrast which forms a subject for interesting reflec- 
tion. It is, in it essential aspects, the contrast between barbarism and 
a high civilization. It marks the advance to loftier ideals — a recognition 

Ye have plowed, ye have sowed, and the harvest shall be of its kind ; 
What ye sowed ye shall gather and grind ; 

What ye grind ye shall bake, saith the Lord, and, or bitter or sweet, 
In the days that shall be, ye shall eat. 

And ye that have drained off the laugh from the mouths of the poor. 
Ye shall know that my coming is sure. 

And ye that have poisoned the strength of the children of men, 
What caverns will cover ye then? 

It is all embraced in the great scheme of things alluded to in a recent 
sermon, by Dr. Samuel G. Smith of the People's church, St. Paul : 
"This world is the raw material of a perfect civilization. People have 
had to work to make our civilization as good as it is now, but they will 
have to work a thousand times harder to achieve the civilization we 
ought to have. In our civilization, some seem to think that the best way 
is for a few to have nearly everything and the rest nothing, and that 
from time to time the rich should divide up and give to the poor. But 
this helps little. The best gift man can give to man is a real sense of 
human brotherhood. Give him an example — show him how to do things ; 
that's the best service you can render." 

For Those Who Must Cut Their Schooling 

With a view to achieving the greatest possible good from the grade 
schools, there is under consideration a plan for a readjustment of 
courses of study in the interest of pupils who never complete the high 
school curriculum. The proposition is based on the fact that only a 
small percentage of the grade pupils complete the high school course ; 
that its length is a discouragement, and an obstacle in the way of their 
getting as much out of the public school as they ought to get, or would 
get if it were operated with larger consideration for their needs and 


What the originators of this plan desired was to provide a course of 
study which should be properly balanced and adapted to the needs of 
boys and girls who quit school about the ninth grade or the end of the first 
year in the high school. It contemplates the introduction of manual 
training, domestic science and the elements of a commercial course as 
early as the seventh grade, the pupils from the seventh to the ninth to 
be taken care of in what has been spoken of as intermediate schools, thus 
relieving the crowded conditions of both the grade and the high schools 
without interfering with the work of either, so that pupils who wish to 
complete the regular high school course preparatory to college or univer- 
sity may do so. 

A similar enlightened policy has dictated the opening, by the St. 
Paul board of education, of a continuation school for pupils under six- 
teen years of age who are compelled to work and who have not completed 
the grade course in the public schools. This is an important provision 
of the compulsory education law and its strict enforcement is essential 
to the protection of the working children. 

Under the proposed system the working children who come within 
the provisions of the law will be given certain hours each day in school 
in order to do the study equivalent to a completion of the grade course 
in the public schools. The cooperation of employers, by which the little 
toilers will not lose any of their wages while attending the school for a 
few hours each day, is an important feature of the plan and should be 
secured without difficulty. Both the children and their employers will 
derive ultimate benefit by compliance with the terms of the plan. It is 
unfortunate that children under sixteen years of age should be compelled 
to become wage earners, but the evils of the condition will be greatly 
lessened by successful conduct of the continuation school. 

This is a practical, progressive age. We build buildings and make 
machinery to fit the purposes required. We save time and effort every- 
where we can. We build machinery that is a marvel of ingenuity, sim- 
plicity and efficiency. We take the curves out of old railroads ; lop off 
every pound of useless weight everywhere we can; simplify, correct, 
improve, standardize. Rut in many schools they are still lugging on- 
ward the burden of the dead and buried past ; still going back i ,400 years 
to find a dead language to teach our living ones from ; still emphasizing 
cultural subjects to the disadvantage of those that fitted directly for 
earning one's living. The educators and officers of school boards and 
tax-payers at large have for some time been considering the best means 
of benefitting, to the utmost possible extent, the ninety-six out of every 
one hundred grade school pupils, who never get into a college or univer- 
sity. It is highly probable and highly appropriate that St. Paul shall 
be among the first cities to solve the knotty problem — our responsible 
school authorities having so resolved. 

The night schools, the manual training schools, the continua- 
tion schools, the special courses in high schools, and the new 
Art Institute educational scheme, are all steps in the right 
direction. Attention is given to domestic science — cooking, housework, 
housekeeping, and sewing ; to shop work ; to afternoon and evening work 
along these lines in the high school buildings. An evening industrial 
school has long been carried on at the Mechanic Arts High school. 
Summer grammar and high school courses for special work have been 
opened, continuing six weeks. \'acation schools, which provide useful 
occupation rather than work, no books being used, have been main- 


tained with marked success since the summer of 1908. The school 
gardens have proved an element of great interest and benefit, and their 
products were exhibited at the State Fair. Circulating libraries are main- 
tained by the City Library in the elementary schools, and 55,000 books 
were thus circulated last year, representing a practical extension of the 
public library system, the importance of which St. Paul is one of the 
first cities to appreciate. 

Physical Conservation and Safety 

The systematic attention paid to sanitary and physical conditions by 
the medical inspector with a corps of trained nurses has been the means 
of solving some of the most perplexing of the problems confronting the 
educator ; and backwardness, idleness or apparent stupidity are often 
found to have their origin in congenital defects, illness or malnutrition, 
causes which can in many cases be overcome. A new field is opening up 
to the public school system in providing special departments for ex- 
ceptional children, including not alone those who are so deficient that 
they gain little or nothing from the ordinary grade work and require in- 
struction adapted to their individual aptitudes, but also those children 
who are able to cover the ground more rapidly than the average student, 
and those who desire to spend more time on the practical training that 
will fit them for productive work. 

The school authorities in St. Paul have been alive to the impor- 
tance of fireproof construction in school buildings. All of the high schools 
are fireproof and the grade schools constructed in recent years have 
been partially or wholly built of fireproof or slow combustible material. 
The reform is helped by the fact that lumber is constantly growing 
more expensive, as compared with cement and other fireproofing mate- 
rials. The saving in insurance and repairs makes the fireproof school 
more economical in the long run. The safety of children, however, is 
the first essential and is to be provided, without reference to the com- 
parative cost between fire traps and fireproof buildings. 

Thus, with all their drawbacks, the city's public schools have been 
■making heroic efiforts in the past few years to meet the needs of pupils. 
Education, especially along industrial lines, has done wonders to keep 
boys in school until their training is fairly well rounded. The schools, 
on the whole, are better than ever before. A large number of pupils 
not interested in books, but anxious to do things with their hands, now 
for the first time find a place in the schools. 

"The Little Red School" 

The public schools in St. Paul's flourishing suburbs, will be re- 
ferred to in connection with their respective locations. The district, or 
country schools in the farming regions adjacent to the city, get an im- 
petus from the splendid object lessons constantly visible so near at hand. 
Much praiseworthy sentiment clusters around the little red school. Our 
esteemed local rhymer Larry Ho sings of it : 

"The little red school with its one little room 
So close to the earth it could winnow the bloom 
Of the wild-rose that breathed its sweet breath on the day — 
Like the breath of that rose it goes drifting away ! 


"It may have been crude and old-fashioned, but then 
It had such a habit of mothering Men ! 
It was certainly shy on Greek, Latin, and Art — 
But it soaked simple goodness and faith in the heart." 

Several states, including Minnesota, are trying to measurably put the 
little red schoolhouse out of business. The general idea is to consolidate 
some contiguous districts and not only to provide better equipment and 
mstruction but to build a rural schoolhouse, in an attractive setting of 
lawn and trees, that will look as though it meant something besides mere 
shelter from rain — a building that may arouse sentiments of unity and 
of local pride and incidentally suggest to the passing eye that an L is not 
the last word in architecture. It may cost a little more ; but the "pride 
of the cities" is not mere vanity or waste. The rural districts need more 
of this sort of pride ; and they can well afford to pay for it, especially 
when the state helps them generously. 

The district schools, because of their isolation and their support by 
only a small territory, cannot make the desired changes alone. The way 
out is by consolidating several adjoining districts. Consolidated dis- 
tricts, pooling their funds, can erect larger buildings, obtain completer 
equipment, employ better teachers and broaden and improve the course 
of instruction. To encourage the extension of this work this state has 
provided for special state aid to such consolidated districts. When more 
of the rural school districts of Minnesota take advantage of this oppor- 
tunity, the rush of country boys and girls to the cities for an education 
will be checked, and no longer will the land be robbed so extensively of 
the men and women who are Ijest fitted to work and to add to the wealth 
and insure the economic balance of the nation. 

Governor Eberhart of Minnesota, after a careful stud)' of this scheme, 
gives it this unqualified endorsement in a newspaper interview: "I thor- 
oughly believe the consolidated school is the solution of rural education, 
and will put it on a standard with the city. The first cost to the county 
or district seems a bit large, but considered in the light of the future it 
is little. I find that attitude growing. I intend to give my support to 
the project, and hope consolidated schools will be established in scattered 
parts of the state. Once under way, T have no doulit, the plan will be 
generally adopted." 

Ramsey county has a superintendent of schools whose jurisdiction 
extends to all the public schools outside the city limits of St. Paul. The 
teachers and pupils of these schools meet en masse at certain intervals, 
in North St. Paul or White Bear, where very interesting competitive 
exercises are had, with marked benefit to all. 

Pri\".\te .\n'd Select Schools 

Supplementing the excellent and extensive public school system, St. 
Paul has ajjout sixty private and select schools, parochial schools, semi- 
naries and academies, with an estimated attendance of 17,000. The schools 
connected with the Catholic church are referred to in the chapter cover- 
ing that subject. The Lutheran church also maintains separate enter- 
prises. There are several successful business schools and colleges. The 
Eleanor .Miller School of Expression is doing admirable work 'ilong 
special lines. 

Oak Hall is a large and pnpulai' boarding and day school for girls 


ranging from kindergarten to the academic department and including 
valuable courses in art, music, domestic art, physical training and danc- 
ing. Owing to the limited number of pupils the individual student re- 
ceives special attention. St. Paul Academy, a preparatory day-school 
for boys, receiving only a limited number of students, is represented by 
its alumni in the University of Minnesota and in a number of the prin- 
cipal eastern colleges, among them Yale perhaps being the favorite. A 
list of the educational facilities of St. Paul would be incomplete without 
a reference to the most helpful work done by the Young Men's and the 
Young Women's Christian Associations, in both which institutions classes 
in a large variety of subjects are conducted at convenient hours. The 
numerous and highly valuable activities of the St. Paul Institute, covering 
various branches of instruction, have full recognition in the concluding 
paragraphs of this chapter, and in another chapter, which narrates some 
of the achievements of that meritorious enterprise. 

Public Schools as Social Centers 

The rules under which the public schools of St. Paul were operated 
during several decades rigidly prohibited the use of school buildings "for 
any other purpose than for secular education." There has, however, 
within the past few years, grown up a strong sentiment in favor of a wider 
useful employment of these public resources. It is claimed that the new 
idea of a schoolhouse social center will eventually unhorse the interests 
by developing a stronger "machine" than that now controlled by them. 
The civic center movement has undertaken to make the schoolhouse the 
underpinning of the American political system. It is felt to be impos- 
sible to beat the existing political machines, in any important and decisive 
manner, by mere casual crowds of dissociated voters with vague long- 
ings for a higher political life. The present bi-partisan machine, rep- 
resenting the special interests, it is alleged, cannot possibly be superseded 
by anything less than a pan-partisan machine, representing the general 
interests of civilization. 

One advocate says: "This is the machine age — an age in which rival 
machines contend for supremacy like young bulls in a pasture. The polit- 
ical machine that manufactures laws for Americans at the present writing 
will be junked and scrapped within a decade by a better machine, finer 
grooved, higher powered and yielding an infinitely more serviceable 

Anything that promises so desirable an uplift may very properly have 
its inception in our public school buildings after hours. All good citi- 
zens will watch the result of the innovation with a friendly interest. 

Another Newt Departure 

Recurring to the St. Paul school system, allusion may be made to a 
very decided step in advance which was announced in September, 1912, 
by Milton C. Potter, superintendent of the city schools, and C. W. Ames, 
president of the St. Paul Institute. After many months of study and 
planning, arrangements have been completed for a great enlargement of 
educational opportunities by the co-operation of the school board, the 
Institute, the University of Minnesota and the St. Paul Builder's Ex- 
change. . , . , . , , 

These organizations working together provide, m the six months be- 


ginning in October, courses in elementary and high school and university 
subjects and in the trades, the classes being held evenings so as to ac- 
commodate boys and girls who have had to give up regular schools to go 
to work; men and women who are busy daytimes in offices, shops, fac- 
tories or homes ; teachers ; women of leisure — in short, all ambitious per- 
sons who wish to improve themselves in order to increase their skill and 
their wages. The new scheme has been placed under the general super- 
vision of Professor Julian C. Bryant, whose long and eminently success- 
ful career as an educator in St. Paul, gives assurance of energetic, intel- 
ligent management. 

Credits will be given for all completed work, exactly as though it 
were done in the corresponding day classes in the public schools or the 
university. The combination will give St. Paul a common school and 
higher educational system which will not exclude any one, young or old. 
It will make the city educationally eminent. 

For several years the St. Paul Institute has conducted evening courses 
in elementary, high school and industrial subjects, in addition to its art 
school, and has added thousands to the wages of workers in the city. 
These classes have been held in various school buildings. Now, how- 
ever all the work of the Institute — and the whole new supplementary 
education plan will be under Institute auspices — will be concentrated in 
the new Mechanics Arts high school building, a magnificent structure re- 
cently erected by the city at Robert street and Central avenue, where 
this splendid institution, which has been largely developed to its present 
fine proportions by its principal, Prof. Weitbrecht, is at last adequately 

In that building more than a thousand — possibly 2,000 or 3,000 — • 
young men and women and adults will assemble for their classes, in 
every department of instruction provided in the daytime by the public 
schools and the freshman and sophomore years at the State University. 
Youngsters will wrestle with the "three R's ;" foreigners will perfect 
their knowledge of the English language ; young men and women will 
study higher mathematics, languages, sciences, business courses, includ- 
ing shorthand, typewriting, bookkeeping and business law ; craftsmen 
will take machine shop work, mechanical drawing, sheet metal work, elec- 
tricity, plumbing and ventilating, architectural drawing and similar 
courses, and those seeking a college training will take the university 
courses, such as economics, literature, geology, languages, history, pub- 
lic speaking, psychology, sociology, accounting, advertising, salesman- 
ship and commercial credit. 

The aim of the Institute and of the university e::tension bureau is 
to take all of this education to the people at a very moderate cost. 
They have been able to realize this aim because of the co-operation of 
the St. Paul school board. In the past the board has provided cer- 
tain school buildings, heated and lighted, for Institute classes recog- 
nizing in them an efl^ective "continuation school" reaching thousands 
of working people — children and adults — who otherwise would be 
unable to get "schooling." Last year alone the Institute classes had 
more than 1,200 members. 

The expense of a physical plant thus eliminated, and the Institute 
bearing most of the expense of securing teachers, the tuition fees 
have been reduced to a very moderate figure. And thus has been 
achieved, by intelligent and persistent co-operation, one of the most 
promising educational enterprises the city has ever known. 



Germ of Higher Education — Development of High and Pre- 
paratory Schools — The University of Minnesota — The Agri- 
cultural College — Hamline University — ]\Iacalester College 
— Field for Smaller Insitutions. 

The subject of "Higher Education" takes on an aspect in the twren- 
tieth century very different from that which it bore only a few decades 
previously. Governor and University President Woodrow Wilson of 
New Jersey said, in an address at St. Paul in May, 1911 : "The nation 
does not consist of its leading men. It consists of the whole body of 
the people. You never heard of a tree deriving its strength from its 
buds, or its flowers, but from its roots." Adopting that view, the higher 
education of today is more concerned with the many than with the few ; 
is more intent on the general advancement of the average man and 
woman, than on the special advancement of so-called and self-consti- 
tuted "leaders" in society, politics, or finance. 

When Rome was overwhelmed by the barbarians fourteen hundred 
years ago, the then existing civilization almost all vanished from the 
earth ; nearly everything of an educational nature was swept away. 
Here and there, in the monasteries and other harbors of refuge, some 
germs of culture survived the six hundred years of the deepest black- 
ness of the Dark Ages, and when humanity began at last to lift itself 
out of barbarism, these germs of educational life began to show their 
vitality, beginning with the establishment of Oxford University about 
1,000 years ago, followed by the Universities of Paris and Bologna 
about the year 1200. 

The establishment of certain great centers of what then passed for 
education went on with increasing rapidity throughout Europe, con- 
stituting in part what is known as the "Revival of Learning." In its 
first days, this revival was a strange thing, in that there was so little of 
stored and garnered knowledge that a student might learn. There 
was almost nothing in the line of useful arts that might be studied. The 
languages of the countries then existing were poorly developed and 
about all that remained to which aspiring students might apply their 
intellects was the study of Greek and Latin. Indeed, all the learning 
of the time being embalmed in these languages, there was practically 
no door open to the student except by the study of these ancient tongues. 
There being so few real, live, actual subjects for study, the newly awak- 
ening mind of humanity sought a field for its activities in the discussion 
of wholly useless subjects, such as the inquiry into how many angels 
might be able to stand on the point of a needle. 



It was more than four hundred years after the establishment of the 
ancient universities before any successful attempt was made to spread 
education among the people. Century after century rolled away after 
the universities began teaching Latin and Greek and debating the size 
and physical movements of angels, while mankind remained so ignorant 
that not even the emperors could read or write. In some jurisdictions, 
under the benefits of clergy, men who had been convicted of crimes were 
excused from punishment if they were able to read. 

Germ of Higher Education 

Something like the modern view of education appeared in Sweden 
and Holland, about 1600, and the introduction of public schools in Amer- 
ica followed shortly upon the settlement of the different portions. But 
in the last fifty years, the efforts that have been expended, far exceed 
all that had gone before. So amazingly prevalent was the belief in the 
superlative importance of Latin that the first public schools in Massa- 
chusetts did not teach pupils how to read Elnglish. The teachers claimed 
that it was not the province of English schools to teach the English 
language. In their view, the glory that was Greece and the grandeur 
that was Rome could only be assimilated into the soul-structure of 
pupils, by a systematic dietary of antepenultimates and ablatives abso- 

Development of High and Preparatory Schools 

In the first half of the nineteenth century, the old academy, which 
succeeded the colonial Latin school, was the principal institution of 
secondary education, and in most parts of the country this was not in- 
cluded as a part of the free public school system. That higher education 
should be as free to the pupils desiring it as the branches taught in the 
common schools was not a generally accepted theory until a generation 
ago. Now, however, the public high school has become thoroughly 
established throughout the entire country. There is no question as to 
Its necessity, although its curriculum is still in process of evolution. 

The classical high school is supposed to prepare students directly for 
college, but this object is not sufficient or satisfactory, because there 
are many pupils who do not care for any vocational training, who are 
not going to college and yet must find in the high school course their 
only education for the future. The regular college preparatory work 
does not supply the degree of general culture desired by a large class 
of pupils. Many schools are now providing a much broader course, 
covering points of special interest by elective courses, which will give 
a well rounded education, largely in accordance with the individual 
taste of the pupil. 

Thus our educational system is breaking away from tradition; is 
rending the ties that bind it to "classical" ideals ; is ceasing to regard 
Greek and Latin as an ultimate sine qua noii. The high schools, which 
pave the wav to entering the college and university, are each year open- 
ing new paths, many of which solicitously avoid the time-honored foun- 
tains of knowledge at which our learned predecessors drank to satiety — 
giving thereafter, it must be confessed, a very good accounting to man- 
kind. The colleges and universities are gradually adjusting themselves 
to the situation. This is necessary, because some of the impatient high 
schools are conferring degrees, while the colleges are making strong pro- 


tests upon the subject. But so long as there is no legal standard as to 
the requirements of baccalaureate degrees there appears to be no way 
to debar a high school from a privilege often granted by special act of 
the state legislature, until public sentiment induces the authorities of the 
school voluntarily to resign their privilege. 

The course of study in the high schools was developed in rather a 
desultory fashion, each locality being a law unto itself in regard to its 
requirements, until within a comparatively recent period. Even the 
length of the high school term was determined largely by the funds in 
the local school treasury. It began with one year of higher studies 
after the grammar school and increased with more or less irregularity 
until the full four-year high school course has now become practically 
uniform throughout the nation. 

All this is preliminary to the avowal that in a community so richly 
endowed as St. Paul with educational facilities, it is exceedingly diffi- 
cult to differentiate the various institutions of learning — to definitely 
establish the line, between the ''school" and the college or university. 
There are twelve colleges and universities located here, in addition to 
numerous seminaries, collegiate institutes, professional or business in- 
.stitutions and the four splendid city high schools referred to in the last 
preceding chapter. Each of these, in its own way and within its legiti- 
mate sphere, is doing a splendid work ; all are needed and all are wel- 
come. The city high schools offer courses of study far superior to 
those required in many colleges of the last generation, whose equij)- 
ment consisted chiefly of a three-foot telescope, four ball-bats and a 
senior class yell. Our denominational colleges and universities rank 
high in wise administration and sound scholarship. And the great Min- 
nesota University in Minneapolis, two miles from the city limits of 
St. Paul, cherished with pride and largely attended by our young people, 
opens its sixteen departments to our unconditioned patronage, marshal- 
ing its five thousand students for our admiring observation. 

The University of Minnesota 

The University of Alinnesota was established by the constitution of 
the stale and endowed by the general government, and is an integral 
part of the state system of public instruction. It is open to both sexes. 
It was organized by an act of the territorial legislature of 185 1. In 
the period between that date and 1868, the date of final reorganization 
and the date from which the university reckons its beginning, there 
were several reorganizations, and a limited amount of work was offered 
in preparatory branches. .\ portion of the present site was secured in 
1854. The price paid for the twenty-five acres secured at that time 
was $6,000. In 1858 the regents undertook the erection of a section 
of the main luiilding. For many years this building stood with the 
east end closed up with rough boards, giving it a decidedly barn-like 
appearance, a sorry monument to mistaken judgment. In 1864 the 
legislature decided that something must be done and appointed a board 
of three regents, giving them power to sell certain specified university 
lands and stumpage to pay the university debts. This board consisted 
of John S. Pillsbury and O. C. Meriman of Minneapolis and John Xicols 
of St. Paul. So faithfully did they do their work that when the legis- 
lature met in 1867 they were able to report that the debt of the univer- 
sity had been practically wiped out, and a considerable portion of the 

Vol. II— 2 


lands placed at their disposal to satisfy the creditors of the institution 
remained unsold. 

The legislature of that year voted $15,000 for the repair of the 
building and commencing a course of instruction. This act reorganiz- 
ing the university was signed by the governor February 18, 1868, and 
is counted the real charter day of the institution. On the 15th day of 
September, 1869, it was formally opened by the calling of the first col- 
lege classes. The total enrolment for that year, including preparatory 
students, was 212, divided as follows: 138 men and 74 women. By 
this time the legislature had begun to realize that a real university had 
come into existence, and provided for the organization of the new 
departments of medicine and law. The university in its original or- 
ganization provided for all departments that have since been formed, 
but no attempt to give instruction in the line of law or medicine was 
made until the fall of 1888. In 1873 the first academic class, two stu- 
dents, graduated. 


Dr. W. W. Folwell, who was president of the university from its 
beginning down to 1884, labored wisely and well to lay the foundation 
of the institution of which the state is justly proud. Many of the 
triumphs of later days are monuments of his foresight and vigorous 
policy. The year of 1884-5 was signalized by the accession of President 
Cyrus Northrop to the presidency of the university. What he achieved 
is a matter of current history. Former President Folwell retained a 
professorship and still serves the university. Dr. Northrop filled the 
presidential chair with distinguished ability until 191 1, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. G. E. Vincent. Dr. Northrop has the title of president 

The university now comprises the following named colleges, schools 
and departments : The Graduate Department ; College of Science, Litera- 
ture and the Arts ; School of Analytical and Applied Chemistry ; College 
of Engineering and the Mechanic Arts ; School of Mines ; Department 
of Agriculture, including the College of Agriculture, the School of Agri- 
culture, the Dairv School and the Short Course for Farmers ; College of 


Law; College of Medicine and Surgery, College of Dentistry and College 
of Pharmacy; College of Education; Department of Forestry; Geological 
and Natural History Survey. 

In the College of Science, Literature and the Arts there is a four 
years' course of study leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The 
work of the first year is elective within certain limitations as to range 
of subjects from which the electives may be chosen. The remaining 
work of the course is entirely elective, with the provision that a certain 
number of long courses be selected. The course is so elastic that it 
permits the student to make the general scope of the course, classical, 
scientific or literary, to suit the individual purpose. 

The total enrolment in all branches of the university for the year 
ended July 31, 1909, was 5,066; for 1910, 5,369, and for 1911, 5,530. 
There are 25 buildings on the campus proper and legislative provision has 
been made for a very large extension of the grounds and for many addi- 
tional structures. 

There is a well equipped astronomical observatory. The libraries con- 
tain more than 100,000 volumes. The museums have a large amount of 
material that has been secured mainly with special reference to its use for 
illustrating the instruction in the various departments. These museums 
comprise geological, mineralogical, zoological and botanical collections, 
a museum of technology; also classical and English museums. There 
are museums maintained in the department of civil, mechanical, electrical 
and mining engineering, to illustrate the various processes and materials 
used in these departments. 

The new idea of the relation of the state to higher education was 
most intelligently and forcefully presented in President Vincent's inau- 
gural address. That address gives the keynote to the new administra- 
tion. "The university campus," he said, "must be as wide as the bound- 
aries of the commonwealth. Where truth is to be discovered or applied, 
wherever earnest citizens need organized knowledge and tested skill, 
there the university is on its own ground. The university sees as its 
members, not only the students who resort to the chief center, but the 
other thousands on farms, in factories, in offices, in shops, in schoolrooms 
and in homes who look to it for guidance and encouragement. It is fas- 
cinating to picture the possibilities of this widening sphere of higher edu- 
cation as it makes its way into every corner of the state, frankly creating 
new needs and resourcefully meeting the constant demands." This en- 
larged view of the relation of the higher education to the everyday life of 
the people is the assurance that our great university istobemore andmore, 
as this policy comes into more effective play, a radiating center of serv- 
ice to every class and station, to every variety of interest and occupa- 
tion, and to contribute substantial and lasting benefits upon the whole 
commonwealth. And not only will it meet existing needs, but by its ad- 
vanced position, its function of leadership, stimulate the thought and 
activities of the people to still larger use of their resources and their 
opportunities than have yet been conceived. 

The Agricultural College 

The distinctively St. Paul branch of the State University is the Agri- 
cultural College. Not only is this college located at St. Anthony Park, 
in this citv. but it owes its present importance to the persistent agitation 
of a few St. Paul men who in 1885 demanded that the agricultural feature. 


then dormant antl discredited, be made effective. The state owned the 
"farm,"" but it enrolled no students and conducted no experiments. The 
regents assumed that farming could not be taught in schools, and i)ro- 
posed to absorb the funds specially intended for this jnirpose, the proceeds 
of federal land grants, into the general treasury for the benefit of classical 
and professional culture. The loud protest voiced by the objectors, who 
showed that agricultural schools had, even then, been successful, at least 
in Michigan and Mississippi, led to a new departure in 1888 with sur- 
prising results. The attendance that year grew from nothing to 47. and 
has since steadily increased. 

In 1897 girls were admitted to the school on the same terms as the 
boys, and, beside the high school subjects which are taken in common, 
they are given work in the special lines of cooking, sewing, laundering 
and home-making. The instruction throughout the course, which covers 
a period of three terms of six months each, is so given as to bring ])rac- 
tice and theory into close relations and to show the reasons for and the 
most expedient ways of doing things. The technical and practical train- 
ing which students receive gives them the ability to study the problems of 
farm and home management which they are sure to meet at their own 
homes and make them better able to cope with all conditions of soil, or 
whatever problems they are to meet in after life. The school has gradu- 
ated more than 1,000 students, over eighty per cent of whom are actually 
engaged in agricultural pursuits at the present time. 

The college course in agriculture is a regular four years' course and 
graduate students with a degree of B. Agr. Graduates of state high 
schools may enter this course and take the technical work of the School 
of Agriculture course and the College at the same time. The Dairy 
School was organized in 1892 for the purpose of giving instruction in the 
management of creameries and cheese factories. A year's work in a 
creamery or cheese factory is required as a condition of entrance to the 
course. The short course for farmers is an eight-weeks' lecture course 
provided by the faculty of the college and School of Agriculture for the 
benefit of farmers who are unable to attend the regular school course. 
The School of Traction Engineering is a four weeks' course for training 
men to manage engines and power machinery. 

The site of the college is the high wooded tract north of Langford 
avenue and adjoining the .State Fair grounds. It embraces about 400 
acres, and has ten extensive buildings. The total attendance, in all 
branches, is now nearly 2,000 a year. 

Descriptions of the College of St. Thomas and of St. Paul's Theo- 
logical Seminary are given in the chapter devoted to the Catholic church 
and its institutions, as are those of many other educational enterprises 
conducted in this city, under the auspices of that prelacy. 

Hamline University 

Hamline University, one of the most extensive and prosperous insti- 
tutions of lilieral learning in the state, is located in spacious grounds on 
Snelling avenue, a few blocks north of University avenue. Its charter 
was approved bv the governor of the territory of Minnesota, W. A. Gor- 
man, on April 3. 1854. The preparatory department was opened at Red 
Wing. Goodhue county, November ifi. 1834. under the principalship of 
Rev. labez Brooks. In 1857 the enrolment of the institution reached 
220, indicating a marked degree of prosperity. .-Xt the close of that year 


Rev. Jabez Brooks resigned the principalship on account of ill-health and 
Rev. B. F. Crary was chosen to fill the vacancy. On the 17th of July, 
1 861, Dr. Crary resigned to accept the office of superintendent of public 
instruction, and Rev. Jabez Brooks, D. D., was elected to take his place. 
The course of study in the meantime had been enlarged to collegiate 
grade. The university continued in successful operation until 1869, 
when the income being inadequate to meet the expenses and liabilities ac- 
cumulated to such an extent as to compel the trustees to close the school 
and sell the property to pay the indebtedness. This suspension was de- 
signed to be temporary only, but a change of location having been de- 
termined upon, two years passed before that question was fully settled. 
The board had scarcely commenced the new building at St. Paul, in the 
suburb named Hamline, when the crisis of 1873 greatly crippled their 
efforts and finally suspended operations entirely. At the Rochester con- 
ference held in 1878, it was resolved to push the work and Rev. John 
Stafford was appointed agent. By his indefatigable labors the building 
was completed and ready for occupancy September 22, 1880, when, after 
eleven years of suspension, the school was reopened with an attendance 
of sixty pupils on the first day. 

The first faculty, under the reorganization, consisted of Rev. D. C 
John, D. D., president and teacher in mental and moral science ; Rev. 
C. F. Bradley, A. M., B. D., in Greek and Latin; E. F. Mearkle, A. M., 
LL. B., natural sciences and higher mathematics ; Helen Sutherland, A. 
M., mathematics and English branches; John Ickler, A. B., German; J. 
M. Lichtenberger, elocution ; F. W. H. Priem, vocal and instrumental 
music ; Mrs. T. E. Knox, drawing and painting. Talbot Jones, M. D., 
lecturer on physiology and hygiene. Mrs. M. E. Tidball was matron. 

The board of officers, at the same period, was composed of Hon. H. 
R. Brill, president; Rev. J. F. Chaft'ee and Hon. H. B. Wilson, vice pres- 
idents; Rev. S. G. Smith, A. M., secretary; E. J. Hodgson, treasurer. 
Executive committee: Hon. H. R. Brill, Rev. J. F. Chaffee, Rev. D. C. 
John, Rev. S. G. Smith, A. M., Rev. John Stafford and Hon. H. B. Wil- 

In 1884 Dr. George H. Bridgman was chosen president of Hamline, 
and soon displayed those eminent qualifications which, during his twenty- 
seven years, incumbency, raised the institution to its present high rank. 
The college had not yet fully emerged from the clouds which had long 
hovered over it. Operations had been resumed and friends were hope- 
ful, but there was still serious financial distress. With no money and 
no resources of any kind to work with, it was an unpromising proposi- 
tion. But Dr. Bridgman took hold of it with courage and what there is 
of Hamline today, with its endowment and resources of nearly a million 
dollars, including the last fund of $200,000, is his work. This a sufficient 
testimonial of what men of affairs and friends of education have thought 
of his work and of the aims and purposes and standards he stood for in 
higher education. 

Dr. Bridgman resigned the presidency in the summer of 191 t, to take 
effect at the close of the collegiate y^ar in June, 1912. The date when 
his resignation is to take effect was set a year ahead in order to enable 
the trustees to have ample time to find a successor; but the discontinu- 
ance of his connection with the university will not be complete even then, 
as the trustees, in recognition of the work he has done and as an expres- 
sion of their confidence and esteem, have provided that upon the qualifi- 


cation of his successor for active service Dr. Bridgman shall become 
president emeritus. 

In announcing Mr. Bridgman's retirement, the St. Paul Pioneer Press 
voiced a unanimous public sentiment in this editorial tribute to his char- 
acter and services : "He will retire with the respect and good will of 
generations of students who hold him in highest regard, while the people 
of St. Paul and Minneapolis, among whom he has mingled for more than 
a quarter of a century, will hope that he may remain long with them as an 
influence for the best things. One thing that has contributed much to 
Dr. Bridgman's success and to the esteem in which he is held is his 
catholicity of spirit, his broad sympathy, his responsiveness to the de- 
mands of duty and opportunity, no matter from what quarter they have 

Dr. Samuel F. Kerfoot of South Dakota was chosen president to 
succeed Dr. Bridgman and assumed the duties July i, 1912. 

The catalogue of Hamline University, 1910-11, reports 251 students 
in the collegiate department and 56 in the preparatory, a total of 307. 
Assisting President Bridgman are fourteen professors, with twelve as- 
sistants and instructors. There are twenty-one trustees, including Judge 
Hascall R. Brill, an early alumnus and life-long friend of Hamline; 
Bishop Mclntyre, B. F. Nelson, M. G. Norton, Rev. William McKinley, 
Hon. J. M. Hackney and other well known citizens. The officers of the 
board are: Hon. Matthew George Norton, president; Benjamin Franklin 
Nelson, first vice president ; Hon. James Thomas Wyman, second vice 
president ; Samuel Skidmore Thorpe, secretary ; Erastus Fletcher Mear- 
kle, LL. D., treasurer. 

The preparatory department was closed in June, 191 1. For it was 
substituted instruction in certain "sub-freshman" classes, corresponding 
to the former fourth year preparatory. The university offers courses 
leading to the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Philosophy. 
The work required to gain either of these degrees is planned to extend 
through four academic years. 

In the summer of 1907 the new library building was erected. It is 
in the style of the English school architecture and constructed as it is 
of light brown brick with a red tile roof, it is an ornament to the college 
campus and an improvement to the suburb of Hamline. It is built 
throughout in the most perfect manner, is lighted by electricity, and is 
strictly fireproof. There is a large central reading room in addition to 
the stack rooms at either end. This fine addition to the group of college 
buildings was made possible through the generous gift of $30,000 by 
Andrew Carnegie, while a like sum was raised by the friends of the uni- 
versity for its maintenance and the development of the library resources. 

The Biological department is especially well equipped with laboratory 
facilities. On the second floor of Science hall, looking south, are the 
various rooms of this department, including a large and well lighted gen- 
eral laboratory and a smaller laboratory for advanced students : a prepara- 
tion room ; photographic dark room ; department library ; shop : cloak 
room ; the professor's office, and lecture room. The equipment of the 
laboratory consists of compound microscope, dissecting tools, microtomes 
and the usual reagents and glassware for anatomical and histological 

In November, 1909, the gymnasium, erected at a cost of $35,000 con- 
tributed by a large number of friends of the university, was dedicated. 
The building stands on the east side of the campus facing Simpson ave- 


nue ; is used by the students for all their smaller gatherings, and serves, 
also, as a trophy room. Through the generosity of the Hon. Matthew 
G. Norton, president of the board of trustees, an admirable athletic field, 
with all modern improvements, was added in 1906 to the physical cul- 
ture equipment of the institution. It is located but one block from the 
university campus. It is provided with all necessary facilities for base- 
ball, football, and track athletics. There is, also, a grandstand with a 
seating capacity of seven hundred and a number of dressing-rooms for 
the use of contestants. 

There are eight literary societies in connection with the college — the 
Philomathean, Amphictyon, Phi Alpha and Euphronian are for men; the 
Browning, Athenean, Alpha Phi, and Euterpian, for young women. Stu- 
dents are urged to take advantage of the opportunities afforded by these 
societies. Frequent public literary exercises, also, add their stimulus to 
growth in thought and expression. Debating is made a prominent feature 
of the programmes of the weekly meetings of these literary societies. 

The women's dormitory is named Goheen hall in honor of Mrs. Anna 
Harrison Goheen, who has the distinction of being the most generous 
patroness of Hamline University. The building is capable of accommo- 
dating about seventy young women. It is one hundred feet north and 
south, and, in consequence, all students' rooms, except three, receive fully 
either the morning or the afternoon sunlight. 

Macalester College 

Macalester College is the outgrowth of the Baldwin School of St. Paul, 
projected by Rev. Edward D. Neill, D. D., as far back as 1853; ^"d of a 
similar institution opened in 1873 by the same gentleman in Alinneapolis. 
The original St. Paul building stood on ground now occupied by the post 
office. It was dedicated December 29, 1853, by a banquet at which ad- 
dresses were delivered by Rev. E. D. Neill, Charles J. Henniss. Mr. Hol- 
linshead. Governor Gorman, John P. Owens, T. M. Newson, Morton S. 
Wilkinson, Rev. T. R. Cressey, George L. Becker, W. G. Le Duo and 
others. The name of the school was given it as a compliment to Hon. 
Matthew W. Baldwin, of Philadelphia, the principal donor to the build- 
ing fund. In January, 1854, the school had seventy-one ptipils and was 
in successful operation. In 1874 Charles Macalester, of Philadelphia, 
donated to this school the valuable property known as the Winslow House, 
near the Falls of St. Anthony, with the understanding that as soon as 
possible it should be developed into a college. In his honor the institu- 
tion was named Macalester College. Until 1880 it was an undenomina- 
tional school. In October of that year it was adopted by the synod of 
the Presbyterian church of Minnesota. In 1883 a syndicate of the trus- 
tees bought the present site at Macalester Park on Snelling avenue in 
the midway district, and gave it to the board of trustees. The first build- 
ing thereon was erected in 1884 and the college was opened September 
IS, 1885. 

Rev. Dr. Neill, the founder of the college, was born in Philadelphia 
in 1823 and graduated from Amherst in 1842. After completing his 
theological studies under Rev. Albert Barnes he came west, and in 1849, 
commissioned by the presbytery of Galena, Illinois, came to St. Paul as 
a missionary to the whites. Thereafter until his death (except during 
the Civil war) he devoted his time about equally to the work of the Chris- 
tian minister and to that of an educator. He was the first territorial 


superintendent of public instruction and the first chancellor of the State 
University. He is the author of "Neill's History of ^Minnesota," and 
also of two volumes of valuable historical monographs. He died Sep- 
tember 26, 1893. 

Rev. Daniel Rice, D. D., gave years of devoted service to Macalester 
College, as professor and trustee. Other St. Paul men who were 
active in building it up in its struggling years were H. J. Horn, H. L. 
Moss, Major B. F. Wright, Henry M. Knox, Alexander Ramsey, R. P. 
Lewis, H. K. Taylor and Thomas Cochran. Dr. James Wallace, presi- 
dent from 1894 to 1906, was the chief burden-bearer during a critical 
period of debt and despondency. But finally, with the energetic assist- 
ance of Robert A. Kirk, Theodore Shaw and R. C. Jefferson, funds 
were raised to pay the debts. 

Dr. James Wallace resigned the presidency in June, 1906, and in 


January, 1907, Thomas Morey Hodgman of the University of Nebraska 
"was elected president. By June, 1909, a fund of $450,000 had been 
pledged, all of which except $25,000 has now been paid and invested in 
buildings or securities. Of this total, $150,000 has been expended in 
Wallace hall and Carnegie Science hall and $300,000 has been set aside 
for endowment. The chief gifts to this fund were $75,000 from the 
General Educational Board; $45,000 from Andrew Carnegie; $50,000 
from lames J. Hill ; $50,000 from Frederick Weyerhaeuser, and over 
$100,000 from the trustees. 

The Board of Trustees consists of twenty-one members. Thomas 
Shaw is president of the board, and B. H. Schriber, secretary. Presi- 
dent Hodgman serves as professor of mathematics. There are seven- 
teen professors, associate professors and instructors. The catalogue for 
1910-11 enumerates 308 students of the College, Baldwin School and 
the Musical Institute. 

The purpose of Baldwin School which is the corporate name of the 
preparatory department of Macalester, is to give four years of thor- 


ough preparation for the standard college courses and to provide a good 
general education for those who cannot continue their studies further. 
The educational standards and requirements of Baldwin School have 
secured for it the right to be accredited to the North Central Association 
of Colleges and Secondary Schools. 

The main building of Alacalester College is of brick, one hundred 
feet long and tifty feet wide, three stories high with basement, contain- 
ing class rooms, society halls, men's gymnasium, library, reading room, 
auditoriurh and executive office. The building is heated by steam and 
provided with its own electric light plant. The library contains about 
eleven thousand nine hundred volumes, not counting duplicates, most 
of it classified on the Dewey system. The department of bound periodi- 
cals at present contains more than eleven hundred volumes, not count- 
ing duplicates. There are many works in Puritan and colonial history 
and theology, and in early American travels, together with examples 
of fifteenth and sixteenth century printing and valuable autograph letters. 
For greater security this collection has been removed to the museum 
room in Science Hall. A large room on the third floor affords excellent 
accommodations for both library and reading room. 

Wallace hall is a new building for women, situated at the corner of 
Summit and Macalester avenues, sixty by one hundred and twenty-seven 
feet, and so arranged that sunlight falls into every room. In additioon 
to the students' rooms there are parlors, a dining room that seats lOO 
and a gymnasium in the basement. The btiilding is absolutely fireproof. 

The Carnegie Science hall is a three story building with a full height 
basement. It is constructed of reinforced concrete and brick. The 
exterior is of colonial brick with trimmings of Bedford limestone. There 
is a lift from the basement to the attic. The interior finish and furniture 
are of birch. The basement is devoted to shops. These shops are well 
lighted and ventilated, having full length windows and a high ceiling. 
The woodshop occupies the large room in the north wing and has ad- 
joining it a finishing room for staining, filling and varnishing. The 
south wing contains a laboratory shop connected with the physics de- 
partment and a metal shop which has adjoining it a forge and grinding 
room which is also equipped with a crucible furnace and moulding sand 
for making small castings. The physical laboratories occupy practically 
the entire first floor of Carnegie Science hall. There are two large labo- 
ratories, one for general physics and the other for electricity. Each 
of these has a smaller laboratory adjoining for special research work. In 
connection with this department there is in the basement a shop equipped 
with special tools for the production of apparatus for research work. 

The campus contains forty acres with a frontage of six hundred 
and sixty feet on Summit avenue — the fine boulevard two hundred feet 
in width which connects the Twin Cities. The college buildings, eight 
in number, are situated on the north half of the campus, while the 
ample athletic field, grove of oaks and ice skating rink occupy the south- 
ern half. 

The men's dormitory is a three-story brick building, ninety feet long 
by thirty-eight feet wide. The second and third floors contain twenty 
double rooms designed to accommodate two students each. The rooms 
are furnished with plain, substantial furniture, are well lighted and 
thoroughly comfortalDle. This hall is for men exclusively. Edwards 
hall is a substantial three-story dormitory for men, on Macalester 
avenue, one block south of the college. It is named after W. C. Edwards, 


of St. Paul, through whose hberahty it was erected. It furnishes ac- 
commodations for twenty-two men and sets tables for forty. 

Provision for the encouragement and development of outdoor athletics 
has been made by the construction of the Thomas Shaw Athletic held. 
This contains four acres of the campus lying directly south of the main 
building and is inclosed by an iron fence. A quarter mile track twelve 
feet wide with turns on a hundred foot radius is one of the important 
features of the field. This track is on a dead level and has a founda- 
tion of coarse cinders five inches deep on top of which is a layer of fine 
surfacing cinders two inches deep. The part of the field inclosed by the 
track is laid out as a football and baseball field and also provides room 
for an outdoor basketball field. 

The following publications are issued from the college : The College 
Catalogue, which is one number of the Macalester College Bulletin, an 
eight page monthly paper devoted to the advertisement and advancement 
of the institution; the Y. M. and Y. W . C. A. Handbook, a booklet full 
of information for new students, and a veritable vade mecum for all. 
and Junior Annual, a yearly publication devoted to college interests and 
published by the junior class of the college. 

In explanation of the emphasis placed on Bible study in the 
Macalester curriculum, the authorities say : "The church is entering on 
the era of the laity. Christianity is girding itself for the conquest of 
the world. Her call for workers is louder and more engaging than ever 
before Her field is ripe for lay-workers of every kind, for mission- 
aries and missionary teachers, for mission helpers, charity workers, pas- 
toral assistants, secretaries in the Young Men's and Young Women's 
Associations, Bible readers, colporteurs and the like. To these classes 
of lay-workers the theological seminaries are not open. Besides, a train- 
ing in the knowledge and use of the Bible is best secured in connection 
with the regular courses of study ofifered by the college." 

Field for Sm.jiller Institutions 

How the denominational colleges in St. Paul can flourish in such 
immediate proximity to the enormously endowed State University, has 
long been a question. It has been especially insistent since the coming 
of a vigorous young president, with an all-embracing power, to that cen- 
tral institution. President Vincent spoke a foreword to the solution at 
Fargo when addressing the -Minnesota alumni of that section. He does 
not propose that the university shall be in competition with the colleges. 
He proposes to withdraw the university, and not to withdraw the col- 
leges from the competition. To make the university a university, in the 
larger sense of teaching and not the larger sense of classes and numbers, 
is his solution of the difficulty. 

The reduction of membership in the freshman and sophomore classes, 
the centering of strength on the higher classmen, and no doubt, on 
graduate work, is proposed. He says : "Let the smaller educational in- 
stitutions make their call heard to these classes, but I sincerely hope 
that within the near future we may be able to devote all our best energies 
to the larger development of the men and women of the two upper 

This broad and cheerful readjustment of functions promises well for 
the colleges, for the university and for the educational interests of the 
great northwest. 


Other colleges and collegiate institutions in St. Paul, some of them 
well-endowed and rapidly growing into useful prominence, each under 
the auspices of a devoted local or denominational clientele, are enumer- 
ated as follows : 

Concordia College, corner St. Anthony and Syndicate avenues. Prof. 
Theodore Bueringer, president. 

Luther Seminary (German), Earl street, corner Hyacinth. Or- 
ganized in January, 1885. Rev. Henry Ernst, D. D., president. 

Luther Seminary (Norwegian), corner Capitol and Hamline ave- 
nues. Rev. O. E. Brandt, president; Rev. H. G. Stub, D. D., secretary. 

Seminary of the United Norwegian Lutheran church, St. Anthony 
Park. Rev. M. O. Bockman, president ; Carl Weswig, secretary. 

St. Paul College of Law, 60 East Fifth street. Hon. G. L. Bunn, 
dean; C. W. Halbert, secretary. 

Bethel Academy, 1320 County road, under the auspices of the Swed- 
ish Baptist church. Rev. Orvid Gordh, principal. 



Mercantile Library and Young .Men's Christian Association — 
Consolidated as St. Paul Library Association — Made a City 
Library — Proposed Extension of Usefulness — Other Libraries 
— The Informal Club — German Society of St. Paul — Como 
Park as a "Melting Pot." 

In the laudable effort of the busy people of St. Paul to develop her 
material interest, the literary, artistic and social concerns have not been 
neglected. There are many libraries and literary and art classes or 
clubs abound, having in view hard work, honest study and real advance- 
ment in their respective lines — not a simpering pursuit of the fads of 
the hour. At the theaters appear the best attractions which the 
dramatic and musical world can offer. On the lecture platforms the 
greatest thinkers of the day have been proud to stand. In the churches, 
varied enough to suit all beliefs, are to be found ministers of national 

Mercantile Library and Young Men's Christian Association 

The beginnings of our splendid public library date back to the terri- 
torial days, when voluntary effort laid its sure foundations. On Sep- 
tember 1 6, 1857, the Mercantile Library Association was organized and 
started out with a reading room and al^out three hundred books on its 
shelves, mostly the contribution of its friends. It was conducted with 
success for six years, tmder this organization, accumulating over a thou- 
sand well-selected books, maintaining a reading room which was well 
patronized and getting up two or three interesting courses of lectures. 

The Young Men's Christian Association was organized in 1856, and 
kept open a free reading room until 1858, when the reading room was 
given up. In 1861 the association procured a room and opened a cir- 
culating library with about five hundred new books. The list of books 
was increased from year to year, and when the union of the two libra- 
ries occurred the Young Men's Christian .'\ssociation had about one 
thousand volumes. 

Thus, in this little city of 10,000 people, there were two associations. 
each asking the support of the public for the same objects, each having 
its friends, and each, in a measure, a rival of the other. A consolidation 
was proposed, and delegates from the two bodies met on Friday 
evening, October 20, 1863. D. W. Ingersoll was chosen chairman and 
Charles E. Mayo secretarv. The members present were D. W. Inger- 
soll, H. M, Knox, George 'W. Prescott, E. Eggleston, W. S. Potts, D. D. 



Merrill, H. Knox Taylor and T. D. Simonton, of the Young Men's 
Christian Association, and D. A. Robertson, William Dawson, J. P. 
Pond, R. F. Crowell, W. B. Dean, D. Ramaley, R. O. Strong and C. E. 
Mayo, of the Mercantile Library Association. 

Consolidated as St. Paul Library Association 

On motion of Mr. Knox the meeting proceeded to organize the 
St. Paul Library Association, on a basis adopted by the two societies. 
The following officers were elected to serve for the remainder of the 
year 1863: D. W. Ingersoll, president; D. A. Robertson, vice president; 

C. E. Mayo, recording secretary; W. Dawson, treasurer; E. Eggleston, 
corresponding secretary and librarian. The first annual meeting of the 
association was held at the library rooms on the 19th of January, 1864, 
and the following officers elected for 1864; D. W. Ingersoll, president; 

D. A. Robertson, vice president; W. H. Kelly, secretary; W. B. Dean, 
corresponding secretary ; William Dawson, treasurer ; C. E. Mayo, E. 
Eggleston, George W. Prescott, H. M. Knox, Morris Lamprey, D. 
Ramaley and W. S. Potts, directors. 

The Library Association was thus launched on a career of pros- 
perity and usefulness, which continued for nearly twenty years, or until 
it became a city institution supported by public taxation. The constantly 
growing library was maintained in Ingersoll block on Bridge square, the 
expenses being defrayed by the membership fees from patrons, and the 
funds for purchasing new books being raised by courses of lectures pro- 
vided each winter by the directors. W. H. Kelly served as secretary 
for many years and among the presidents successively chosen were H. M. 
Knox, William B. Dean, Alexander Ramsey, Henry L. Williams, Henry 
A. Castle, Charles E. Mayo and C. C. Andrews. It will be noted that Rev. 
Edward Eggleston, afterwards famous as the author of "The Hoosier 
Schoolmaster," and other popular works, vvas one of the early and active 
promoters of this enterprise. 

The annual courses of lectures, at Ingersoll Hall or the Opera House, 
were important events in the literary and social life of the city. Season 
tickets were sold to individuals and families, also single admissions, and 
full audiences secured. Such orators and celebrities as Wendell Phillips, 
Horace Greeley, Henry Ward Beecher, John G. Saxe, Frederick Dou- 
glass, Theodore Tilton, John B. Cough, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. 
Anthony, Anna Dickinson, Thomas Nast, Robert Collyer, James Parton, 
Bayard Taylor, George William Curtis and Henry Vincent, appeared on 
the platform, under the auspices of the Library Association, to the mutual 
benefit of the community and the book fund. 

Made a City Library 

In 1882, laws having been passed by the state legislature authorizing 
the formation of public libraries, the City Library Board was created 
and the library was transferred by the association to that board, which 
has since conducted it as an institution freely open to all citizens, with 
constantly extending spheres of usefulness. The first library board 
consisted of men who had been active in the old association. The library 
was established on the fourth floor of the new court house, occupying 
four rooms — a library room proper, in which the books were placed ; 
a reference room, where access was had to books of reference, which 


were not allowed to be taken from the library ; and reading rooms re- 
spectively for ladies and gentlemen. These quarters were outgrown in 
a few years, and were likewise needed for other purposes. Accord- 
ingly, in 1892 the library was removed to its present location, Wabasha 
and Seventh streets, where it remains, pending the contemplated erec- 
tion of a permanent home commensurate with its importance. 

The total number of volumes in the library is over 118,000. The 
circulation in 191 1, was 405,245. The annual expense of maintenance is 
$58,550- The substations are: (Aj, Midway, Minnesota Transfer build- 
ing; (B), 881 Payne avenue; (C), 549 Ohio street; (D), 930 Raymond 
avenue; (E), 152 Robertson street; (F), University avenue, northwest 
corner Kent; (H), 798 East Seventh street; (I), Y. W. C. A., Sixth 
street; (J), 1665 Grand avenue; (K), 719 N. Snelling avenue. The 
members of the library board, appointed by the mayor, now are : E. A. 
Young, president; R. E. Olds, vice president; J. C. Oehler, secretary; 
John D. O'Brien, Charles W. Ames, Rev. Carl Koch, J. Dittenhofer, F. 
A. Fogg and F. C. Clemans. Mrs. H. J. ]\IcCaine, who served as librarian 
for several years under the old association, has filled that position with 
marked efficiency ever since it became a public institution. 

Proposed Extension of Usefulness 

C. W. Ames, chairman of the library committee of the board in a re- 
cent report, urges important extensions of the library's usefulness. The 
station circulation has been about 60,000 each year, and the circulation 
through the schools about the same number. It has cost about one and 
one-fourth cents a book. Several thousand dollars might be used for 
extension work. I\Ir. Ames says the library should have complete find- 
ing lists and telephone service ; should increase the number of its sta- 
tions and should develop reading rooms wherever possible, with refer- 
ence facilities. Specifically, it should have stations at the county jail, 
hospitals, city hall and like places; in business establishments; in the art 
schools ; at Macalester, Hamline, Concordia, St. Thomas and other col- 
leges ; at local commercial clubs ; newsboys clubs ; trades and labor as- 
semblies ; at the Home for the Friendless, House of the Good Shepherd, 
Little Sisters of the Poor and in the public schools. Doubtless these im- 
provements will come in the not distant future, as public sentiment cor- 
dially sustains a progressive policy by the board. 

Meantime, certain wealthy and generous citizens have made condi- 
tional offers of large donations, which, if the conditions are fulfilled, will 
lead to the early construction of a public library building, costing at 
least half a million dollars. IMayor Keller proposes that the city retain 
the valuable business property on which the library is now located, as a 
library asset, to help finance the undertaking and to yield a constantly 
argumentin<r income during all future years for the benefit of the en- 
terprise. The mayor's suggestion brought out clearly a sentiment against 
selling the old library property. That property, considering its location, 
will prove an inexhaustible gold mine for the library board. Such an 
asset simplifies greatly their administrative problem. If it can be done, 
everybody would favor leaving that property in such position that it 
may help to support the library. But if necessary to use the income in 
securing a new building the board will probably not hesitate. Books and 
documents which are priceless, from the fact that they cannot be replaced, 
are constantly subjected to the danger of destruction in the present build- 



ing. The Dispatch, in an approving comment, says further : "The sug- 
gestion of Mayor Keller has much broader application than to the library 
merely. What is true of the advantages which must come to the library 
by retaining this property and securing its income in perpetuity is true 
of all valuable property coming to the city. It will be true of an immense 
tract of invaluable land if the big harbor project goes through." 

A New Development 

These suggestions of the mayor and others emphasized by the public 
press, inspired a general sentiment among the people, which prepared the 
way for a sudden and unforeseen movement in the Spring of 1912, which 
led to gratifying practical results. One day James J. Hill made the sur- 
prisingly gerierous announcement that he was ready and willing to give 
the sum of $700,000 for the building and endowment of a reference library, 


(By Leon Hermant) 

which was, however, to be part of a general library project to be located 
on a site provided by the city or the citizens. Prompt measures were 
taken to meet the conditions of- this munificent offer. By common con- 
sent, the block of ground lying immediately south of Rice Park, bounded 
by Market, Washington, Third and Fourth streets, was agreed on as the 
site of the new library. A portion of it was already city property : Mr. 
Hill purchased another portion, and by one of those spontaneous out- 
bursts of public spirit which have made St. Paul famous, the $100,000 
required to complete the purchase of the entire block was promptly sub- 
scribed and paid in by enthusiastic citizens. 

All classes of the people participated in the effort to raise this money, 
and made contributions. The federation of women's clubs took an active 
part. The federated grade teachers lent their organized aid. Pupils in 
the public schools contributed. Thus this project seems to have been 


treated in the St. Paul manner. St. Paul needed a Y. M. C. A. building 
a long while before it was provided, but when it was undertaken it was 
carried through, so as to result in one of the finest edifices in the country, 
constructed for that purpose. St. Paul needed a large assembly hall a 
long while before it was obtained; but the Auditorium justifies the deli- 
beration and effort made to secure it. St. Paul is greatly in need of a 
library — of both a building and a book collection. With respect to the 
latter, an excellent beginning has been made. With respect to the former, 
the effort now under way and the plan for subsequent steps give ample 
assurance that in the not far distant future, St. Paul will have a library 
as creditable a feature of our city, as either of the other two institutions 

But the people will not depend upon private funds for the building 
of a public library any more than for the building of a high school. 
Through the legislature, the city has been placed in a position to finance 
a new library building, by an issue of $400,000 bonds. No time was lost 
in securing the proper enabling statutes and amendments. Now the 
city itself will take hold of the situation with a firm hand and build this 
much needed public improvement. The library board has taken the prob- 
lem up in earnest along these lines, and here is such a public response 
as will mean at once, a new building adequate to house and preserve St. 
Paul's fine collection of books of the present and of the future. 

Other Libr.^ries 

The state library, or properly, the State Law Library, in room 218 
of the Capitol, contain upwards of 68,000 volumes, and is constantly in 
receipt of additions. There are few legal works needed by the profession, 
for either study or reference which may not be found there, but their 
use is restricted to those who are content to peruse them within the 
library rooms. The State Historical Society also has a very valuable 
library described in another chapter. Both of these are purely libraries 
of reference. 

Most of the schools and all of the colleges have libraries for the use 
of teachers and scholars. There are likewise several libraries in the 
engine houses for the accommodation of firemen, and not a few of the 
societies and clubs have extensive and choice collections of books. Ham- 
line University has a "Carnegie" library. The Firemen's Central Library 
organized in 1S82 is at the corner of Main avenue and Ninth street, with 
1,000 volumes. The Masonic Library has 2.500 volumes in its new build- 
ing at Smith avenue and Si.xth street. The Ramsey County Medical 
Society has 9,000 books. The United States circuit court of appeals 
has a law library at 431 Federal building. Dr. I. L. IMahan, librarian. The 
Polk Directory Library at 216 National German American Bank build- 
ing, has a complete collection of city directories, state gazetteers, etc., 
which is of incstimalile value in certain investigations. 

The Commercial Club maintains a library of statistical works, official 
reports and books on financial subjects; also a reading room where all 
the leading newspapers and magazines are kept for the use of members. 

Some of our large manufacturing and mercantile concerns are estab- 
lishing libraries for the use of their employees. The Young Men's and 
the Young Women's Christian .Associations have libraries and reading 
rooms in their respective buildings. 

When we arc told by philologists that tlie Indian languages were both 


polysynthetic and agglutinous, we marvel at the limited scholastic achieve- 
ments of our red predecessors. But since the beginnings of Anglo-Saxon 
settlement, St. Paul has always maintained its share of voluntary asso- 
ciations for literary culture, study and discussion. JMany of them have 
been of a somewhat ephemeral nature, vigorous and useful during their 
e.xistence but passing away with the changed conditions in the residence 
districts, or with the lapse of interest in their active membership. 

The Inform.jil Club 

One of these associations, however, the Informal Club, has had such 
a prolonged and peculiar career, involving so many prominent men and 
e-\erting, without any glare of ostentation or publicity such a marked in- 
fluence on public opinion, that it should have honorable mention in any 
catalogue of the city's valuable institutions. The forerunner of the In- 
formal Club was the Twilight Club, which flourished for several years, 
but was entirely discontinued long before its successor was organized, on 
a different basis, by some of its members, with notable additions. The 
initial meeting of the Twilight Club was held at the Metropolitan hotel 
November 19. 1889. The organization was perfected with Ambrose E. 
Tighe as the secretary. Air. Tighe was the only de jure official of the 
club. Rev. Samuel G. Smith presided, and at the next meeting E. V. 
Smalley took the chair. Those present at the first meeting were : Rev. 
Samuel G. Smith, E. V. Smalley, Hon. C. D. O'Brien, John W. White, 
Hon. H. F. Stevens, Capt. George H. Moffett, Prof. Gilbert, H. P. Hall, 
E. J. Hodgson, Dr. \'an Slyke, O. G. Clay, Mr. Locke, M. E. Vinton, 
E. W. Peet, A. E. Tighe, I. G. Pyle, Capt. H. A. Castle, Prof. Ara 
Smith, H. C. Wood. Dr. Riggs, H. B. Farwell, Rev. W. S. Vail, Cass 
Gilbert, Rev. S. M. Carothers, H. R. Boyeson, A. S. Tallmadge, R. R. 
Dorr and Harry P. Robinson. 

A sumptuous repast was served, during which the plan of operations 
was informally discussed. Then, as a newspaper report, said: "There 
was a most delicious after-dinner talk in which nearly all present par- 
ticipated." The thesis was : "What Changes Are Impending in the Social 
Order?" Everybody had been furnished with a circular notifyng him of 
the subject and everybody was consequently carefully prepared to give 
expression to his opinion upon the theme under discussion. Speeches 
were limited to five minutes, and there was, therefore, little opportunity 
for anything like an oratorical display. Upon a vote of the charter mem- 
bers it was decided to limit the membership to lOO. 

Fortnightly meetings were held during the winter months of two 
or three years, at the Metropolitan and the Ryan hotels. But the pub- 
licity of these meetings, elaborate newspaper reports being often printed, 
interfered with the freedom of expression so vital to unofficial debate. 
The society was finally disbanded, but a recollection of its thought-stimu- 
lating proceedings and its social enjoyments inspired at a later date, the 
formation of the more satisfactory and enduring one which followed it. 

On October 12, 1894, invitations were sent to about twenty gentlemen 
to meet at the residence of E. W. Peet, 271 Summit avenue, on the 
evening of October iqth, to consider forming- an informal club for talks 
on current topics and general socialjilitv. Eight of the invited persons 
responded, viz., Messrs. Flandrau. E. V. Smalley. Brill, Pyle, S. G. Smith. 
Hamlin, Ames and Peet. The plan of the club was agreed on ; a list of 
prooosed members was prepared and a call was issued for the first meet- 


ing to be held at Mr. Peet's house November 27, 1894. The following 
is the list of original members : C. E. Flandrau, E. V. Smalley, Conde 
Hamlin, J. G. Pyle, Rev. J. P. Egbert, H. R. Brill, E. W. Peet, Rev. Y. 
P. Morgan, J. J. Hill, Gen. Wesley Merritt, Dr. Wm. Davis, C. W. Ames, 
Dr. Burnside Foster, Judge William Mitchell, Rev. S. G. Smith, Judge 
Thomas Wilson, George C. Squires, D. A. Monfort, F. W. M. Cutcheon, 
E. W. Winter, Ambrose Tighe, H. P. Upham, W. H. Lightner, F. I. 
Whitney, W. G. Pearce, Cass Gilbert, John B. West, E. E. Woodman, 
C. D. O'Brien, J. D. O'Brien, H. A. Castle, D. W. Lawler, C. A. Sever- 
ance, George Thompson, C. H. Kellogg, A. B. Stickney, W. B. Dean, 
T. D. Merwin, W. P. Clough, C. P. Noyes, R. B. C. Bement, Judge Walter 
H. Sanborn, Bishop Gilbert, M. D. Grover, Rev. J. T. Conway, Channing 
Seabury, E. H. McHenry, A. E. Boyesen, H. P. Hall and Dr. Geo. R. 

Thirty-three of these attended the first meeting. Charles W. Ames 
became secretary, whether by election or predestination cannot now be 
authenticated ; Messrs. Flandrau. Peet, Brill and Smalley constituted the 
executive committee. From this time forward until the present writ- 
ing, and with excellent prospects of a continuance into the indefinite 
future, meetings have been held with substantial regularity, with increas- 
ing pleasure and profit to the entire membership. 

The objects of the Informal Club were agreed to and set forth as 
follows : "The Club is to have for its purpose the fostering of rational 
good-fellowship and tolerant discussion. It is to be made up of sixty, 
more or less, regular members, and several or more honorary members, 
all of whom are expected to take an active part at least in the good- 
fellowship department. The honorary members are chiefly distinguished 
from the plain kind by not being obliged to come so often, and by paying 
double dues (if any). It is to have no charter, no constitution, no by- 
laws; only enough formal organization to keep it from disorganizing, 
and only such officers as are absolutely necessary to arrange for the 
meetings and keep up the membership. For these purposes it is thought 
that an executive committee and a secretary will be sufficient. 

"As the membership is to be strictly limited to sixty, it becomes im- 
portant that all the members should be congenial and 'clubable.' They 
will be expected to assume charge of the program of an evening or 
take part in the discussion when requested to do so by the authorities, 
and, in general, to do their share of the talking and the sociability accord- 
ing to their respective inclinations. They must attend the meetings 
with reasonable frequency ; four consecutive absences will be considered 
by the secretary a sufficient reason for dropping any name from the 
list. \'acancies are filled by the executive committee from nominations 
made by members ; but names thus proposed will be submitted to the 
club, and a single objection will be sufficient to defeat any candidate. 

"Meetings are to be held fortnightly, on alternate Thursdays, at 
private houses (on voluntary invitation of members), in the evening. 
Each meeting will be placed under the direction of some member, who 
will be invested with dictatorial powers and expected to wield them 
for the general benefit. The subject for discussion or program for 
each evening will be arranged by the temporary chairman and the secre- 
tary, and announced at the preceding meeting. Refreshments will be 
restricted to a simple lunch, and rigid sumptuary laws will be enforced 
to prevent the development of the club into a banqueting organization." 

The following "Declaration of Principles" taken from the Sunset Club 


of Chicago, was promulgated in the beginning, and has been strictly 
adhered to: 

No Club House No Late Hours 

No Constitution No Perfumed Notes 

No Debts No Parliamentary Rules 

No Contribution No Personalities 

No Accounts No Dudes 

No Defalcation No Mere Formalities 

No By-Laws No Preaching 

No Stipulations No Dictation 

No Profanity No Dues 

No Fines No Litigation 

No Stealing No Gamblers 

No "Combines" No Dead Beats 

No President No Embezzlers 

No Bores from Foreign Retreats 

No Steward No Meanness 

No "Encores" No Vituperation 

No Long Speeches Simply Tolerant Discussion 

No Dress Coats and Rational Recreation. 

At the close of the tenth year of the Informal Club's existence there 
was held at the Minnesota Club, St. Paul, on the evening of April 14, 
1904, as a special commemorative occasion, the "One Hundredth Meet- 
ing and Decennial Dinner," at which, after an elaborate banquet, there 
were "impromptu remarks" by Messrs. Severance, Hamlin, Boynton, 
Pyle and Hall, and "promiscuous orations" by members as opportunity 
was offered them. There were many deserved tributes to the Secretary 
Scintillant, the most tangible being a silver loving cup, which voiced for 
the present and testified to the future, the respect and esteem in which 
Mr. Ames is held by all the members. As a witness to the spirit of the 
club we may venture brief extracts from letters and telegrams sent by 
absentees, and read at this meeting: 

Major General John R. Brooke, U. S. A. (retired), St. Augustine, 
Florida : "The memory of the meetings attended during the two years 
of my residence in St. Paul is very green and fresh. I can now hear 
the voice of the secretary announcing the programme of the evening, 
and can see the thoughtful expression on the countenance of each 
member as he bends his mighty intellect to the task." 

Richard Burton, Boston, Massachusetts : "The club understands 
the spice there is in variety, so it meets from house to house : it knows 
that man in undress is happier and brighter than in regimentals, so it 
forbids evening clothes ; it discerns that the beginning of wisdom is 
found in a secretary who has wit and it keeps him perpetuallv in that 
office; and realizing that out of the fulness of the mouth the heart 
speaketh, it feeds its members well and lets nature do the rest." 

Rev. Wm. R. Lord, Rockland, Massachusetts : "I recall that one of 
the most delightful circles which I entered while a resident of your 
city was that of the Informal Club. Within its bounds there were 
always the light and warmth of friendly, social cheer, with certain elec- 
tric flashes of wit and wisdom. Who has been largely the center and 


source of these genial emanations, 1 will leave the club to unanimously 

Captain Henry A. Castle, Washington, D. C. : "Among my most 
conclusive titles to my own good opinion of myself is the fact that 1 
was thought worthy to be one of the founders of this illustrious associa- 
tion, and have been thought worthy to be held in remembrance as an affi- 
liated member during my seven years' absence from St. Paul. Among 
the pleasantest anticipations connected with my early return to the best 
town on this or any other earth is that of again mingling with these con- 
genial companions." 

Col. Edward Hunter, U. S. A. (^retired), W'illimantic, Connecticut: 
"I regret that it is impossible for me to witness the fireworks that are 
to follow such Informal orators as Judge Wilson, Rev. Samuel Smith, 
Messrs. Grover. Hall and Lightner. It may be that since I left you 
have improved on these speakers — but I doubt it." 

Hon. A. B. Stickney, New York, N. Y. : "Please convey to the 
one-hundredth Informal my informal regrets, in an informal manner 
and sav that although my informal body is absent, my informal sjiirit 
is with them informall}." 

Rev. Samuel G. Smith, D. D., St. Paul: "The chief value of the 
club has doubtless been in the cheerful service it has lent to the educa- 
tion of the clergy — a profession that has too long been permitted to 
speak without being properly rebuked by an intelligent laity. In this 
service the club has been a distinct revelation. But the revelation has 
been one of good lirain, good fellowship and honest hearts." 

Edwin W. Winter, New York : "I have many times gone further for 
much smaller pay and heartily wish it was practicable to renew my re- 
lationship to the club on this occasion." 

On November 9, 191 1. the Informal Club opened its eighteenth season, 
with its one hundred and seventy-first meeting, at the residence of A. 
B. Stickney. The following is the present roll call : 

Active members : Dr. Wm. Davis, Dr. Burnside Foster, Ambrose 
Tighe. W. H. Lightner, C. A. Severance, R. B. C. Bement, C. W. Ames 

A. E. Boyesen, Dr. Arthur Sweeney, E. S. Durment, Oliver Crosby, Ruk- 
ard Hurd, Kenneth Clark, Dr. C. L. Greene. Benjamin Sommers. Dr. Hal- 
dor Sneve, William G. White, Joseph McKibbin, F. B. Tift'any. F. \Mllius, 
Dr. A. ^Maclaren. Oscar L. Taylor, A. B. Driscoll, Rev. J. A. Schaad. 
Emerson Hadley, L. P. Ordway. F. G. Ingersoll, W. F. Peet, E. C. 
Stringer, Rev. I. L. Rypins, Morton Barrows, J. H. Skinner, H. P. Clark. 
John N. Jackson, C. W. Gordon, T. L. Wann, C. M. Griggs, T. A. Schulze, 
Rev. H. C. Swearingen, S. L. Heeter, Pierce Butler, Thomas R. Kane, 
Webster Wheelock. Rev. J. D. Reid, Edward H. Morphy, Rev. Parley P. 
Warner. Winthrop G. Noyes, Walter J. Driscoll, Rev. F. S. Budlong, Fred 

B. Lynch, I. S. McLain. Oscar Hallaiii, Roval A. Stone. J. D. Armstrong. 

C. W. Farnham. Louis Betz. H. E. Randall', S. W. Burr, Rev. H. Moyni- 
han, W. J. Dean and M. L. Countryman. 

Resurrected members: J. G. Pyle and H. .\. Castle. 

Honorary list : W. H. Sanborn, Archbishop Ireland. F. B. Kellogg, W. 
W. Folwell," Howard Elliott. Rev. S. G. Smith, C. P. Noyes, A. B. Stick- 
nev, Willis \'an Devanter, F. E. Carle. Rev. G. H. Bridgeman, Dr. E. V. 
Robinson. \"erv Rev. T. T- Lawler. T. H. Hodgman. W. B. Dean. Dr. 
Richard P.urton. F. C. Stevens. T. W. Lusk. Rev. Tohn Wright. H. R. 
Brill. Dr. G. E. X'incent. Gen. R. W. Hoyt. W. C. Edgar. John W. Riddle 
and Louis W. Hill. 


That the Informal Club has quietly maintained, during so many years 
a useful and enjoyable existence, with a membership of such pronounced 
excellence and individuality, is a tribute to the spontaneity of "reasonable" 
infornialism among them, and a still higher tribute to the zeal, tact, and 
overflowing good fellowship of the (much ) enduring Secretary, ab initio, 
ad linem, Charles \V. Ames. 

;\Iany of the chtirches and a few fraternal associations have societies 
for literary improvement, as have a large number of the public and private 
schools", the colleges, etc. The study clubs, which plan literary programs, 
bring lecturers to the city and do much social work, include the Cosmo- 
politan Club, thirty members, studying literature, art and drama. Airs. 
John AlcClure, president ; the Dames of the Round Table, forty-eight 
members, Mrs. J. W. Straight, president, studying literature and house- 
hold economics; Eradelphian Club, books and drama, fifteen members, 
Mrs. George F. Dix, president ; Inglenook Reading Club, twenty mem- 
bers, sttidying "The Great Northwest," Mrs. Louis F. Newton, president; 
Ladies Study Club, twenty members, miscellaneous course of study, Mrs. 
Otto Sander, president ; Merriam Park Study Class, thirty members, Mrs. 
George Hayes, president; Merriam Park Women's Club, fifty-one mem- 
bers, course of study, "Shakespeare," Mrs. J. H. Donahoe, president; 
Okuyaka Club, studying art, sixteen members, Miss Nellie Merrill, presi- 
dent; St. Paul Colony of New England Women, "New England Topics," 
seventy-seven members, Mrs. S. E. Lyman, president. 

Germ-xn Society of St. P.\ul 

The German Society of St. Paul is the oldest German society in the 
state of Minnesota. In 1853 a few pioneer Germans of the small town of 
St. Paul, in the then territory of Alinnesota, started a reading club called 
the German Reading Society of St. Paul, under which name it was incor- 
porated February 23, 1854. The first officers of the society were: John 
Peters, president ; G. Greiner, treasurer ; John Karsher, secretary. On the 
28th of February, 1870, the name of the German Reading Society of St. 
Paul was changed by act of legislature to that of the German Society of 
St. Paul. The objects of this society were mental and physical improve- 
ment, which it sought to accomplish by sustaining a library, lectures, the 
culture of song and music, and the dramatic art. In 1858 the old society 
built the Athenaeum Hall, at the corner of Walnut and Exchange streets. 
In 1870 the society was merged into the German Society ( Der Deutsche 
A^erein). The latter, in 1882, joined forces with the St. Paul Turnverein 
under the name of Germania Turnverein, and soon thereafter built the 
Germania Turner Hall at _to6 North Frinklin street, afterwards known 
as Mozart Hall. This building indirectly caused the disruption of the 
society and the hall was sold for the benefit of its creditors. The St. 
Paul Turnverein was originally a department of the German Reading 
Societv, but seceded in i860. It disbanded temporarily during the War 
of the Rebellion, as almost all its members went to the front in defense of 
the Union. At the close of the war it resumed operations and in 1882 
merged with the German Society into the Germania Turnverein. The 
present Turnverein of St. Paul is the outgrowth of the old society, many 
members of the latter and their descendants being now connected with it. 

-Among the societies conducted bv different elements of the foreign- 


bom population of St. Paul, which are, in whole or in part, concerned with 
literary atiairs, are as follows: 

\'ega Literary Society : Aleets second and fourth Friday of each month 
at 254 East Seventh. Membership 100. President, August Olson; vice 
president, Oscar Wall; secretary, J. .\. Larson; treasurer, Andr Fredlund. 

Oestreichisch Ungarischer Unterstuetzung V'erein : Meets second and 
fourth Monday of each month in Tschidas hall. President, Adolph Fasch- 
ingbauer; secretary. Gust Graf; treasurer, Engelbert Schwertberger. 

Biblioteka Unii Lubelskiej : Organized November i, 1887. fleets 
second Tuesday of each month at Saint Adelbert's Parochial School. 
President, Mrs. P. Franckowiak ; secretary, F. J. Rosenthal ; treasurer, 
Joseph Rosenthal. 

CoMo P.\RK .'\s A "Melting Pot" 

The influence of literary societies and literary culture, and literary ten- 
dencies on the daily life, the thoughts and aspirations of our people, for- 
eign as well as native, is curiously shown in what a local paper calls "the 
melting pot of nationalities" — the gifts which the foreign born make to 
Como park. In this western country, where the racial elements from 
Europe are not yet fused, it is possible that every hyphenated soci- 
ety will ask to contribute their testimonial to the witnessing of future 
generations. It is reported that the Sons of Norway seek permission, and 
after that will seek funds, to the end that a statue of Ibsen may adorn 
Como park. South Dakota towns of much smaller population, and much 
smaller Norwegian population, have erected such memorials to the dram- 
atist, and there is no reason why the Sons of Norway in St. Paul should 
not so honor their brother. Already a statue of Schiller adorns the park 
grounds, unveiled on German day with an address by a celebrated German 
statesman brought hither especially for this purpose. Assuredly the fact 
that authors and poets are thus monumentalized, instead of warriors and 
heroes, is a gratifying tribute to the enlightment which has penetrated the 
minds of our citizens. 

The journal which broaches this discovery, proceeds: "If Como is to 
be the melting pot of our city population, there is no reason why, in course 
of time, every element in our much mixed habitant should not be com- 
memorated. The Scotchman will erect his statue of Bobby Burns and 
unveil it in the snows of January 25. The Irishman will elect and erect 
perhaps O'Connell, and bring John Redmond to the speaking, in those 
near days when Ireland gets its home rule. Frenchmen will choose from 
their Pantheon and elevate some good republican, although we should 
prefer a Franciscan father : while Switzerland may embody forth Wilhelm 
Tell in the act of hitting the ai^ple. Italy may remember Cavour. or 
Caesar. The school children of the future will have an illuminated time, 
studying history on the paths of Como park." 

In the process of Americanization, through which our polyglot nation- 
alities cheerfully pass, a commendable reverence for their mother tongue 
and for those who write it, is no impediment. .\n alleged poet is born 
every minute whom the world willingly lets die. But the sun-crowned 
genius, in every land and in every age, must have due recognition from 
all who are worthy to enjoy his benefactions. 



Incorporation and Organization — Places of Meeting — Building 
Project Falls — Society Resuscitated — Broad Scope and Purposes 
— Officers — Removal to New Capitol — Society Publications- 
Great Historical Library — Historical and Archaeological 
Relics — The Kensington Rune Stone 

The Minnesota Historical Society was organized under an act passed 
by the first session of the territorial legislature in 1849, and is therefore 
the oldest institution in the state. Its objects are the collection, preserva- 
tion and publication of materials relating to the history of this state and 
development of its resources ; to collect biographic sketches and portraits 
of its pioneers and prominent citizens ; to record their work in settling the 
state and building up its towns, cities, and institutions ; to preserve an 
account of its Indian tribes ; to gather a museum of articles illustrative of 
the conditions of the settlement and later history of Minnesota, of the 
aboriginal people who built the thousands of prehistoric mounds in this 
state, and of the tribes who were living here when the first white men 
reached this region ; to collect and maintain for the use of the public a 
reference library of books, pamphlets, maps and manuscripts, on the local 
and general history, resources and development of Minnesota, of the 
United States, and the world ; and to promote the knowledge of these sub- 
jects among the citizens of the state. 

Incorporation and Organization 

The original act. or charter, approved October 20, 1849, named as 
the incorporators C. K. Smith, David Olmsted, H. H. Sibley, Aaron Good- 
rich, David Cooper, B. B. Meeker, A. M. Mitchell, T. R. Potts, ]. C. 
Ramsey, H. M. Rice, F. Steele, Charles W. Borup, D. B. Loomis. M. S. 
Wilkinson, L. A. Babcock, Henry Jackson, W. D. Phillips, William H. 
Forbes, Martin McLeod and their associates. Charles K. Smith, who is 
named first in the list of incorporators was the secretary of the territory, 
and seems to have been the leading spirit in bringing about the organiza- 
tion. The society was duly organized in the office of the secretary of the 
territory, a room in an old log hotel, on November 15, 1849. The officers 
chosen at this meeting were: Alexander Ramsey, president; David Olm- 
sted and Martin McLeod, vice presidents ; Charles Kilgore Smith, secre- 
tary; and William H. Forbes, treasurer. The formal ceremonies of open- 
ing or dedication were held at the Methodist church on Market street, 
St. Paul, January i, 1850, and are thus reported in a local paper of the 
period : "The first exercises of the Minnesota Historical Society took place 



at the Methodist church on the first inst., and passed oft' highly creditable 
to all concerned. The day was pleasant and the attendance large. At the 
appointed hour, the president and both vice presidents of the society being 
absent, on motion of Hon. C. K. Smith, Hon. Chief Justice Goodrich was 
called to the chair. The same gentleman then moved that a committee 
consisting of Messrs. Parsons K. Johnson, John A. Wakefield and B. \\'. 
Brunson, be appointed to wait upon the orator of the day. Rev. Mr. Neill, 
and inform him that the audience was waiting to hear his address. Mr. 
Neill was shortly conducted to the pulpit ; and, after an eloquent and 
appropriate prayer by the Rev. Mr. Parsons and music by the band, he 
proceeded to deliver his discourse upon the early French missionaries and 
voyageurs into Minnesota. We hope the society will provide for its pub- 
lication at an early day. After some brief remarks by Rev. Mr. Hobart 
upon the objects and ends of history, the ceremonies were concluded with 
a prayer by that gentleman. The audience dispersed highly delighted with 
all that occurred." 

The fact that an institution of this nature was organized at the very 
beginning of society in this state, which in older states had generally been 
the outgrowth of wealth, culture and time, was a matter of surprise to 
those not familiar with the energy with which western men in the early- 
stages of settlement provide themselves with the institutions of older 
communities. As the editor of a New York paper said : "There is noth- 
ing too flattering to predict of the future greatness and prosperity of a 
people who commence to write their history as soon as the foundations of 
their commonwealth are laid.'' 

It was not. however, a very encouraging prospect for an institution 
of that kind. The population of St. Paul was only 400 or 500. and there 
were but three or four towns in the territory, which was then still oc- 
cupied by the Indians and had altogether not over 1.500 white inhabitants. 
These were mostly poor settlers, and in the struggle for subsistence in a 
new countrv. still a wilderness, had scarcely leisure or means to cultivate 
esthetics or write or studv history. Consequently the development of 
the society was very slow during the first few years. In 1858 there were 
onlv 441 volumes in the library, and those of minor value. 

Pl.aces of Meetixg 

There was also much difficulty during the first four or five years in 
procuring a suitable place to hold the meetings of the society and to de- 
posit its collections. The Cajiitol was not comjileted until 1853. and 
meantime the meetings were held at the office of the territorial secretary 
and other places, until November, 1855, when a room was provided in 
the Capitol for the permanent use of the society. 

Meantime the annual meetings of the society had been regularly held 
in public ; important and valuable pa)iers had been read and addresses de- 
livered, which, with other contributions concerning the early history of 
^Minnesota, were published in pamphlet form yearly during the years 
1850, 1851. 1852 and 1853, and were circulated as widely as the means 
of the society would permit. 

In 1855 the improved condition of the society seemed to call for 
means to provide a future permanent edifice for its use. It was therefore 
resolved to procure a tract of ground, while it could be done cheaply, for 
a library building for the society. The only way this could be accom- 
plished was by raising a fund from the sale of life memberships, at 


twenty-five dollars each, and without much delay sixty-two citizens be- 
came life members. With the proceeds two lots on the corner of Wa- 
basha and Tenth streets, in a very eligible and central location, were pur- 
chased at a total cost of $1,531. This was a judicious and fortunate step 
for the society, as the property was soon worth tenfold the amount paid. 

On November 27. 1855, the society met for the first time, says the 
minutes, "in the hall set apart in the Capitol for their use, and properly 
furnished with shelves." For the first time they were able to open their 
doors to the public, in a suitable and permanent location. 

The legislature of 1856, at the suggestion and request of the society, 
passed an act appropriating $500 annually to aid it in accomplishing its 
work. A joint resolution was also passed requesting Rev. E. D. Neill, 
then secretary of the society, to prepare a compilation of materials for the 
History of Minnesota, of which 1,500 copies were ordered to be printed. 

Building Project Falls 

The rapid increase of population at that time led the society to be- 
lieve that means could be procured for the erection of a hall on its prop- 
erty, and, with perhaps too little deliberation, it was resolved to commence 
the same. On June 24, 1856, the corner stone of the proposed building 
was laid with Masonic and other ceremonies. An oration was pronounced 
by Lieut. M. F. JNIaury, of the LTnited States Navy, and a number of dis- 
tinguished guests were in attendance. A procession, composed of the 
civic societies of St. Paul and other towns in the territory, with a military 
escort consisting of Capt. Thos. W. Sherman's famous battery from Fort 
Snelling, marched through the principal streets, forming altogether an oc- 
casion of much interest. The foundation walls of the building were 
completed, but here work was discontinued, after several hundred dol- 
lars had been expended in the project. The inflated condition of the 
money market had led the society to believe that the means necessary 
could be raised without trouble ; but before any further funds were col- 
lected, the financial revolution of 1857 occurred, efifort to complete the 
building was abandoned, and was never resumed. 

Society Resuscit.\ted 

From this dormant state the society was resuscitated in the winter of 
1863-4. The legislature renewed its annual appropriation, and a num- 
ber of active gentlemen were admitted to membership. The society re- 
sumed work under flattering prospects, and from this period dates its 
real success. Its apartment in the Capitol being needed for other pur- 
poses, rooms were rented in Ingersoll's block and placed under the care 
of the librarian of the "St. Paul Library" in the same edifice. The pub- 
lication of its collections was also resumed. 

In 1868 the legislature caused apartments in the Capitol to be pre- 
pared for the society, to which its library and museum was removed in 
October of that year. In i86g the legislature somewhat increased the 
annual allowances, which enabled the society to employ a librarian per- 

Bro.\d Scope .\nd Purposes 

The comprehensive character of the scope and purpose of the Minne- 
sota Historical Society, and its laudable ambition to do thorough work 


along its allotted lines, is made evident by one of the early requests for 
contributions to its library and collections, covering "everything relat- 
ing to our own state:" 

1. Travels and explorations; city directories; copies of the earlier 
laws and journals of our legislature; ordinances of cities; and, in short, 
every book, on any subject, printed in the state, or elsewhere, relating to it. 

2. Pamphlets of all kind : Catalogues of Minnesota colleges and other 
institutions of learning; annual reports of societies; sermons and ad- 
dresses delivered in this state; minutes of church conventions, synods, 
or other ecclesiastical bodies of Minnesota ; political addresses ; railroad 
and board of trade reports, and every other pamphlet relating to this state. 

3. Files of Minnesota newspapers and magazines, especially com- 
plete volumes of past years, or single numbers even. Publishers are 
earnestly requested to contribute their publications regularly, all of which 
will be carefully preserved and bound. 

4. Materials for Minnesota history : Old letters ; journals, and manu- 
script narratives of the pioneers of Minnesota; original papers on the 
early history and settlement of the territory; adventures and conflicts 
during the Indian war or the late Rebellion ; biographies of the pioneers 
of every county, either living or deceased, together with their portraits 
and autographs; a sketch of the settlement of every town and village in 
the state, with names of the first settlers. We solicit articles on every 
subject connected with Minnesota history. 

5. Maps of town sites or counties of any date ; views and engravings 
of buildings or historic places ; drawings or photographs of scenery ; paint- 
ings ; portraits, etc., connected with Minnesota history. 

6. Curiosities of all kinds for our museum : Coins ; medals ; paint- 
ings ; portraits ; engravings ; statues ; war relics ; autograph letters of dis- 
tinguished persons, etc. 

7. Facts illustrative of our Indian tribes: Their history; character- 
istics, religion, etc. ; sketches of their prominent chiefs, orators and war- 
riors, together with contributions of Indian weapons, costumes, curiosi- 
ties and implements ; also stone axes, spears, arrow heads, pottery, or 
other relics of the prehistoric races. 

The amended charter of 1856 enacted: "The objects of said society, 
with the enlarged powers and duties herein provided, shall be, in addi- 
tion to the collection and preservation of publications, manuscripts, anti- 
quities, curiosities and all other things pertaining to the social, political. 
and natural history af Minnesota, to cultivate among the citizens thereof 
a knowledge of the useful and liberal arts, science and literature." 

The work of this society therefore comprises : 

1. The collection, preservation and publication of materials for the 
history of Minnesota and its people. 

2. The collection and management of a library containing useful 
works of reference on the local and general history of Minnesota, of the 
United States and the world, and on all other valuable departments of 

3. The diffusion, among the citizens of the state, of useful knowledge. 


The Minnesota Historical Society has always been fortunate in its 
officers. Its presidents have been such men as Alexander Ramsev, H. 
M. "Rice, H. H. Sibley, W. R. Marshall, George A. Hamilton, JohnT^Iat- 


tocks, Russell Blakeley, Charles E. Mayo, John B. Sanborn, Greenleaf 
Clark and N. P. Langford. The successive secretaries, the executive of- 
ficers of the organization on whom the burden of responsibility has fallen, 
to whom the credit for its distinguished success has been largely due, 
have been Charles K. Smith, Rev. E. D. Neill, William H. Kelly, Charles 
E. Mayo, J. Fletcher Williams, William R. Marshall and Warren Up- 
ham. Mr. Williams was secretary from 1867 to 1893, twenty-six years. 
Henry P. Upham, president of the First National Bank of St. Paul, 
served the society thirty-three years as treasurer, and contributed ma- 
terially toward placing its finances on a substantial basis. Among those 
who have served as officers and councilors, in addition to those above 
mentioned, have been E. F. Drake, Dr. S. Y. McMasters, Dr. J. B. Phil- 
lips, James W. Taylor, D. W. Ingersoll, George L. Becker, Dr. R. O. 
Sweeny, John Ireland, W. B. Dean, Josiah B. Chaney, James J. Hill and 
many others conspicuous in the annals of the city and the state. The 
present officers are: William H. Lightner, acting president; Charles P. 
Noyes, vice president ; Warren Upham, secretary and librarian ; Everett 
H. Bailey, treasurer ; David L. Kingsbury, assistant librarian ; John Tal- 
man, newspaper librarian. 

Removal to New Capitol 

In the summer of 1905 the society entered a new and better epoch, 
by the removal of its library and museum to the magnificent and fire- 
proof new capitol. The five large rooms thus occupied, however, are 
already entirely filled by the growth of these collections, and the adjoining 
corridor is also filled with bookcases and museum cases. The urgent need 
for a library building is manifest to all, and will no doubt soon command 
favorable attention from the legislature. 

Society Publications 

The publications of the Historical Society already constitute a collec- 
tion of historical, descriptive, and biographical papers, of incalculable 
value to the state and the nation. The unprecedented advantage of the 
very early formation of this association is here made manifest. The first 
annals of the coming empire have been written by the empire-builders 
themselves; many of the contributors could truthfully have said of their 
narrations : "All of this I saw, and much of it I was." The following 
brief catalogue of these publications, a series of thirteen octavo volumes, 
will suggest their interest and importance : 

Vol. I consists of a republication in 1872, again reprinted in 1902, 
of 29 papers, which were originally issued from 1850 to 1856, and are 
by such authors as Neill, Sibley, Ramsey, Hobart, Riggs, Goodrich, 
Morrison and Williamson. It contains 430 pages. 

Vol. 2 was published in three parts, dated respectively i860, 1864 
and 1867. Part 3 was not, at first, consecutively paged, and thus the 
volume could not be conveniently indexed ; but that part was reprinted 
(in 1889), and the account of the celebration of the Carver Centenary 
was added, with an index of the whole volume. Pages 294. 

Vol. 3, published in three parts, dated 1870, 1874 and 1880; paged 
continuously and indexed; illustrated with a steel engraving of Rev. 
John Mattocks. Pages viii, 433. 


Vol. 4, History of the City of St. Paul and Count) of Ramsey, 
Minnesota, by J. Fletcher Williams, containing a very full sketch of 
the first settlement and early days of St. Paul. 1838 to 1S48, and of the 
territory from 1849 to 1858; lists of the early settlers and claim owners; 
amusing events of pioneer days ; biographical sketches of o^'er two hun- 
dred prominent men of early times; three steel portraits and forty-seven 
wood-cuts (portraits and views) ; pages 475. Puljlished in 1876. 

\'ol. 5, History of the Ojibway Xation, by William \\". Warren, 
with an appendi.x of 116 pages by Rev. E. D. Xeill and a memoir of 
Warren by J. Fletcher Williams. Published in 1885. Pages 535. 

\'ol. 6, published in three parts in 1887, 1891 and 1894, comprising 
miscellaneous papers on the history of Minnesota and the Northwest, 
with eight portraits and an index. Pages iv, 556. 

\'ol. 7, The ^Mississippi River and its Source; a Narrative and Critical 
History of the River and its Headwaters, accompanied l:)y the results 
of detailed h3'drographic and topographic surveys; illustrated with many 
maps, portraits, and views of scenery ; by Hon. J. \'. Brower. commis- 
sioner of the Itasca State Park, representing also the State Historical 
Society. With an appendix: "How the Mississippi River and the Lake 
of the Woods became instrumental in the establishment of the North- 
western Pioundary of the Cnitcd .States." by Alfred J. Hill. Published 
in 1893. Pages xv, 360. 

\'ol. 8, published in three parts, 1895, 1-896 and 1898; miscellaneous 
papers on the history of Minnesota and the Northwest ; with 28 plates 
(portraits, views, maps, etc.), and 7 figures in the text. Pages xii, 542. 

Vol. 9, published in 1901 ; twenty-four miscellaneous papers on the 
history of Minnesota and the Northwest, with 22 plates. Contains pro- 
ceedings of the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the Minnesota 
Historical Society, with addresses by Ramsey, Sanborn, Langford, I-^ills- 
bury, Flandrau, Le Due, Northrop. Pishop Whipple, Governor Find, 
Senator C. K. Davis and others. Pages .xiv, 694. 

Vol. 10, publishetl in 1905, in two parts, consecutively paged. In 
its Part H, besides an index to the whole volume, are an index of the 
authors and principal subjects in the series of \'olumes I to X, and a 
personal inde.x of Volumes I to IN, liolh of which were compiled from 
the indexes of those volumes. 

\'ol. II, Itasca State Park, an Illustrated History, by J. V. Brower, 
author of \'olume \TI, ?iliiincsot;i liistorical Collections. Published in 
1905. Pages 285. 

Vo]. 12, iniblished 1909, contains papers and addresses presented 
before the society, 1905 to 1908. I'ages xx, 827, with 38 portraits and 

\'ol. 13, published 1908, contains the l)iographies of the governors of 
Minnesota, written by Gen. James H. P.aker. Pages 480. with por- 

A volume entitled "The Aborigines of .Minnesota," iiv Prof. N. II. 
Winchell. different from the foregoing in its (|uarto size, was published 
in 191 1, in pursuance of i)Ians by the late Hon. J. \'. Brower to treat 
the archaeology of this state, its aboriginal mounds, the Indian tribes 
and their implements, weapons, and ornaments. Extensive manuscri])ts 
and platbooks of T. H Lewis and the late .Alfred J. Hill, of St. Paul, 
comprising records of archaeological ex))lorations throughout Minne- 
sota during many years, are used, with large additions from Mr. 
Brower's and the author's i)ersonal o\])lor;itions and surveys. In the 


volume are about 500 plats and maps of groups of mounds surveyed in 
this state, and separate histories of the Dakota and Ojibway people, 
with illustrations of their implements and modes of life. It is estimated 
that Minnesota has fully 10,000 aboriginal mounds. 

Two pamphlet publications have been recently issued, the first a 
preliminary report on "The Kensington Rune Stone,'' by the Museum 
committee, in 66 pages, with live plates, and the second an address 
given by Hon. Samuel G. Iverson, state auditor, at the Council meeting 
on February 13, 191 1, entitled "The Public Lands and School Fund of 
Minnesota," in 29 pages. These papers are to be included in the next 
volume of the society's collected papers and addresses. 

A compreliensive and systematic plan for collecting materials for 
additional publications is being steadily prosecuted by the Historical 
Society. In addition to the historical and biographical papers presented 
at the monthly meetings, which will appear at intervals, there are three 
volumes in preparation for the octavo series, namely — first, "Minnesota 
Biography," an alphabetic list of biographies of the pioneers and chief 
citizens of Minnesota as a territory and state during its first half cen- 
tury; second, "Minnesota Geographic Names," giving the origin, mean- 
ing, and date, so far as can be ascertained, of all our proper names, as 
of the state, its counties and townships, cities, villages, railway stations, 
post offices, creeks, rivers and lakes, hills and mountains, and the streets 
and parks in cities ; and third, a Llistory of this Society in its work for 
our state, its library and other collections, and its membership. Work 
has also been well begun by the secretary and literary assistant on a 
biography, in one or two volumes, of the late Alexander Ramsey, Min- 
nesota's "War Governor," foremost in statesmanship for promotion of 
this commonwealth, designed to be published in the same series of 
Historical Collections. 

More than sixty quarto scrap books, each of 160 pages, have been 
filled and indexed, for public use. They comprise newspaper items and 
articles relating to the society; to this state and its towns and cities; to 
biographies and obituaries; to conventions, reunions, etc. 

Great Historical Library 

The Historical Society acts as the servant of the people of the state 
in gathering its very extensive and valuable library, which stands in the 
front rank among the great historical libraries of the United States. 
It is a free reference library, open daily to the public from 8 130 A. M. 
to 5 P. M. At the beginning of the year 191 2 the library had 68,928 
bound and 36,436 unbound volumes, amounting together to 105,364 
volumes. In the year 1910 the number of bound newspaper volumes 
added to the library was 353, and in 191 1 the number was 371. The 
total number on January i, 1912, was 9,327. The number of Alinne- 
sota newspapers, daily, weekly and monthly, regularly received, is now 
430, and 40 others are received from outside of this state, making the 
entire number 470. All the Minnesota papers are donated by the editors 
and publishers, who appreciate the importance of having them placed where 
they will be preserved for all coming time. The newspaper collection 
is accessible to all who wish to consult it, and is so arranged that any 
paper of any date can be readily found. 

The Minnesota department of the general lilDrary, including books 
relating particularlv to this state, is very extensive and of great interest 


to all our people. It comprises the journals of the legislature, and 
the laws enacted ; reports of the supreme court ; messages and reports of 
executive officers and departments of the state government ; reports of 
the State University, normal schools, and institutions of correction and 
charity ; catalogues of our colleges and academies ; reports of the State 
Geological Survey ; of county, city, and town officers, boards of trade, 
railway and other corporations ; state, county, city and town histories, 
atlases, and business directories ; the published proceedings and records 
of the numerous religious, charitable, and social organizations ; and 
many historical, descriptive, biographical, and statistical works, beginning 
with the narratives of the earliest explorers of the area of Minnesota. 
This collection numbers 1,965 bound books, and about 1,650 pamphlets. 

■'It can be said with truth," said Warren Upham, the secretary and 
the librarian of the Historical Library, in a newspaper interview, "that 
with one exception this library leads all others in the country in family 
and local histories. The most extensive is the New England Historic 
Genealogical Society Library at Boston. We have here more than two 
thousand bound books on genealogy. These deal with particular families 
of the United States and Canada. A large amount of information con- 
cerning families is to be found in the town and county histories of which 
we have a fine collection. Practically every section of the country is 
dealt with. For Massachusetts alone we have over eleven hundred of 
these histories. This is the largest collection. For the other states the 
material is more in proportion of New Hampshire, for which there are 
two hundred volumes. The west, which is not so venerable as the east 
and in which there is less interest and care taken in local histories, is 
nevertheless well represented." 

Several hundreds of life size portraits of .Minnesotans have been 
collected by the society, either through donation or purchase, only a 
minor portion, of which can be placed on exhibition, owing to lack of 
space. About 1,000 smaller portraits and other pictures are owned by 
the society and are alphabetically catalogued so as to be immediately 

On account of the steady increase of the library, portrait collection 
and museum, it is evident that a new and ample building, to be occupied by 
this society, similar to those devoted to state history in Madison, Wiscon- 
sin, and Des Moines, Iowa, should soon be provided, preferably on some 
site nearly adjoining the new capitol. Minnesota has just cause for pride 
in the work already achieved by the Historical Society, and may well pat- 
tern after adjoining state in erecting a new and adequate fire]iroof building 
for the society's collections and meetings. 

Historical and Archaelogical Relics 

Many historical relics have been donated to the society, illustrative of 
the conditions of the pioneer settlement of Minnesota ; of the Sioux w-ar 
and the Civil war; of the people who l;)uilt the thousands of prehistoric 
mounds in this state, and of the tribes, the Sioux and Ojibways. who were 
living here when the first white men reached this region. These miscel- 
laneous museum collections are exhibited in the main corridor of the 
society's rooms, adjoining the library. In the same large corridor are 
also exhibited a chair once owned by George Washington ; the steering 
wheel of the old frigate "Minnesota." which was built in 1855 and did 
good service in the Civil war; a large collection of Philippine weapons 


presented by Governor Lind; a Spanish garrote, which was long used for 
executions in a Manila prison, presented by Major Edwin S. Bean; an 
Ojibway birch canoe; the very large mounted head of a buffalo that was 
killed by Governor Marshall and others ; and the fine head of a moose 
presented by Governor Nelson. In the newspaper room is the first print- 
ing press used in Minnesota, presented by the Pioneer Press Company, 
on which James M. Goodhue printed the Minnesota Pioneer Press, issuing 
the first number April 28, 1849. 

The society's archaeological museum is its southeast corner room, in 
which the very extensive collections donated by the late Rev. Edward C. 
Mitchell are displayed in fourteen large glass cases. These collections of 
aboriginal implements, weapons and ornaments, had been gathered by him 
at his home in St. Paul, during many years, from nearly every state and 
territory of the Union, and in less numbers from many foreign countries. 
His donations and his subsequent additions comprise about 24,000 pieces, 
or relics, made of stone, bone, shell, horn, copper, pottery and a few of 
brass, lead, iron, glass and wood. Other great archaeological collections 
were also brought together for this society by the late Hon. J. V. Brewer, 
a member of the council and chairman of its museum committee. This 
material comprises a vast number of specimens, in total exceeding 100,000, 
of stone implements and weapons, fiakes from their manufacture, bone 
and copper ornaments, pottery, etc., partly from the modern Indians, 
partly from the ancient mounds, throughout Minnesota and a large region 
reaching west to the Rocky mountains and south to Kansas. 

The Kensington Rune Stone 

A remarkable relic, which was for some months in 1909-10 deposited 
in the museum of the Minnesota Historical Society, was the Kensington 
Rune Stone. If the authenticity of its inscriptions shall be thoroughly 
established, it is confidently hoped that the stone may become the prop- 
erty of the state, for nowhere could it be so appropriately deposited as 
in this collection. It would be of priceless value and of undying interest. 
We compile the following account of this stone from the writings of 
Very Rev. Francis J. Schaefer, D. D., member of the council of the 
Historical Society, and rector of St. Paul Seminary. 

In August, 1898, a Swedish farmer, by the name of Olaf Ohman, was 
busying himself in clearing a tract of his land, situated about three miles 
in a northerly direction from Kensington, Douglas county, Minnesota. 
While uprooting a poplar tree, eight or ten inches in diameter, on the side 
of a morainic hill, he discovered a stone, which has been and still is the 
subject of widespread interest and discussion. The stone is thirty inches 
long, sixteen inches wide and six inches thick and weighs about two hun- 
dred and thirty pounds. It is a graywacke, of dark gray color, evidently 
rifted from some large boulder of the glacial drift, which forms the sur- 
face of all the region. On the face of the stone and on the side there is an 
inscription in strange characters, which were believed and have since 
been proven to be runic letters, such as were in use, centuries ago, among 
the Germanic and Scandinavian nations. 

As there was no runic scholar in the neighborhood of Kensington, the 
stone was sent to the professor of Scandinavian literature in the Univer- 
sity of ]\Iinnesota. and to other Swedish, Norwegian and Danish scholars 
in Chicago. They deciphered the inscription ; but as it contained the 
account of an exploration to that spot by Norsemen in the fourteenth cen- 






tury, it was generally held to be a fraud of recent date. And thus the 
stone was returned to its owner, who used it as a step to the door of his 
barn. A new examination of the inscription was made afterwards by Mr. 
Hjalmar Rued Holand, a scholar of Scandinavian history and literature. 
While preparing a history of Norwegian immigration to the United States, 
he traveled extensively among the Norwegian settlements in the north- 
west. In August, 1907, he happened to be in Douglas county; there he 
learned from j\Ir. Ohman the circumstances of the finding of the stone 
and obtained it from him for further study. The result of his researches 
was presented in an elaborate paper, read at the monthly meeting of the 
Minnesota Historical Society, December 13, 1909. 

The inscription, as interpreted in English by Mr. Holand, reads as fol- 
lows : "8 Goths (Swedes) and 22 Norwegians on an exploring journey 
from \^inland very far west. We had a camp by 2 skerries (rocks in the 
water) one day's journey north from this stone. We -were out fishing one 
day. When we returned home, we found 10 men red with blood and 
dead. A V M (Ave Maria, or Ave \^irgo Maria). Save us from evil." 

"We have 10 men by the sea to look after our vessel, 14 (41 ?) days' 
journey from this island. Year 1362.'' 

We learn from this account, that thirty Swedish and Norwegian 
explorers came to the central western part of what is now Minnesota on a 
journey of exploration made in 1362. Their starting point was Vinland, 
a country along the eastern coast of North America. They put up a camp 
near a lake, at the point of which were found two rocks in the water ; the 
camping place was about a day's journey to the north from the spot where 
the stone was found. One day they went out fishing on the lake, and 
when they returned to their camp, they found that ten of their men were 
killed by savages. Thereupon they packed up their belongings and 
departed in all haste, at first in a southerly direction. After having 
traveled for about a day they rested on an island, carved into a stone 
the record of their journey, and addressed a prayer to the Blessed Virgin 
Mary to save them from further evil. Their ship was left by the sea 
in the custody of ten men, at a distance of about forty-one days' 
journey. (The rendering of the numerals indicating the distance to 
their ship is not altogether certain; they might mean 14 or 41 days. 
However, forty-one seems to be the more probable. ) 

The great question is, whether the inscription be genuine, i. e., 
whether it be really a record left there by Scandinavian explorers in the 
fourteenth century. It may be said at the very outset, that direct evi- 
dences or testimonies in favor of its authenticity are lacking. All that 
can be done is to gather a certain number of reasons or facts, which will 
make it likely that the monument is really what it claims to be. The 
idea of a recent fraud seems to be excluded by the circumstances of 
the place. The stone was lying flat with its rune-inscribed face down- 
ward, was thinly covered by the surface soil ; and over it had grown a 
poplar tree, which had sent its main roots down at one side of the 
stone, while another large root crossed the stone and then passed down 
at its opposite edge. All the roots that covered the stone, were flattened 
on the side nearest to it ; and the tree, according to a general estimate, 
was about forty years old. Hence the stone was in its position at least 
since about the year i860; a time when there were no white settlers 
within one hundred miles of the place, and the nearest railroad was four 
hundred miles away. 

The journey itself of these daring Norsemen into the interior of the 

Jjr\ j^> M r-^tr \ 


American continent is not at all impossible. It is a matter of history 
that the Norsemen visited the coast of North America, a section of 
which they called \ inland ( land of wine ; either New England or Nova 
Scotia) from the abundance of wild grapes found there. These visits 
commenced about the year lOOO, and continued for several centuries. 
Why should not some of them, during a longer sojourn in \inland, 
undertake a journey of exploration into the interior of the land, which 
offered to them such treasures in natural resources? 

The most important matter to be examined is the language and the 
style of the inscription. Mr. Holand is satisfied that both are in perfect 
harmony with the Scandinavian documents of the fourteenth century, 
with which he compared the inscription of the rune stone. One par- 
ticular feature seems to bear out his contention — the salutation ad- 
dressed to the Blessed A^irgin Mary, the Ave Maria, which shows the 
childlike faith of the people in the Middle Ages, the habit of havmg 
recourse to the Mother of God in all circumstances, particularly in times 
of need and distress. The Norsemen of the fourteenth century were 
one in faith with the Catholics of other countries of Europe; and hence 
they had the same customs and devotions. If a Scandinavian of our 
own time had perpetrated a forgery, he would scarcely have thought of 
placing the invocation to the Virgin Mary on the stone, because any- 
thing like a devotion to the Saints is entirely foreign to the mind of 

Concerning the probable route taken by the explorers, Professor 
Andrew Fossum, of St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minnesota, gave an 
interesting theory in the Nonvcgian American, Northfield, Minnesota, 
October 22, 1909. According to it the travelers set out from Vinland, 
passed through Hudson straits into Hudson bay, left their ship near 
the mouth of Nelson or Hayes river, made a canoe journey into Lake 
Winnipeg and along the Red river to its first series of strong rapids and 
falls, terminating a few miles below Fergus Falls, ^linnesota, and thence 
crossed the country, probably by streams, small lakes, and portages, some 
twenty miles southeastward to Pelican lake. For this inland journey 
fourteen days might be sufficient, provided the travelers were on the 
road for about fifteen hours a day, and were not hampered by special 
difficulties. Still it is rather a short space of time for such a long 
distance ; and hence the rendering of the numerals in the inscription by 
41 days is altogether more likely. Interesting accounts of the rune 
stone and the question connected therewith may be found in Harper's 
Weekly. October 9. 1909, from the pen of IMr. Holand, and from that 
of IVIr. Warren Upham, secretary of the Minnesota Historical Society, 
in "Records of the Past," January-February, 1910. 

In the summer of 191 1 this rune stone was taken to Sweden and 
Norwav bv 'Mr. Holand, and was submitted to examination by the most 
expert Scandinavian linguists and runologists, of which he published a 
report in "Records of the Past," September-October, 191 1. He con- 
cludes that the arguments for the authenticity of the stone as a historical 
record, set forth in the report of this Society's Museum committee, are 
far more reliable than any objections that have been urged against it. 



Origin of St. Paul Institute — Activities of the Institute — Affilia- 
tion WITH Clubs and Societies — Alliance with Public Schools 
^Suggested Expansion — Business Training — German Section 
OF the Institute — St. Paul Artists — Prominent Architects. 

A movement of comparatively recent origin to establish an institu- 
tion of incalculable value to the city, The St. Paul Institute, has 
progressed to the point which seems to guarantee a permanent success. 
The purpose of its founders was to form the nucleus of an organization 
which should grow and develop until it became coterminous with the 
city itself, making it a center of art, culture and education, which should 
be so many-sided that it would in some of its activities meet the needs 
of every one; so democratic that it would reach and receive the support 
of all classes; so practical that the standard of individual efficiency 
would be permanently raised. So far as its objects were educational, 
their tendency was and is to transform the city into a popular university 
of continuous education, and it has therefore acquired the secondary 
title of "The People's University." 

But its scope is even broader. By combining into one organization 
all the artistic, musical, scientific and other intellectual interests, it hopes 
to aid effectually in making St. Paul a great city in the largest sense of 
the word. While its work will contribute in no small degree to the city's 
material prosperity, it aims chiefly to make it a better and pleasanter 
place to live in — to raise the standards of its social and industrial life; 
to provide the means of culture and refinement; to diffuse interest in 
the arts and sciences in the community ; in short, to make St. Paul a 
real center of the higher civilization. 

Origin of St. Paul Institute 

This great institution originated in the suggestion of a course of free 
lectures on hygiene and sanitation, which led to the organization early 
in 1907 of the St. Paul Institute of Science and Letters, a private enter- 
prise supported by a few public spirited citizens. Its lecture courses 
and classes met with such wide popularity that the idea of establishing 
a larger institute in the general lines of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts 
and Letters took form, and the present organization was incorporated 
April 28, 1908, by Charles W. Ames, Arthur Sweeny and Lucius C. Ord- 
way, with a representative board of fifty-five trustees, including ex-of- 
ficio the mayor, the presidents of the school, library and Auditorium 
boards, and the superintendent of schools. By permanently including 





'M !if 

• \ 



ST. PAUL CATlli:i)IM[ , iRdXl- i-:i. i:\.\TION 


these city officials as members of the board, the cooperation of the muiii- 
cipaHty was definitely assured, a policy which has been amply justified. 

The affairs of the institute are under the control and management of 
its corporate members, composed of life members, persons who have 
contributed at one time not less than $ioo, or more than $i,ooo in money 
or property ; permanent members contributing between $i,ooo and $10,000 
or its worth; patrons contributing from $10,000 to $100,000, and bene- 
factors whose donations exceed $100,000. Sustaining members, paying 
$25 a year, have for that year all the privileges of life members. The 
popular cooperation is secured through the association membership. As- 
sociate members pay $5 a year dues. The inducements to this are the 
privileges of the lecture program and the opportunity to belong to the 
many active societies and working sections of the various departments. 
Where the regular sources of income have failed to equal the expen- 
ditures, the liberal promoters of the enterprise have hitherto made up 
the deficit. 

The charter commission meantime, suggested the feasibility of mak- 
ing a charter provision to permit the institute to take charge of the art 
gallery and museum in connection with school extension and social center 
work, the maintenance expense being met by a tax levy of one-fifth of 
a mill. 

Activities of the Institute 

The activities of the institute have fallen into three general groups, 
the museum, art gallery and exhibitions ; the sections and the schools. 
The Board of Auditorium commissioners, with the approval of the mayor 
and city council, in August, 1908, leased the three upper stories of the 
auditorium to the institute for ten years at an annual rental of $1, consti- 
tuting about 10,000 feet of floor space. About $11,000 was advanced by 
the institute to install an elevator and put the rooms in suitable condition, 
for which sum it is hoped the city will reimburse the institute. This has 
provided a home for the general officers, the art school and gallery, and 
for the natural history museum established in the spring of 1910. 

The museum has been an admitted desideratum in St. Paul for many 
years, but it remained for Dr. Arthur Sweeny to give vitality to the idea, 
in this connection. The value of museums to a city is beginning to be 
generally appreciated. Now is the time to begin the collection of valu- 
able material which in a short time will be lost forever if not preserved 
Isy that city or town. The older countries realized this hundreds of years 
ago, and every little town has its museum and picture gallery. In Lon- 
don, Paris and P,erlin they will tell you that the annual appropriations 
made for these institutions are most freely given. Paris in 1821 paid 
$20,000 for the ^'enus of Melos. In the inventory of the Louvre it is 
valued at half a million, and a million would not buy it. Wilson Peale 
founded, soon after the Revolution, the academy and museum in Philadel- 
phia, which is still in existence. Peale, a harness maker, was twenty 
vears old before he ever saw an oil painting. He was a soldier and while 
in the field painted his celebrated portrait of Washington. After the war 
he was elected a member of the legislature. During the excavation for 
a large building in Philadelphia the bones of a mastodon were unearthed. 
These attracting Peale's attention he beean the study of natural history, 
opened the first museum in America, and gave a series of lectures which 
were extremely popular. These were kept up until the loss of his teeth 
interfered with his oratorv, when he turned his attention to dentistry and 


became the first American dentist — all in all proving himself to be the 
most versatile of men. 

The museum of the St. Paul Institute makes rapid progress. The col- 
lection of shells, fossils, corals, minerals, etc., presented by Rev. Edward 
C. Mitchell was enough to place the institute at one step in a very re- 
spectable rank. This collection includes more than 10,000 specimens, 
and represents a money value of at least $20,000. Many smaller but 
valuable gifts have been added to the museum, and a large number of 
rare and interesting articles have been placed there as loan exhibits by 
the owners, who were glad to make use of the fireproof quarters of the 
museum to share their treasures with the public. The nucleus for a 
permanent and growing public art collection has been started, and though 
the actual number of pictures and sculptures belonging to the institute 
is small, there have been a number of most important and successful loan 
exhibits, both large and small, including during the past year a significant 
professional art exhibition. 

Affiliation with Clubs and Societies 

The sections of the institute are in effect clubs or societies, and rep- 
resent the spontaneous activities of the members. Any grou]5 of mem- 
bers, interested in studying some special subject together, can organize 
as a section of the institute, and so obtain all the special helps which are 
provided by the institute, such as lecture, lists of reference books, etc. 
In the practical working out of the plan, there are five large active sec- 
tions which during the past year have increased their membership and 
carried on various profitable and agreeable activities, such as lectures, 
classes and meetings. They are French, German, English, fine and in- 
dustrial arts, and professional art. There was organized in November, 
191 1, the department of science; this in addition to other functions will 
direct the future of the museum, which has grown too large to be handled 
without some specific organization to direct the exhibits and provide for 

As a part of the purpose to make itself the center of art interest, cul- 
ture and education in St. Paul, the institute early in its history took over 
the Art School Association conducting the St. Paul School of Fine Arts, 
a private organization maintained by an association of earnest women 
since 1890, which had done some admirable work and established the 
department known as the St. Paul Institute School of Art. The subjects 
embraced in its curriculum, include work from the antique, life, still life, 
costumes, life and portrait classes, water color, sculpture, sketching, com- 
position, general and commercial design, illustration, mural decoration, 
cartoon and caricature, and handicraft in various lines, such as jewelry, 
leather work, stenciling, woodblock printing, pottery, ceramics and book 
binding. This school occupies the third and fourth floors of the audito- 
rium, and is under the direct supervision of the Institute art department. 

The Institute School of Art. besides being an influence both in cul- 
ture and practical education, is doing effective work in advertising the 
city and bringing students from other states as well as from every part 
of Minnesota. There were in the art school during the year igii en- 
rollments from Michigan, Wisconsin, North Dakota. South Dakota, Iowa 
and Nebraska. " Most of the high salaried positions in the line of art 
and design here are filled bv artists trained in the Institute Art School, 


and a number of students are doing graduate work here who made their 
start in other schools. 

Alliance with Public Schools 

All the other schools are under the direction of Superintendent Potter 
of the city schools, and space has been made for them in the public schools. 
They are so closely allied with the school system as almost to form a part 
of it. but their expense falls largely upon the institute, except where in 
one instance it was reinforced by the Builders' Exchange. These classes 
include evening elementary schools ; evening high schools, furnishing 
courses in academic branches, commercial branches and shop and labora- 
tory training; industrial schools, where classes have been conducted in 
architectural and mechanical drawing, sheetmetal work, cabinet work and 
carpentry, pattern making and other technical subjects; this is the school 
which has received the active support of the Builders' Exchange, and 
has been largely attended by workmen, thus forming the nucleus of a most 
practical trade school ; school of home economics, including such subjects 
as cooking, sewing, millinery, home nursing and dietetics ; the school of 
education, primarily for teachers, under the form of university extension 
courses from the department of education to the University of Minne- 

Suggested Expansion 

It is the desire of those in authority that the institute should enlarge 
its educational work in several ways. The first plan would involve its 
taking entire charge of the social center work, in which a beginning has 
already been made in the form of free lectures, of which fifty-three were 
given in 191 1 in the various schoolhouses, with an attendance of about 
18,000. Another suggestion is the addition of institute day classes in 
elementary studies for children under 16 who are obliged to work, and 
that the institute provide one hundred free scholarships. The third sug- 
gestion is that the institute should co-operate with the school board in 
establishing an elementary industrial school as a part of the public school 
system of St. Paul, an undertaking which it is believed would be unique 
in the United States. 

It has been estimated that there are more than 75,000 wage earners 
engaged here in vocations demanding more or less technical skill, and 
that if $1 were added per week to the pay envelope of each individual, 
more than $4,000,000 a year would be added to the wealth of the city. 
With a view to bringing about such an expansion of the pay envelope, the 
St. Paul Institute in cooperation with the Builders' Exchange established 
these night industrial schools as an experiment. It was found that these 
schools, by increasing the efficiency of wage earners, had added more 
than $100,000 to their earning powers. 

The Latest Development 

Chapter XLII of this volume describes the important step taken in 
October, 19 12, for the consolidation of the Institute evening schools, un- 
der a special principal, in the new Mechanics Arts high school building. 
Commenting in this splendid consummation, a Pioneer Press editorial 
says: "Of course the chief credit is due to the intelligent and energetic 
management of the Institute. But the school board should come in for 


a liberal meed of praise for its broad-minded cooperation with the Insti- 
tute. Jt has thus by a wise and hberal poHcy made the great pubHc invest- 
ment in school buildings and plant available for the use of all the people. 
The superintendent of schools has been and is an important factor, as the 
Institute schools come under his general direction. The St. Paul Build- 
ers' Exchange has also given great assistance in developing industrial 
education on its more practical side. And now, thanks to President \'in- 
;ent, the State University has joined this educational combination and is 
offering university opportunities to St. Paul people who are unable by 
reason of their vocations and employment to go to Minneapolis to take 
the regular courses of instruction. The university has thus opened a 
branch establishment here — as a department of the Institute schools." 

The courses otifered by the University of Minnesota, in conjunction 
with the Institute are identical with courses offered at the State Univer- 
sity in the freshman and sophomore years, conducted by regular profes- 
sors from the university faculty, and credits will be given, if desired, 
against regular work for a degree. Some of the subjects: Economics, 
accounting, advertising, salesmanship, commercial credit, history of edu- 
cation, English literature, geology, German, Greek, medieval and modern 
history, American political history, Latin, higher mathematics, psychology, 
public speaking, rhetoric. French, Norwegian literature, Swedish liter- 
ature, sociology, business law. 

Business Training 

Equally essential, and even more visibly productive is business train- 
ing. Two kinds of ability are needed — general ability to comprehend the 
relations of the various parts of the business world to each other and to 
the whole, and specialized ability to perform the function of any given 
part. Practical experience affords the specialized ability. In our modern 
business world, however, this is necessarily narrow in the extreme. The 
specialized worker becomes so restricted by his specialty that he learns 
little or nothing regarding the relations of the various parts. This lack 
of general ability prevents him from advancing to positions of broader 
general efificiencv. He is compelled to remain in his own narrow field. 
General ability in business is impossible except through business educa- 
tion. The business world needs especially men of general ability. Its 
great opportunities are open only to men of broad efficiency. To meet 
this need the St. Paul Institute has arranged with the L'niversity of Min- 
nesota to have three of the most valuable and desirable courses in the 
University E.xtension Business School given in St. Paul. The three 
courses which have been selected will appeal particularly to the ambitious 
young man who has an eye to preparing himself for important work in 
the future by broadening his business education. These evening courses 
carry credit towards a degree for those who contemplate doing addi- 
tional universitv work in the future either by extension courses, corres- 
pondence courses, or by resident work at the university. 

A spirit of satisfaction at the manner in which the St. Paul Institute 
is developing was shown, regardless of the fact that it cost public-spirited 
citizens who are corporate members of the institution $16,000 to carry 
on the work. The budget, which has been made up for the coming year, 
also calls for $16,000 of which approximately $12,500 will be raised by 
contribution. The cost of running the institute the first year of its 


operation was more than $22,000 and for the second year $30,000. A 
total of 1,350 students in all classes registered last year. 

Under its general plan the institute has provided many lectures and 
has been the means of bringing some very distinguished persons to St. 
Paul to speak on subjects upon which they were authorities. Two per- 
formances by Ben Greet players were arranged for, and a number of 
other dramatic, social and musical entertainments have been given. The 
beautiful Minnesota historical pageant produced in May, 191 1, was not 
only a brilliant spectacular success, but produced a substantial sum of 
money for the benefit of the art school. In these and many other ways 
the St. Paul Institute has sought to stimulate the intellectual activities 
of the people, to discover and foster their latent talents, and. while rais- 
ing their ideals, to place within their reach the means of realizing their 
cherished tastes and ambitions. 

The officers of the institute for 1911-12 are Charles W. Ames, pres- 
ident; A. B. Stickney, tirst vice president; E. H. Bailey, second vice pres- 
ident; S. G. Smith, third vice president; W. A. Miller, treasurer; Arthur 
Sweeney, secretary ; Charles J. Hunt, business manager. 

German Section of the Institute 

Out of a handful of Germans, who three years ago founded a German 
section of the St. Paul Institute, is developing the strongest intellectual 
German organization in this city. At the annual meeting in April, 191 1, 
the lovers and promoters of German language, art and literature, decided 
definitely that it was time that the large German population of St. Paul, 
estimated at 55,000, should be represented not only by singing and athletic 
societies, but also by a body of people whose aim is to uphold and spread 
among the second generation of German-Americans, the gems of art 
which have helped to bring the Vaterland to the rank in which it stands 
today among the nations of the world. 

It will be seen from this sketch of its plan and purposes, that the 
scope of the institute is intensely practical. It opens, the door of oppor- 
tunity to every ambitious man or woman, to conserve their time, energy 
and talents; to increase their efficiency, earning power and happiness. 
In plain language it says to them: If by paying $5.00 to $7.50 tuition and 
studying, in your spare time, from sixteen to twenty weeks, you can in- 
crease your salary one dollar a week, you will get a larger profit on your 
investment than you could get from the luckiest speculation. 

The man who knows how to do something that is needed will always 
find it possible to make money. There are never enough competent work- 
men to fill waiting places, while, on the other hand, there are always so 
many incompetent workmen that their wages are kept down by the com- 
petition, just as there are always plenty of men who are so busy talking 
that they have no time to work or even to think. You will find a hun- 
dred young men or young women who want to go to work, but cannot do 
anything in particular, for ten who are fairly well trained or for one who 
is thoroughly competent. You can easily figure out the comparative 
weight of their pay envelopes. Anyone who is ambitious to make the 
most of himself, and to get enough money to take some satisfaction out 
of life, must know how to do some special thing and to do it well. The 
St. Paul Institute stands ready to help every worker in St. Paul to im- 
prove his situation in life. The courses supply training that will make 


all the difference between success and failure for hundreds of young 

St. Paul Artist.s 

The activities of the St. Paul Institute in artistic fields find fertile 
ground, already prepared to cordially welcome them. Seriously lacking 
in organized eftort, in accessible art collections and in facilities for art 
culture, the city has, nevertheless, for many years been the home of 
skilled artists, and has developed architects of more than national renown. 
The fact that soon after its formation, the professional art section of the 
institute had more than forty members, is sufficient indication of the facts 
above stated. 

The late Carl Gutherz practically commenced his highly successful 
career in St. Paul about 1872. Several of his portraits of ]\rinnesota 
Governors adorn the state capitol ; one of his latest works, an allegorical 
painting, is seen in the grand arch at the People's Church. He exhibited 
many times at the Paris salons. He furnished the series of allegories 
for the ceiling of the Representatives reading room at the National 
Library in Washington, which have won the tribute of unstinted praise 
from art critics. His sister, Airs. Mark D. Flower, residing in St. Paul, 
possesses several of JMr. Gutherz's choicest productions. 

A St. Paul artist who has attained much distinction in America 
and Europe is J. D. Larpenteur, of a family historic in all periods of 
our city's annals. Mr. Larpenteur's specialty has been animal pictures, 
in which he has acquired great fame. While Mr. Larpenteur has re- 
sided and worked in Paris for many years, he has, at intervals, lived 
in, Minnesota, and some of his best pictures have been painted here. 
St. Paul collectors possess several of his most celebrated productions. 

]\Tiss Plelen Castle of St. Paul won the first prize for water-color 
painting at the Corcoran Art Exhibition in Washington a few years 
ago, and many of her flower pictures are to be seen in private galleries 
in Eastern cities. Miss Castle's painting of the Minnesota state flower. 
the cypripedium (moccasin flower) was adopted as the official represen- 
tation, and has been reproduced, in colors, many hundreds of thousand 
times in the Legislative Manual and other publications. 

Nathaniel J. Pousette has the distinction of being a "French artist," 
born in Minnesota, who is painting ^Minnesota subjects with a skill 
and devotion which must necessarily command local enthusiasm. Of 
all the flags Minnesota has been under — .Spanish, French. English, 
American — it is under the banner of the lily of France that her true 
romantic past is found. And it requires the brush of the painter to 
fortify, to make "visible," the word of the historian, of the story-teller, 
which would persuade us of our French origin. The first men other 
than the native children of the forest and prairie, to look upon the face 
of Minnesota, its lovely meadows and majestic forests and rolling rivers, 
and call it good, were men who owed fealty to Louis the Fourteenth. 
Thev came, some of them to save souls, some of them to capture trade, 
if indeed it might be called "trade" when the magnificent furs of three 
centuries ago were bartered for a string of beads. But whether they 
came for the saving of souls, like Marquette, or for simple curiosity'.s 
sake, like Hennepin, for the glory of discovery, like La Salle, or for 
the prosaics of trade, like DuLhut, they came romantically, picturesquely 
They slip shadowily as yet through the forests, over the prairies. 


The fact that Nathaniel J. Pousette was born and brought up in 
Minnesota is not, in itself, significant. He might have been born in 
Timbuctoo. The significant fact is that he is producing Minnesota art. 
And since Minnesota is so ideally situated from an art standpoint, lying 
as it does midway between the art culture and academic tradition of 
the east and the splendid freedom of the west, it is no small compliment 
to Mr. Pousette to say that he is producing Minnesota art. And indeed 
it is just this nicely poised balance between the two extremes of thought 
and method that impresses one most in JNIr. Pousette's work. Wholly 
and progressively modern it is, and impressionistic to a degree, yet at 
bottom it is sane and conservative. Mr. Pousette paints with a direct- 
ness and sincerity, a genuineness and freedom from affectation which 
remind one of Alillet, although his color, which is unusually beautiful, 
shows the influence of Puvis de Chavannes. His composition is excel- 
lent — so uniformly excellent that one does not think of it at all. 

Of Pousette's snow pictures, St. Paul's luminous exponent writes, 
from the ever-observant Watch Tower in the Dispatch office: "They 
are of snow other than ours, and they are snowy, cold, with the curious 
quality of veiling so present in the summer pictures, shrouding these 
also, but with change. It is something other than atmosphere, some- 
thing other than that peculiar thing which Bosuki, the Japanese, invited 
to our attention a winter or two ago. That it is there and can be seen, 
one admits; it is also very individually Pousette. But the snows are 
quiet, while the Minnesota snows, until they fall and lie still, are most 
busy. Nowhere else in all the world does snow come with such joyance; 
the crisp air has given individuality to each flake. They do not fall 
dully; they are never mere flakes of snow falling from sky to earth. 
There is no hesitation about them, but they do have a lively time of it, 
whether blown about or dancing down. No poet, no painter, has as 
yet caught the drift of ^Minnesota snows, their beauty or their terror. 
There is still the possibility." 

The beautiful arts are vivid expressions of culture and refinement, 
which have their exalted place in our scheme of social progress. The 
practical arts, combining beauty with utility, have a place of equal im- 
portance, and of perhaps greater general interest. A due regard to the 
style and proportions of our utensils, furniture, vehicles, dwellings and 
business structures, is ever to be kept and cultivated. Some years ago 
this country began to attract attention by the artistic character of its 
manufactures. During the last twenty years it has made great strides 
in the fine arts. Our mural painters take rank with the most distin- 
guished artists of France; and in architecture also we are doing work 
which challenges the admiration of Europe. At a recent meeting of the 
Royal Society of Arts Club in London, after a paper which an Amer- 
ican, Frank M. Andrews, had been invited to present on architecture 
in America, the president of the club made some highly complimentary 
remarks on what America is doing in this line. He called attention 
especially to the fact that the American people are keenly interested in 
architectural matters, and by their interest and their comments on his 
work greatly encourage and stimulate the architect. He said our artists 
were boldly solving the new problems presented to them by original but 
thoroughly correct designs, and he expressed a deep interest in them 
and the works they were producing. 



No American city, small or great, has surpassed St. Paul in the 
development of architects of the highest type, capable of sustained 
flights into the loftiest spheres of this nol^le and expanding art. Not 
only have our own people reaped the Ijenefit of their splendid genius in 
the magnificence of our home structures, but we have loaned their serv- 
ices to other communities less richly endowed, to the nation and to 
the world. 

Charles A. Reed, who died in November. 191 1, left many imposing 
monuments to his professional skill. He was a native of New York 
state and received his education at the Boston Institute of Technology. 
He came to St. Paul shortly after graduation, thirty-one years ago. He 
formed his partnership with A. H. Stem in 1891. Ten years ago he was 
called to New York to take up the problem of constructing the $30,- 
000,000 terminal station of the New York Central Railroad, and estab- 
lished the New York office of the firm there. St. Paul's municipal 
Auditorium, admitted to be the best of its kind in the world, was 
planned under the supervision of his firm, and many of his ideas are 
worked out in it. The hotel St. Paul is another undertaking in which 
he was interested, and the Metropolitan Opera House was constructed 
under his personal supervision. The Goodkind twin residences on Oak- 
land Hill are the work of his firm, and many of the residences along 
Summit avenue owe their design to him. 

The architects of the new Lowry building are Kees & Colburn, with 
offices in both St. Paul and Minneapolis. Air. Kees was born in Balti- 
more, came to Minnesota in 1876, and has had charge of building many 
great structures in the Twin City. 

James Knox Taylor, born in St. Paul, son of the late PI. Knox Taylor 
for more than fifty years one of our prominent citizens, began his pro- 
fessional career in this city as a partner of Cass Gilbert. In 1898 Mr. 
Taylor was appointed supervising architect of the treasury at Wash- 
ington. In this position he has charge of and responsibilitv for the de- 
signs and construction of all the government buildings of the country. 
The great bureau over which he presides, controls the expenditure of 
many millions annually and is subject to most exacting criticism from 
many directions. The fact that Mr. Taylor has fully met the responsi- 
bilities for fourteen years, is a high tribute to his ability. 

Clarence H. Johnston was born in Waseca. Minnesota, and reared 
in St. Paul. He received his professional training in the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology and in the offices of St. Paul and New York 
architects, supplemented by extensive travel in Europe and .Asia Minor. 
In 1886 be returned to St. Paul, where he has since made his home and 
entered upon his career as architect upon his own account. In 1901 he 
received the appointment of architect for Minnesota State Institutions, 
conferred by the Board of Control, which office he still holds. One of 
his works, under that appointment, is the new Minnesota State Prison 
at Stillwater, a very striking type of penal institutional buildings. Mr. 
Johnston is also in his official capacity the architect of the new engineer- 
ing and medical buildings at the university ; of the main building at 
the Farm School, St. Anthony Park, and of buildings at all state insti- 
tutions. His productions may also be seen in St. John's Episcopal 
church ; Park Congregational church ; the chapel at St. Paul's Seminary ; 
the Young Men's and Young Women's Christian .Association buildings; 








the new Central High School, and the Wilder Charity buildings, all 
thoroughly characteristic of his best work. 

Emmanuel Louis Masqueray will always be associated in the minds 
of the people of St. Paul as the architect of the Cathedral, which will 
cost, complete, $2,000,000, have a seating capacity of 4,000, and be one 
of the notable architectural triumphs of the age. Born at Dieppe in 
France, in 1861, he studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, won 
the Deschaume prize when only eighteen, and four years later took the 
gold medal at the Paris salon. At the age of twenty-six he came to 
New York. When designs were asked for the Louisiana Purchase ex- 
position at St. Louis, Air. Masqueray succeeded in getting the commis- 
sion for nearly all the beautiful buildings on the grounds, among those 
erected under his instruction being the transportation, agricultural, 
fisheries and forestries buildings. Among other notable buildings which 
he has designed, the Pro-Cathedral at Minneapolis is next to the St. 
Paul Cathedral in importance. 

Thomas G. Holyoke designed the beautiful and original Unity church 
on Portland avenue, and many handsome private residences, among 
them those of the IMessrs. C. H. and F. R. Bigelow, also on Portland 
avenue; the colonial house belonging to ex-Lieutenant Governor Ives on 
Dale street and Marshall avenue, and the stately colonial home of George 
W. Gardner on Summit and Farrington avenues. 

Cass Gilbert is another of St. Paul's notable contributions to national 
activity and international fame. The son of a distinguished general 
officer of volunteers in the War for the Union, he was reared in this 
city, receiving a thorough professional education in the best schools of 
this country and Europe. He won, after severe competition, the privilege 
of designing and superintending the construction of the new Minnesota 
state capitol. He designed the magnificent United States Custom House 
on Bowling Green, New York City. And to him now belongs the honor 
of preparing plans for the tallest skyscraper in the world, a building 
that is exceeded in height by only one structure, the Eiffel tower. This 
skyscraper is now under construction in New York City. It is located 
on the west side of Broadway, between Park place and Barclay street, 
and when completed will be an artistic as well as an imposing structure. 
The designing of this mammoth building has brought up new structural 
problems, and in working out the plan so that every part of its enor- 
mous business machinery will be in perfect harmony. Architect Gilbert 
prepared hundreds of drawings, employed the best engineering skill and 
made detailed studies of other large structures. 

A faint idea of this mammoth undertaking may be gleaned bv a 
study of the size of the building. The plans provide that the structure 
shall rise 750 feet above the sidewalk. It is estimated to have cost 
$3,500,000. The site cost over $4,500,000.- Excavation alone cost 
$1,000,00. The building has a frontage on Broadway of 152 feet, on 
Park place of 197, and on Barclay street 192 feet. The characteristic 
feature is the great tower, 86 by 84 feet, rising to a height of 750 feet. 
The main building is twenty-nine stories high, with two stories in the 
gables on the north and south fronts, making thirty-one stories at the 
highest points of the main structure. 

The unique position held by Hermann Kretz in St. Paul is the com- 
bination role of architect, builder and owner of this city's latest word 
in office structures, the mammoth new Commerce building, at Wabasha 


and Fourth streets, completed and occupied in September, 19 12. Mr. 
Kretz represents that rare conjunction, in a single personality, of artistic 
skill and business ability, which must lead to marked success in any 
sphere. His biography, in another volume of this publication, gives 
details of his achievements 



Founder of First St. Paul's Christian Church — Father Lucien 
Galtier — First Native White Child. Bazille Gervais — Father 
Ravoux Succeeds Father Galtier — First Bishop of St. Paul — 
Death of Bishop Cretin — First Cathedral Opened — Bishop 
Thomas L. Grace — Bishop Ireland Created Archbishop — St. 
Louis Church — St. Mary's and Other Catholic Churches — Edu- 
cational Institutions — Charitap.le Institutions — Diocese of 
St. Paul — Latest Cathedral of St. Paul. 

From its historic relations to the very Ijeginning of the village of 
St. Paul ; from its intimate, influential part in all stages of our progress, 
and from its present as well as its prospective importance as a compact, 
efficient organization for the public weal, the Catholic church, with its 
varied religious, educational, benevolent and reformatory enterprises, is 
abundantly entitled to consideration in any attempted portrayal of the 
past achievements or present consequence of the city. The Catholic 
church, indeed, was active in all the earliest explorations and settle 
ments of this region. Father Hennepin visited the "Falls of St. Anthony 
of Padua," in 1680; two missionary priests accompanied the French 
soldiers, who built a fort and chapel in 1727, at Frontenac, on Lake 
Pepin. Moreover, if we accept the testimony of the runestone. Catholic 
Norsemen, undoubtedly accompanied by a priest who made the record, 
visited Douglas county, Minnesota, in 1362. 

Founder of First St. P.m'i.'s Christi.\n Church 

The founder of religion in St. Paul was practically the founder of 
the city itself. By erecting the first house of worship he gave to the 
"little scattering French settlement below Fort Snelling" a local habita- 
tion and a name, and created the nucleus around which eventually grew 
the metrojiolis. Fie seems from the first to have hoped good results 
from his undertakings, and it is jileasant to know that he lived until he 
had seen at least the dawniiigs of the glory. He saw the humble settle- 
ment rise to a city; he witnessed his modest little cabin church give 
l^lace to magnificent temples devoted to divine worship, and his little 
flock increased to multitudes. Finis coronat opus. All honor to Father 
Lucien Galtier, the founder of the first Christian church in St. Paul. 

The preliminary events arc of enduring interest. In the summer of 
1839 Bishop Loras, of Dubuque, visited Fort Snelling and Mendota, with 
a view to the establishment of mission churches in that region, which 
was practically destitute of religious advantages, but was imperatively 



in need of them. In a letter he gives an account of this visit: "I left 
Dubuque on the 23d of June, on board a large and magnificent steam 
vessel. After a voyage of some days along the superb Mississippi, we 
reached St. Peter's. Our arrival was a cause of great joy to the 
Catholics, who had never before seen a priest or bishop in those remote 
regions. The wife of our host was baptized and confirmed; she subse- 
quently received the sacrament of matrimony. The Catholics of St. 
Peter's amount to 183; of whom we baptized 56; administered confirma- 
tion to 8 ; the communion to 33 adults, and gave the nuptial benediction 
to four couples. Arrangements have been made for the construction of 
a church next summer, and a clergyman is to be sent when he is able 
to speak French, English and the Sioux." 

The religious services held by Bishop Loras, the first Catholic bap- 
tism, etc., in the "St. Peter's" region, were at the house of Scott Camp- 
bell, outside the walls of Fort Snelling. 

Father Lucien Galtier 

In April, 1840, Father Lucien Galtier, having studied the Sioux 
language during the winter, was sent by Bishop Loras from Dubuque 
to Fort Snelling, charged with the duties of his sacred office. The fort 
"surrounded by a complete wilderness, and without any signs of fields 
under the tillage," gave him to understand that his mission and life 
must henceforth be a career of privations, and required patience and 
resignation. He had a large territory under his charge. There was no 
St. Paul at that time ; there was on the site of the present city but a 
single house, occupied by a man named Phalen. and steamboats never 
stopped there. Subsequently a few families of French extraction, quaint 
in idiom and idiosyncrasy, settled along the left bank of the river, below 
Fountain cave^ and Father Galtier felt it his duty to occasionally visit 
those families and set to work to choose a suitable place for a church. 

Benjamin Gervais and Vital Guerin, two good quiet farmers, con- 
sented to give sufficient land for a church, a garden and a small grave- 
yard. The extreme eastern part of Air. Guerin's claim, and the western 
part of Mr. Gervais' were accepted. In the month of October, 1840, 
Father Galtier caused a rude structure to be erected, about twenty-five 
feet long by eighteen wide. The builders were eight of the farmer- 
parishioners ; the walls were of rough oak logs ; the rafters were tamarack 
poles cut from a swamp at St. Peter and Sixth streets ; the roof was of 
pine slabs from a sawmill at Stillwater. The graveyard was near the 
present corner of Third and Minnesota streets. 

Father Galtier was not at any time a resident of St. Paul, but only 
came here at intervals from St. Peter's (Mendota) in tlie discharge of 
his pastoral duties. He continued to reside at St. Peter's until Alay 25, 
1844, when he removed to Keokuk, Iowa. In 1848 he visited his native 
France, but was soon back at work in his mission field. He was then 
stationed at Prairie du Chien. In 1853, and again in 1865, he visited 
St. Paul, and manifested a warm pride in the growth of the city, and 
its prospects of future greatness. Less than a year after his last visit, 
or Februarv 21, 1866, he entered into his reward. During his connec- 
tion with tile churches here. Father Galtier made several excursions to 
the isolated Catliolic settlements in various portions of this territory, 
sometimes bv Mackinaw boats, sometimes on foot, always undergoing 
hardships and difficulties. 


First Xati\'e White Child, Bazille Gervais 

In the fall of 1841. Rev. Augustin Ravoux arrived from Prairie du 
Chien where, May 10, 1840, he had baptized Bazille Gervais, who was 
the first white child born here, September 4, 1839, and who still lives 
here, his parents making a canoe trip of fifteen days to have the sacra- 
ment of baptism administered. 

Father R.woux Succeeds Father Galtier 

In 1844 Father Ravoux succeeded Father Galtier, and during the 
remainder of his long and honored life, which terminated in 1904, he 
ministered in St. Paul and its immediate vicinity. In 1847, ^^ addition 
was made to the chapel of St. Paul as stated, but in 1849 the chapel was 
again too small, the Sunday services being attended not only by 
parishioners living in St. Paul, but by many from Little Canada, St. 
Anthony and Alendota. In 1847, t'^c Catholics became more populous 
in St. Paul than in Mendota, and in 1849, their numbers still continuing 
to increase. Father Ravoux decided to spend two Sundays in St. Paul 
and one in Mendota. For seven years this worthy missionary continued 
to labor in this field without the aid or companionship of a brother 

First Bishop of St. Paul 

On lanuarv 26, 1851, Rev. Joseph Cretin was consecrated in France, 
the first bishop of St. Paul. He arrived here July 2, 1851, and was joy- 
fully welcomed by Father Ravoux. The new bishop brought with him 
two priests and four seminarians. Thus had the little parish, with its 
chapel of tamarack logs, grown into a diocese, now an arch-diocese and 
province, but the chapel of logs was the only "cathedral" as yet, and the 
episcopal palace to which the bishop was conducted, was a building one 
story and a half high and eighteen feet square. 

Before Bishop Cretin came. Father Ravoux, aware of the necessity of 
securing lots on which to erect the cathedral and for other church pur- 
poses, jjurchased of Mr. \ha\ Guerin twenty-one lots for $800, and for 
$100 the lot on which the old cathedral now stands. The twenty-two lots 
embraced almost the entire block bounded by Wabasha and St. Peter, Sixth 
and Seventh streets. Father Ravoux was unable to pay the purchase price, 
and had only a bond for a deed ; but Bishop Cretin paid the money for 
the twentv-two lots and received the deed. In less than five months after 
his arrival the l)ishop had erected, on the Guerin lots, a brick building 
84 by 44 feet in area and three stories, including the basement, in height, 
which immediately upon its completion became the second cathedral of 
St. Paul and the second residence of the bishop and his assistants. In 
a few months some apartments in the basement were used as a school- 
room for boys, and the entire building in later years became the Cretin 
high school. The young girls of the parhh were also to be provided for, 
and in 1852 the Sisters of St. Joseph ojiened their schools in the church 
property on the Catholic block, on Third street. In 1853, the bishop 
built the hospital, contrilniting thereto from his own funds. The same 
year he bouglit the property on Western avenue where St. Joseph's Aca- 
demy now stands, for a Catholic cemetery ; but it was only used two or 
three years for that purpose. In 1856 he purchased forty acres for 
Calvary cemetery, which was blessed the second of November, the same 


year. Excavation for the cathedral at St. Peter and Sixth streets, was 
commenced in July 1854, and in 1856 the corner stone was blessed by the 
Bishop of BulYalo, Mgr. Timon, and on the last day of October the walls 
were up to the water table. Bishop Cretin feared to incur debt, and the 
work proceeded slowly. Though the Catholic population was large, with 
few exceptions the people were poor, and could help but little. The 
amount of money collected from July, 1854, to February, 1857, did not 
exceed four thousand dollars, though in that time seven thousand dol- 
lars was expended on the cathedral. Then the work was interrupted 
by the death of the Bishop, and was still further delayed by the financial 
panic of 1857. 

Death of Bishop Cretin 

Bishop Cretin died February 22, 1857, after a long and painful ill- 
ness. He was born in France in 1799; came to America in 1838, by in- 
vitation of Bishop Loras of Dubuque; spent some twelve years as a mis- 
sionary in Iowa and western Wisconsin, and in 1850 was appointed to 
the newly created see of St. Paul, where he arrived July 2, 1851. Though 
his time in St. Paul was short, Bishop Cretin left among his people an 
ineffaceable memory. It was he who selected Rev. John Ireland for the 
Christian ministry, and sent him abroad to prosecute his studies. It was 
he who organized the first Catholic total abstinence societies in St. Paul 
or Minnesota — a temperance movement which, in later years, under the 
inspiration of the tireless Archbishop was to do so much for the moral 
and material advancement of the faithful. Bishop Cretin was remark- 
able for genuine piety and unbounded zeal. His early demise was no 
doubt hastened by ceaseless labors in his sacred calling. 

Thus we have in the beginnings of the Catholic church here, as in 
the beginnings of the town, the dominant French element — Loras, Gal- 
tier, Ravoux, Cretin; all Frenchmen. The story of the rise and fall of 
the French power in America is one of the greatest epics in the records 
of mankind, filled with romance and dramatic adventure. Their explorers, 
traders, soldiers and missionaries penetrated the Northwest from the St! 
Lawrence to the Columbia and the Saskatchewan, ahead of all others, 
and left their indelible impress on the geography, the history and the 
customs of the entire region. 

First C.'\thedr.\l Opened 

By the death of Bishop Cretin the administration of church affairs 
again devolved on Father Ravoux. Work was resumed on the cathe- 
dral and did not cease until it was under roof. On the 13th of June, 
1858, though unfinished and not plastered, it was opened for divine serv- 
ice. The collections on that day amounted to $428. In the summer of 
1858 the basement was plastered and used for worship the following 
winter, and was often filled with worshipers. On Christmas night, 1858, 
there were not fewer than 2,000 persons at mass, and about" soo pre- 
sented themselves at the holy table for communion. The building was 
constructed of blue limestone and is still, in 1912, in constant use, pend- 
ing the completion of the magnificent new granite cathedral at Summit 
and Dayton avenues. Its congregation now numbers 5,500 members, 
under the pastorship of Bishop Lawler. The cathedral school -for girls 
has 205 pupils taught by six Sisters of St. Joseph. 


Bishop Thij.mas L. Gkace 

The successor of Bishop Cretin was the Right Rev. Thomas L. Grace 
who was consecrated Bishop of St. Paul, July 24, 1859. Bishop (irace 
was born in Charleston, South Carolina, November 16, 1814, and died 
in St. Paul, I'ebruary 22, 1897. After studying in Charleston, and at 
St. Rose's Convent, Kentucky, he spent seven years in Rome studying 
theology. He was ordained priest at Rome in 1839, and five years later 
returned to the United States. He was engaged in missionary work in 
Kentucky and Tennessee for some years, and was in charge of a parish 
in ^lemphis when appointed bishop. He then came to St. Paul. The 
work of the large diocese taxed his energies to the utmost for sixteen 
years until in 1875, he had northern Minnesota set off as a vicarate and 
Rev. John Ireland appointed coadjutor bishop. In 1884, after his silver 
jubilee. Bishop Grace resigned his see to Bishop Ireland, became titular 
Bishop of Menith and, later, titular Archbishop of Siunia, but remained 
in this city, honored and beloved during the remainder of his life. 

Bishop Ireland Cre.\ted Archbishop 

Bishop Ireland assumed the full duties of the diocese in 1884. In 
1888 the province of St. Paul was created and Bishop Ireland was made 
Archbishop. His jurisdiction covers the sees of St. Paul, Duluth, St. 
Cloud, Winona. Fargo, Sioux Falls, Lead, Crookston and Bismark. each 
in charge of a bishop. The distinguished career of Archbishop Ireland 
is fully set forth in his biography, to be found in another part of this 

Returning to the local development of the Catholic church in this 
citv, we find that in 1854 the original stem began to throw out vigorous 
Ijranches. The operation of dividing into congregations by parishes and 
nationalities was inaugurated. During that year. Rev. \\'uerzfeld or- 
ganized the German Catholics of St. Paul. The congregation at^ that 
time attended service at the cathedral. In the year 1855, Rev. G. Keller, 
perfected arrangements for the erection of Assumption Church. The 
ceremony of laying the corner stone took place August 15, 1855, 
and in Tune of the following year, the church was ready for occupancy. 
The saiiie year a jiarochial school was opened. The Fathers of the Order 
of St. Benedict took charge of the congregation January i, 1858. Rev. 
Demetrias de :\Iarogana, O. S. B., was duly installed as pastor, on the 
same dav, and labored zealously until failing health compelled him to 
resign his charge into the hands of Rev. Clement Staub, O. S. B., in 
1863. A few years later, steps were taken for the erection of the pres- 
ent imposing structure. Ground was broken and the foundation walls 
built in the summer of 1870. On June 4, 1871, the corner stone was laid, 
and the work was vigorously iirosecuted until its completion in 1874. On 
the 18th of October" 1874, the church was solemnly consecrated by the 
Rt. Rev Bishop Thos. L. Grace, assisted by a large number of the clergy. 
It is still one of the great edifices of the city, its twin towers testifying 
the zeal and pietv of "its builders. In 1873 Father Staub was succeeded 
bv Rev. Valentine Stimmler. O. S. P.. The pastor now is Rev. Paulin 
Wiesner, O. S. B: membership 1.800. The parish has parochial schools 
with .JQO pupils, there are many church societies connected with the 
l)arish. The growth and progress of the conjjrewation has been wonder- 
ful : this wa< due in great measure to the thrift, energy and jierseverancc 


of the people, and in a still greater measure to the able and energetic 
management of the Benedictine Fathers. 

St. Louis Church 

French-speaking Catholics were the nucleus of the original church of 
St. Paul, and for many years they worshiped in the cathedral. In 1868 
a French parish was organized and the congregation erected a frame 
church 70 by 33 feet, on the corner of Tenth and Cedar streets. The 
priest's residence adjoining the church was built in 1870. The St. Louis' 
school, on the lot opposite, was opened in the fall of 1873. In ^larch, 
1 88 1, the stone church built by the Universalist society, corner of Ex- 
change and Wabasha streets, opposite the capitol was purchased. It was 
partly refitted in the interior to adapt it to the forms of Catholic wor- 
ship, and on April 24, 1881, was dedicated with the prescribed ceremonies 
of the church bv Bishop Ireland in the presence of the congregation, the 
French national societies, and a large number of visitors. Rev. G. A. 
Schmirer was the first pastor of St. Louis' Church, and continued in 
service until his death in 1873. The Oblate Fathers, Revs, ^'anden- 
bergh, Lauzon, Cauvin, Lebret and Therien. had charge of the parish 
from 1873 to 1877, and were succeeded by Rev. G. Hubert. He was in 
turn succeeded by Rev. A. Payette, under whose administration the 
stone church was purchased. The present pastor is Rev. Paul Rulquin, 
S. M. The membership of the church is about 4,000. Meantime traffic 
and business so encroached on the Wabasha street site that in igo6 it 
was sold, and a fine new church was built near the location of the original 
structure at Tenth and Cedar streets. The parochial school building on 
Tenth street, near by, has two hundred and fifty pupils and five Sisters 
of St. Joseph. 

St. ]M.\Rr's .\nd Othkr Catholic Churches 

St. Marv's church is located on Xinth street, corner of Locust; or- 
ganized in 1867; membership about two thousand. Rev. L. Caillet was 
the first pastor. -The corner stone was laid in 1866 and in 1867 the church 
was dedicated. In 1879 a parochial school, attached to the church, was 
opened with one hundred and twenty scholars and three teachers, and 
has now ten teachers and four hundred and sixty pupils. In September, 
1873, occurred the opening of the .Academy of the Sisters of the A'isita- 
tion, for the education of young ladies, with about forty-five pupils 
and seven teachers. The following were the charitable societies con- 
nected in its early days, with St. Mary's church: Conference of St. A'in- 
cent de Paul, organized July 1867, for the relief of the poor; member- 
ship about fifty. Ladies' Society of the Rosary, for the relief of the 
l)oor, was instituted in 18^7, with a membership of about one hundred 
and fiftv. The Catholic orphan asylum was located corner Olive and 
Grove streets. Rev. J. C. Byrne is now the pastor. 

St. Michael's church was established in 1868. For many years the 
church was served by priests from the cathedral. At the time of its 
establishment there were about fifty families. The church is located 
in the Sixth ward. West St. Paul. The location is one of the finest in 
the citv, being on a rise of ground with a splendid view. There is a com- 
fortable brick parsonage adjoining the church. In February, 1879, Rev. 
P. L Gallagher was appointed permanent pastor. He was succeeded by 


Rev. Patrick O'Neill, who is still in charge. The school is in charge ot 
eight Sisters of St. Joseph. 

St. Joseph's parish was cut off from the cathedral and organized m 
1875. Rev. L. Lebret was the first pastor. In the fall of the same year 
the erection of a church was begun, and so energetically was the work 
pushed forward that mass was said in it on Christmas day following. 
The cost of the building was about $10,000. Two schools, for boys and 
girls, were organized soon after and placed under the charge of the 
Sisters of St. Joseph. Father Lebret continued in the pastoral charge 
of the church until in June, 1877. In March, 1878, Rev. Josej^h O'Keefe 
became pastor and was succeeded in August, 1880, l)y Rev J. W. Nealis. 
The parish is now a part of the cathedral with Right Rev. John J. I^aw- 
ler, D. D., V. G., pastor in charge. The membership is about 4,500. 

Its parochial school now has 365 children in charge of seven Sisters 
of St. Joseph. There are connected with St. Joseph's Church a temper- 
ance society; a St. \'incent de Paul conference; a Holy Name Society; 
confraternities, sodalities, etc. The church building stands on Carroll 
street, at the .southwest corner of X'irginia avenue. 

St. Stanislaus Church was organized in 1870 by the Catholic Poles 
and Bohemians of the city. It served the two nationalities until in 1881, 
when they separated. The Bohemians, with a membership of 175 fami- 
lies, retained St. Stanislaus, while the Poles, with 100 families, organized 
St. Adelbert's Church. The church building was erected in 1870, and 
stands on the corner of Western avenue and Superior street. Seven 
Sisters of Notre Dame teach the parochial school. Pupils 230. The 
present membership of St. Stanislaus is about 1,900 and the pastor is 
Rev. John Rynda, who has served the i^arish more than twenty years. 

Church of St. James, located on \'iew street, corner of Juneau street, 
organized in 1887; membership 1,500; pastor Rev. Jeremiah O'Connor. 

Church of the Sacred Heart (German), located on East Sixth street, 
at the corner of Arcade street; organized December 14, 1881 ; member- 
ship 1.600; pastor A'alerius Nelles, O. F. M. lught school Sisters of 
Notre Dame have charge of the school. Pupils 405. 

Church of St. John, located on Forest and East Fifth streets; mem- 
bership T.700; pastor Rev. Thomas F. Glea.son. Six Sisters of St. Joseph's 
teach the school. Pupils 305. 

St. Adelbert's church" (Polish), located on Gaultier street, at the 
corner of Charles street: organized in 1881 ; membership 2,900; pastor 
Rev. Peter Rov. Eight Felician Sisters teach in the school. Enrollment 

St. Francis de Sales Church, located on James street, at the corner of 
Dalv; organized in 1884; membership 3.500; pastor Rev Francis N. 
Bajec Sixteen Sisters of Notre Dame teach in the school with an en- 
I'olinu-nt of 650 ])upils. 

St. Matthew's church (German), located on Hall avenue, at the cor- 
ner of Robie street: organized in I'"ebruary. i88(); membershin 2.500; 
pastor Rev. P. M. lung. The school is taught by eleven school Sisters 
of .\'otre Dame. Enrollment 560. 

St. Patrick's church, located on Mississijjpi street, at the corner of 
Case street; orsjanized December 21, 1884: membership 2,000; pastor. 
Rev, Michael (")uinn. The school is in cliarge of four Sisters of Si. 
Joseph, I'.nrollment 238. 

Holv Redeemer (for use of the It.ihan population) — West wing of 
the cathedral basement. St. Peter street. Membership 5ax Rev. R. 


Balducci, pastor. St. Ambrose church ( Itahan ) located on Uradley street 
near 7th. Rev. R. Balducci, pastor. 400 members. 

St. Agnes church — Thomas street corner Kent. Organized 1888. 
^Membership 5,800. Rev. J. M. Solnce, pastor. School in charge of 
nineteen Sisters of Notre Dame, 980 children. 

St. Andrew's — Oxford and Hatch streets. Organized 1895. Member- 
ship 1,200. Rev. Thomas A. Printon. pastor. 

St. Augustine's — Madison avenue and Third street, South St. Paul. 
Membership 950. Rev. Henry G. McCall, pastor. 

St. Bernard's (German) — Albemarle and Geranium streets. Organ- 
ized 1890. Membership 3,500. Rev. Anthony Ogulin, pastor. School 
taught by fourteen Sisters of St. Benedict ; pupils 700. 

St. Casimir's (Polish) — Jessamine and Forest streets. Organized 
December 28, 1888. Membership 2,500. Rev Paul Kuperschmidt, pastor. 
The school is in charge of five Felician Sisters. School children 248. 

St. Luke's — Victoria street and Summit avenue. Organized 1888. 
Membership 4,500. Rev. Thomas J. Gibbons, pastor. The school is in 
charge of eight Sisters of St. Joseph and has 438 pupils. 

St. Mark's — Dayton avenue and Moore street. Organized 1891. Rev. 
Joseph Corrigan, pastor. Membership 3,280. 

St. Peter Claver's — Aurora and Farrington avenues. Membership 
370. Afro-American. Rev. S. Theobald, pastor, residence 319 Fuller 

St. Vincent's — Virginia avenue and Blair street. Organized 1889. 
Membership 2,500. Rev. William Walsh, pastor. The school is taught 
by six Sisters of St. Joseph. Enrollment 340. 

In addition to the regular established churches, religious services are 
conducted in twelve chapels, connected with the various Catholic educa- 
tional and charitable institutions of the city, also at Fort Snelling, the Sol- 
diers' Home, the poor house, the work house etc. These chapels are at- 
tended from the Cathedral or from neighboring churches, thus supplying 
the privileges and consolations of religion to the entire Catholic popula- 
tion of St. Paul and vicinity. 

Educational Institutions 

A noteworthv feature in connection with the operations of the Cath- 
olic church in St. Paul is the extraordinary number and excellence of 
schools and colleges maintained here. Many of them have extensive 
grounds and very beautiful buildings. St. Paul Theological Seminary, 
the provincial seminary of the ecclesiastical province of St. Paul, com- 
prising the dioceses of St. Paul. Duluth, St. Cloud, Winona, Fargo, Sioux 
Falls, Lead, Crookston and Bismarck, has forty acres of land fronting 
on the river boulevard at the western extremity of Summit avenue, and 
buildings which cost $310,000, including St. Mary's Chapel, which alone 
cost $70,000. This seminary was founded by J. J. Hill, in 1892. Very 
Rev. Francis J. Schaefer, D. D., is rector and professor of church his- 
tory. There are twelve professors of different branches, and over 170 
students. Graduates of this seminary are filling with marked efficiency 
the pulpits of churches in many lands. 

One of the most useful and important of the Catholic institutions of 
the city, of interest to clergy and laity and to intelligent citizens of all 
creeds, is the St. Paul Catholic Historical Society, which has its head- 
quarters at St. Paul Seminary. This society was organized April, 1905. 


Its first officers were: ^lost Rev. John Ireland. D. D.. lionorar\- jjresi- 
dent; Rev. Francis J. Schaefer. president; Rev. Jas. ^I. Reardon, sec- 
retary and librarian. Its primary object is to collect and preserve materials 
of all kinds relating to the Catholic history of the Ecclesiastical Province 
of St. Paul; its secondary object to gather and correlate all available in- 
formation concerning the history of the Catholic church in the northwest. 
Jts cliarter members included the archbishop and bishops of the ]H-ov- 
ince : the Abbots Engel and W'ehrle, and a large number of the clergy. 
The society holds meetings for reading and discussing papers ; has estab- 
lished a library aud museum for the preservation of historic materials, 
and publishes a semi-annual periodical containing selected documents 
from the archives of the society. This periodical is entitled "Acta et 
Dicta;" each issue contains 150 to 200 pages, magazine form, presenting 
a number of exceedingly valuable historical papers, besides a review of 
notable current events in the Province and a current necrology. Its 
pages are of vivid interest in that they give many heretofore unpublished 
records and letters relating to the beginnings and progress of civilization 
in this region. The officers of the Historical Society for 191 1 are: Most 
Rev. John Ireland, D. D., honorary president; Very Rev. Francis J. 
Schaefer, D. D., president ; Right Rev. John J. Lawler, D. D., vice presi- 
dent ; Rev. Patrick A. Sullivan, secretary, librarian and editor of Acta ct 
Dicta; Rev. John Seleskar, Ph. D., treasurer. 

The College of St. Thomas, situated near the l)anks of the Mississippi, 
north of Summit avenue, is a very large ])reparatory and military school 
for boys, in successful operation since 1885, and has two or three times 
been selected as "honor school" which is the highest distinction the war 
department can bestow. It is a diocesan institution, and among its stu- 
dents are to be fotmd boys from many states besides Minnesota, rang- 
ing from New York to California. The students number 697. Aery 
Rev. Humphrey Aloynihan, D. D., is rector, assisted by twenty-four |iro- 
fessors and college officers. The students are organized into a battalion 
of cadets, tinder discipline prescribed by a resident officer of the United 
States army, and are very proficient in maneuvers and drills. 

\'isitation Convent is one of the oldest, best and most exclusive of the 
Catholic schools of St. Paul. It was organized in 1873, and belongs to 
the order of the Religious of the Visitation of Our Lady, founded in 
Savoy in 1610. The grounds at the head of Robert street, are beautifully 
located and spacious : the course of study is comprehensive, and the most 
careful individual attention is given each pupil. P)0th day and boarding 
pupils are admitted. Sister ]\I. Clementine is directress, with twenty- 
one teachers. There are 105 pupils. 

The Academy of St. Josejjh is a large and important day school with 
a handsome modern building, at the corner of Western and Xelson ave- 
nues, in the heart of the residential district. It is managed by the .Sis- 
ters of St. Joseph, and is under the immediate direction of .\rchbishop 
Ireland. The school is for young ladies, is admirably conducted, and 
has a particularly fine musical dejiartmcnt. The registration last year 
reached over four hundred. It is expected that the novitiate and train- 
ing school now under construction will j^rovide the additional space already 
much needed. Sister M. Eugenia is directress, and has twentv-six teach- 
ers. This academy was among the first educational institutions for girls 
established in the city, and was long since recognized as a standard in its 

The College of St. Catherine is a boarding school for girls, foimdcd 


in 1905, by the Sisters of St. Joseph. It is beautifully located on the 
Mississippi river at Cleveland avenue and Randolph street and its stu- 
dents number from 125 to 150. Its standard of scholarship is very high, 
and its graduates are accredited to the University of JNiinnesota. It pre- 
scribes the utmost simplicity of dress, and is rigidly opposed to all dis- 
play and e.xtravagance. Sister Frances Claire is directress. 

St. Agatha's Conservatory of Music and Art, on East Exchange 
street, opposite the old capitol, makes a specialty of studio work and in- 
dividual instruction in those subjects and in the modern languages. This 
is also conducted by the Sisters of St. Joseph, and the instruction is of 
the best. One of the features of the school is the unusually fine collec- 
tion of pictures. Sister Celestine is directress, and there are twenty 

The Cathedral school for boys, or Cretin high school, located for 
many years at Wabasha and Sixth streets, now at Sixth street and Maine 
avenue, in a fine building dedicated March 4, 1889, is a high grade insti- 
tution, under charge of the Christian Brothers. It has an enrollment of 
over 500 pupils, and numbers among its graduates some of the leading 
professional and business men of the city. Brother E. Lewis is director 
and there are nine professors. 

Brief mention of the parochial schools has been made in connection 
with the various churches to which they are attached. One of the largest 
of the day schools is St. Agnes with an enrollment of 700 to 800, and St. 
Michael's follows closely with 600. These correspond to the grade 
schools and their pupils pass directly into the city high schools. St. 
Michael's is said to have the highest standard of all the schools whose 
pupils enter the high schools — there has never been a failure on the part 
of her pupils to pass the requisite examinations. Of the many Catholic 
schools it is impossible to speak more in detail. They are scattered all 
over the city, and meet the needs of all classes. Several are German 
schools, notable among these being St. Matthews ; St. Alary's is a high 
school. Of these Catholic educational institutions there are at least 
twenty-five in St. Paul. 

CH.\RiT.\nLE Institutions 

The charitable institutions of the Catholic church in St. Paul are 
numerous and Ijeneficent. Of these perhaps the most extensive is St. 
Joseph's Hosi^ital, located at Exchange and Ninth streets. It was es- 
tablished in 1853 by Bishop Cretin, on ground donated by Henry il. Rice. 
It now has many buildings and a full equipment. It is in charge of the 
Sisters of St. Joseph, with Mother Bernardine as superintendent. There 
are thirty-five sisters and si.xty lay nurses. The patients during the year 
number 2,675. 

The House of the Good Shepherd, in charge of the Sisters of the 
Good Shepherd, is a correctional institution for wayward girls regard- 
less of creed, and is doing a work of the utmost difficulty and importance. 
It is located on a large tract in the outskirts of the city, at Milton and 
La Fond streets. Mother Mary of the Holy Cross McCabe is jjrovincial. 
There are fifty sisters and novices; forty-two Magdalenes and 175 in- 
mates in charge of sisters. 

The St. Paul Catholic Orphan Asylum is a large establishment which 
admits only girls. It is located at 933 Carroll street. Mother Josephine 
is at the head of the institution, assisted by eleven Sisters of St. Joseph. 



There are seventy orphans and t\venty-t\\ o inmates of the Infant 1 lome 

St. Joseph's Orphan Asylmn (German), at Randolph street and Ham- 
line avenue, sustains 170 orphans, boys and girls. Fourteen Sisters of 
St. Benedict manage its affairs, under the supervision of Sister Juliana. 

St. Paul's Home for the Aged Poor is at No. 90 Wilkin street, and 
has for many years done a work that is appreciatecl and assisted by citi- 
zens of all classes and creeds. There are fifteen Little Sisters of the 
Poor connected with the Home, and Sister Mary is superintendent. The 
number of inmates averages 120. 

There are in St. Paul Catholic communities of men representing the 
Benedictine, Franciscan and Marist orders, and the Brothers of the 
Christian schools. 

The religious communities of women in the city include. Sisters of 
St. Joseph; Sisters of St. Benedict; School Sisters of Notre Dame; 


Felician Sisters; Sisters of the Good Shepherd; Little Sisters of tlie 
Poor, and the \'isitation Nuns. 

The city missionary is Rev. James Donahue. 

The editor of the Catholic Bulletin is Rev. James Reardon. The 
North Western Chronicle and Der Wanderer, both weekl\-, are officially 
recognized as Catholic newspapers. 

Calvary cemetery is at Como avenue and Front street. 

-Among the more conspicuous of the many organizations conducted 
and supported by the Catholic laymen of St. Paul, under direction of the 
clergy, is the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, subdivided into nine con- 
ferences, each having in charge a certain district of the city, and visiting 
and relieving its i)\vn poor in tliat locality. The Guild of Catholic Women, 
now consisting of over five hundred members, and systematically or- 
ganized, has also subdivided the city for purposes of effective visiting, 
outdoor relief, and the general uplift of the life of the city. 

L'Union Francaise. of St. Paul, was founded July 22. 1867, by L. 
Demeules, Alfred Dufresne, L. .\. ATichaud, |. IT. Lcsage. Pierre [erome. 


Isaie St. Pierre, F. Robert, P. Vitu, and David Guerin. This is a French 
mutual benefit association for the relief of the widows and orphans of 
deceased members ; they also render assistance to their members in sick- 

Other Catholic societies are: Bohemian Workmen Society of St. 
Joseph; German Gessellen Verein ; Irish Benevolent Society, and St. 
Peter's Benevolent and Aid Society. The last named society, in 1875, 
founded the German Catholic Aid Society of Minnesota, which now has 
8,500 members in 145 branches and a reserve fund of $415,000. At a 
recent session of the German Roman Catholic Aid Association the dele- 
gates appropriated $25,000 for the erection of a general office building 
in St. Paul. A site costing $10,000 was purchased a few months ago, 
and the executive committee was vested with power to enter into con- 
tract for the erection of the building. There is also the German Catho- 
lic State Federation (Staatsverband), organized in 1887 and embracing 
175 societies with a membership of approximately 13,000; and the Ger- 
man Catholic Federation of St. Paul comprising nineteen fraternal and 
other organizations in the six German Catholic congregations of this 
city. Both the State Federation and the G. C. Federation of St. Paul, 
are branch organizations of the German Roman Catholic Central Society 
of North America, founded in 1855. The object of the societies is, be- 
sides giving their members the benefit of life insurance and aid in need 
and sickness, preservation of the German language and betterment of 
social and religious conditions. Of the branches of the Federation in this 
city we may mention : St. Clement's Society ; St. Anthony Society ; St. 
Leo Society; St. Bernard's Society; St. Matthew's Society; St. Francis 
de Sales Society ; the different branches of the Faithftil Shepherds ; the 
German branches of the C. O. Foresters, and the St. Joseph Society, 
which has been instrumental in erecting the St. Joseph's German Catho- 
lic Orphan Asylum on Randolph street. 

The Knights of Columbus, the Catholic Order of Foresters, and the 
Ancient Order of Hibernians, which recognize intimate relations with 
the Catholic church, are referred to in another chapter. They are active 
and flourishing as militant adjuncts to the expanding episcopacy. 

Diocese of St. Paul 

The Catholic diocese of St. Paul covers the counties of Ramsey, 
Hennepin, Washington and twenty-four other counties of .Minnesota — 
an area of 15,233 square miles. The cathedral at St. Paul and the pro- 
cathedral at Minneapolis are the episcopal headquarters. Most Rev. 
John Ireland, D. D., is archbishop and the Right Rev. John J. Lawler, 
D. D., V. G., is auxiliary bishop of St. Paul, consecrated May 19, 1910. 
The following table gives the latest published statistics of the diocese: 

Archbishop i Students i6s 

Bishop I Colleges i 

Diocesan Priests 262 Students 675 

Priests of Religious Orders 40 Commercial Schools. (Christian 

Total 302 Brothers) 2 

Churches with resident priests. . . . 1S8 Pupils 812 

Missions with Churches 62 Total number of pupils in Paro- 

Total Churches 250 chial Schools 21,492 

Missions without Churches 8 Boarding Schools and Academies 

Chapels I7 for Girls • 7 

Theological Seminary 1 Pupils 1.337 


Total number of pupils in Cath- Hospitals 3 

olic Institutions of Learning Patients, during year 1908... 4,154 

(Schools in Orphan Asylums Homes for the Aged Poor 2 

included) 25.140 Inmates 331 

Orphan Asylums .^ I louse of Good Shepherd. I 

Orphans 347 Inmates 229 

Catholic Population, about 260,000 

The province of St. Paul, presided o\er by the great archbishop who 
has done so much to build it up. is the niagniticent outgrowth of the lit- 
tle parish, planted with tears and toil seventy-one years ago by Father 
Galtier, in the cabin-chapel, built of logs, which gave a name to the city, 
the diocese and the province. This province now includes the great 
states of Minnesota, South Dakota and North Dakota, with the follow- 
ing organizations: 

Archdiocese of St. Paul, Minnesota — Mt. Rev. John Ireland. D. D., 
consecrated December 21, 1875; aj)]5ointed archbishop May 15. 1888. 
Rt. Rev. John J. Lawler. D. D.. auxiliary bisho]). consecrated May ig. 

Diocese of Bismarck. Xorth Dakota — Rt. Rev. X'iiicent \\ ehrle, O. 
S. B., D. D., consecrated May 19, igio. 

Diocese of Crookston. [Minnesota — Rt. Rev. Timothy Corbett. D. D., 
consecrated May 19. 1910. 

Diocese of Duluth, Minnesota — Rt. Rev. James Mclilorick, D. 1)., 
consecrated Deceml^er 27, i88g. 

Diocese of Fargo, Xorth Dakota — Rt. Rev. James (3'Reillv, D. D.. 
consecrated ]\Iay 19, 1910. 

Diocese of Lead, South Dakota — Rt. Rev. Josepli F. Buscli, D. D., 
consecrated May 19. 1910. 

Diocese of St. Cloud, ^linnesota — Rt. Rev. James Trobec, D. D., 
consecrated September 21, 1897. 

Diocese of Sioux Falls, South Dakota — Rt. Rev. Thomas O'Corman, 
D. D.. consecrated A]jril ig, 189C1. 

Diocese of \\ inona, Minnesota — Rt. Rev. Patrick R. Ileffron, D. D., 
consecrated ^lay 19, igio. 

The parish has grown into a ])rovince of the church ; the lonely 
priest has been succeeded by a hierarchy, consisting of an archbishop, 
nine bishops and perhaps a thousand priests. The log chapel had grown 
by 1857 into a stone cathedral, which, in igii. is soon to be su]5erseded 
by the stately granite tem])le of worshi]) now rising on the brow of St. 
Anthony hill to magnificently crown the life work of a nolile prelate, 
and testify to the generosity of a devoted ])eople. 

L.\TEST C.VTHF.nKAI. (IF .St. P.\ri. 

The cornerstone of this magnificent structure, the latest cathedral 
of St. Paul, was laid with most impressive ceremonies and in the pres- 
ence of an immense throng of citizens, on Sunday, June 2, igo7. The 
grand procession consisted of 30.000 men from all parts of the state, 
marohini,'^ under the insignia of their resjiective churches and societies, 
and endless line of flags and banners and faces, — the greatest parade, 
with possibly one exception, ever seen in the city. Particijiating in the 
cereinonv were Archbishop Ireland and all the bisho]js of the jirovince ; 
the archbisho]is of. Dubuque, Portland and Chicago; bishops of Helena, 
Seattle. Davcniiort. Omaha. I,inci)ln. .Sioux City. .St. Joseph. .'Superior. 





Nashville and Peoria — twenty-five bishops in all ; 250 priests ; 200 Le- 
vites of the St. Paul Seminary, and 500 pupils of the College of St. 
Thomas, in their cadet uniforms. Col. Josias R. King of St. Paul was 
grand marshal. The corner stone was laid by Bishop McGolrick, assisted 
by \'ery Revs. Heffron, Aloynihan and Schaefer. A cablegram was read 
from Pope Pius X at Rome, conveying the apostolic blessing, and a 
telegram of congratulations from President Roosevelt at Washington. 
Eloquent addresses were delivered by Archbishop Ireland, [udge E. W". 
Bazille, Mayor Robert A. Smith, Governor John A. Johnson, Senator 
Moses E. Clapp, and Judge VV. L. Kelly. It was a memorable occasion 
in the annals of the church and of the city. 

During five succeeding years the work of constructing this splendid 
edifice has gone steadily forward under the careful supervision of the 
accomplished architect, Eugene Louis Masqueray, of this city. Its mas- 
sive walls, of solid, enduring granite, its stately towers and its lofty dome 
will stand for ages, a beacon and a landmark in the cit}- of the future. 
In architectural design the cathedral of St. Paul, while entirely of the 
twentieth century in feeling and purpose, will at the same time embody 
in its composition those secondary features that gave so much charm to 
the old churches of the middle ages. 

The outside dimensions of the cathedral are as follows : Length, 
two hundred and seventy-four feet ; width of transepts, two hundred and 
fourteen; width of main faccade, one hundred and forty; width of dome. 
one hundred and twenty feet ; height of faccade, one hundred and thirty 
feet ; height of towers, one hundred and fifty feet ; height of cross over 
the dome, two hundred and eighty feet. Under the towers are the en- 
trances to the crypt, located beneath the front part of the church, where 
there will be an important chapel or lower church and two large rooms 
for meetings of societies and catchism classes. Between the faccade and 
Summit avenue the grounds, one hundred and ten feet in depth, have 
been treated as monumental approaches, ramps and walks having been 
.studied with regard to easy access to the church and an artistic setting to 
the whole edifice. 

The outline of a cross, ambulatories between the main body of the 
church and the surrounding chapels have been retained, with all their 
religious symbolism. To accomplish this and at the same time create a 
modern structure, the relative proportions of the different elements as 
they appear in the ancient churches of Europe have been modified. The 
long and narrow nave and transepts of the mediaeval churches have 
been made wider and shorter. At their intersection the great dome has 
been placed and becomes the feature of the composition, following, in 
fact, the main lines of the original plan of St. Peter's in Rome, as laid 
out by Bramante and ^lichel Angelo. The long nave added later to St. 
Peter's by Carlo Maderna has never been considered an architectural 
improvement on the original scheme. 

The main entrance is under a monumental arch framing the apse 
window and through the three front entrances leading to the vestibule 
located under the organ gallery. At each end of the vestibule under the 
two towers are two chapels, one to be the founder's chapel, and the 
other to contain the baptismal font. The main nave is sixty feet in 
width and eighty-four in height, and is flanked by two large and beauti- 
ful cha]iels, one consecrated to the Blessed X'irgin and the other to St. 
Joseph. Running parallel to the nave on both sides and separated from 
it by imposing piers are the ambulatories, or passageways, twelve feet 


in width, giving easy access to all parts of the nave and to the chapels of 
the Blessed Virgin and of St. Joseph. 

The exterior of the cathedral is a frank architectural expression of 
the interior and is distinguished by broad treatment of wall surfaces 
and dignity of proportions, the ornamented parts being grouped at 
points where they will be effective and will emphasize the general archi- 
tectural design — chiefly, on the main front, the towers, the sides, the 
entrances and the dome. The building material used is a light gray-pink 
granite, full of quartz which, under the light of the sun, sparkles like 
precious stones. The texture being rather coarse, details have been 
treated broadly and simply. The architectural scheme, as a whole, in 
its massiveness, solidity, dignity, and beauty, is a noble incarnation of the 
religious spirit, ecclesiastical zeal, and historic significance, which have 
combined to render the erection of this cathedral church in St. Paul in 
the highest degree epochal, laudable, reverential. 

The great dome is ninety-six feet in diameter and one hundred and 
seventy-five feet in its interior elevation. Twenty-four large windows 
in the dome bring a flood of light to the sanctuary. On each side of the 
dome are the transepts, of the same dimensions as those of the nave, 
and lighted by great rose-windows similar to the one over the front 
entrance. At the end of the transepts are the entrances to the two great 
chapels of St. Peter and of St. Paul, near which secondary doors open to 
Selby and Dayton avenues. The sanctuary occupies the whole apse, the 
dimension being sixty feet in width and sixty-five feet in length. It is 
surrounded by marble columns supporting arches that separate it from the 
ambulatory, beyond which are the chapels of the nations, six in number, 
dedicated to the apostles of the several races from which are derived the 
people of the northwest. 

An inspection of the drawings shows that the ground plan of the in- 
terior of the cathedral will be very open, affording from every part a 
clear view of the altar and of the pulpit and at the same time permitting 
a fine grouping of the secondary elements of the architectural composi- 
tion, ambulatories, chapels, organ gallery, etc.. and adding most pictur- 
esque effects and a religious atmosphere to the monumental ensemble. 
The seating capacity is three thousand in pews, and one thousand more 
in removable chairs. 



First PRcniisxANT Chukcii (iMethodist) — In Minnrsota District, 
Wisconsin Conference — Jackson and Market Street Churches 
— Other Methodist Churches — Presp-yterian Churches — Ply- 
mouth AND Other Congregational Churches — The Peoples' 
Church — Baptist Organizations — The Episcopalians — Lu- 
theran Churches of the City — Swedenborgian, Unitarian and 
Universalist — Heprew Congregations. 

In 1836, the Illinois Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, by the advice of Rev. Peter Akers, a very able preacher, after- 
wards president of McKendree College, Illinois, and a professor of 
Hamline University, Minnesota, inaugurated two movements of import- 
ance in the religious history of St. Paul and vicinity. It established a 
mission for the Sioux, under Rev. A. Brunson, at Kaposia, near what is 
now South St. Paul, later removed across the Mississippi to Red Rock, 
which is still retained by the Methodists for camp meeting purposes 
Bishop Ames of the Methodist church visited this mission in 1840. Il 
also established, near Jacksonville, Illinois, under the charge of Peter 
Akers, the "Ebeneezer ^Manual Labor School," to educate men for prac- 
tical work in Indian missions. Mr. Brunson was assisted l)y Rev. David 
King, Rev. Thomas W. Pope and J. Holton. Later John Johnson ( En- 
meg"a!iI)ow ), George Copway and Peter Markham, three young Ojib- 
way Indians, were sent through Mr. Branson's eti'orts, from !\Iinnesota 
to the school at Jacksonville for education. Two white men, Samuel 
Spates and Allen Huddleston, entered the school in Illinois at the same 
time, with the same object. 

These five men, on completing their education, came to Minnesota and 
became missionaries to the Chippewas. Johnson, for personal reasons, 
transferred to the Episco]»l church, became one of Bishop \\'hipple's 
valued Indian colaborers and remained a faithful Christian worker for 
sixh'-tive years (almost the exact period of Peter Akers' ministry) until 
his death in 1902 at the age of ninety-two years. 

These were the beginnings of the j\lethodist church near St. Paul. 

First Prote.stant Church ( [Methodist) 

In 1844 ^t- ^^^^^ liecamc an a|)pointment in the .St. Croix Mission of 
the Wisconsin conference^. Rev. Mr. llurlljut was apjiointed to the mis- 
sion, but as his field embraced all the settlements on both sides of the 
river from the head of Lake Pepin to St. Croix Falls, and as St. Paul 
was just then coming into being, it could not have received a very large 



share of attention. Mr. Hurlbut was succeeded in 1846 by J. W. Put- 
nam, and he in 1848 by Benjamin Close. In the meantime several 
Methodist families had settled here and the town itself was beginning to 
assume importance, and on the last day of the year 1848 a .Methodist 
church was organized by Rev. Benj. Close. It consisted of eighteen 
members, and is the first Protestant church organized in St. Paul. 

During the ministry of the Rev. Mr. Putnam, in 1847-8, a small 
frame structure was erected on Jackson street, and in the spring of 
1849 a quarterly meeting was held in it by Rev. Henry Summers, pre- 
siding elder. The first quarterly conference was held by Rev. Chauncey 
Hobart on the 26th of the following November. For some reason this 
house was never finished. But during the year 1849 ^ small brick- 
church was commenced on Market street fronting Rice Park which, en- 
larged and otherwise improved, was occupied until November, 1873, 
when the congregation moved into a handsome building on St. Anthony 
street near Summit Park. The Market street church is said to have 
been the first Protestant house of worship erected in Minnesota. It is 
still standing and is now occupied by a business establishment. 

In Minnesot.\ District, Wisconsin Conference 

In June, 185 1, the Alinnesota district of the Wisconsin conference 
was organized, and Chauncey Hobart was appointed presiding elder, 
and pastor of the church in St. Paul. The next year Mr. Hobart was 
employed wholly on the district, which extended from Prairie du Chien 
to Sandy lake, a distance of some 700 miles. He was succeeded in St. 
Paul by Leonard Dickens, who in 185 1 was followed by Thomas M. Ful- 
lerton. In 1853 David Brooks was appointed presiding elder of this 

Jackson and Market Street Churches 

During the year 1855-6 the Jackson Street church was built on the 
corner of Jackson and Ninth streets, and Rev. E. J. Kinney was ap- 
pointed its pastor. In 1857 the two churches, the First and the Jackson 
Street, were united into one pastoral charge, and Rev. Cyrus Brooks 
was appointed to the "St. Paul Station." He was assisted by Rev. 
Williams S. Edwards. In the spring of 1858 the church was again di- 
vided into two charges called the Jackson Street and the ^Tarket Street 

When the .Market Street church was removed to upper Third (St. 
Anthony) street, the name was changed to First church, which it still 
retains. It was again removed in 1909 to a new and still larger building, 
one of the most beautiful examples of modern church architecture in 
the northwest, at the northwest corner of Portland avenue and Mctoria 
street. Its membershi]3 is now over 500. Among its distinguished pas- 
tors have been Rev. Edward Eggleston the author, in 1859 ; Rev. Samuel 
G. Smith, D. D., now of the People's church, and Rev. F. O. Holman. 

The Tackson Street church retained its location until crowded out 
by business encroachments and, about 1890 the present splendid stone 
edifice at Minnesota and Twelfth streets was occupied. The name was 
then changed to "Central Park M. E. church." It has since been one of 
the vigorous and influential churches of the city, having now a very large 
membership and many subsidiary working enterprises. 


Other Methodist Churches 

Clinton Avenue church, at the corner of Clinton avenue and Isabel 
street, on the west side, was organized in 1870, and has had a very pros- 
perous career. Its membership is 250. 

Grace church, on Burr street near Minnehaha, the border-land of Ar- 
lington Hills, was organized in 1873 and has about 200 members. 

The First German M. E. church was organized in 1851, and consisted 
Df only eight members. Rev. J. Haas was the first pastor. The first 
house of worship was built in 1853, at the corner of Broadway and Si.xth 
street. It was a plain frame building, 28 by 40 feet in size. The prop- 
erty owned by the society — a frontage of 165 feet on Sixth street and 
of 100 feet each on Broadway and Rosabel — became in time very valu- 
able. The next church building on Rosabel, at the corner of Sixth, was 
erected in i860, during the pastorate of Rev. Philip Funk. Over twenty 
years ago the fine new church at Olive street and \'an Slyke court was 
built and occupied. It now has a membership of 300. 

The St. James African M. E. church was organized September, 1870, 
with six members by Thomas Wise, pastor, who received his appoint- 
ment from the Indiana conference, held in Chicago that year. Trustees: 
Daniel Harding, Daniel Johnson, Alonzo Brown and Horace Carlyle. It 
now has a membership of 400 and is located at the corner of Fuller 
avenue and Jay street. 

Other churches of the Methoilist denomination in the city are: 

Arlington Hills( Swedish); 701 East Cook. Organized September 
1889. Membership 200. 

Asbury M. E. church; Frank, corner Ross. Organized 1885. Mem-. 
bership no. 

Bethlehem M. E. church (German); Matilda avenue, corner Law- 
son. Organized April i, lyoo. Membership 38. 

First Norwegian and Danish: Broadway, corner Thirtccnih. Member- 
ship 200. 

First Swedish; Tenth, corner Temperance. Organized 1854. Mem- 
bership no. 

Dayton's Bluff (German) ; Fourth, corner Maple. Organized October 
1886. Membership 400. 

Hamline ; Capitol avenue, corner .\s])ury avenue. Organized SejJtem- 
ber 12, 1880. Alembership 660. 

Holman Memorial ; Bates avenue, corner Euclid. Organized October 
24, 1882. ^lembership 260. 

King Street ; King, corner Orleans. Organized 1884. Membership 

Olivet M. E. church : Armstrong avenue, corner \ iew. Organized 
October 1886. Rebuilt in 1909. Membership 45. 

St. Anthony Park M. E. church; Raymond avenue, s(nith of .Manvcl. 
Membership 240. 

.St. James African ]\I. E. church; Fuller avenue, corner Jay. Organ- 
ized May 1882. ^lembership 400. 

Trinity; Dewey, corner Carroll avenue. Organized June \", t886. 
Membership 250. 

Wesley chapel ; Park avenue, corner Cook street. 

West Side German M. E. church; George, corner Bidwcll. Organ- 
ized January 1. 7883. Membership 95. 



Presbyterian Churches 

The Presbyterian church was founded in this region by the mission- 
aries, Samuel W. Pond, Gideon H. Pond, T. S. WilHamson and their 
associates, who arrived at Fort Snelhng in 1835 and estabhshed stations 
for work among the Sioux Indians at Kaposia and Lake Harriet. Dr. 
Wilhamson also organized a Presbyterian church of sixteen members at 
the Fort. 

The first meeting called with a view to the formation of a Presby- 
terian church in St. Paul, was presided over Ijy Rev. E. D. Neill, who 



had been commissioned by the American Home Missionary Society, as 
its missionary here, on November 26, 1849. A few days later, on Decem- 
ber 5th the church was organized, the Rev. E. D. jS^eill to occupy the 
pulpit, and W. H. Tinker and J. W. Selby being elected elders. At the 
ordination, the Pioneer says : "Rev. Dr. Williamson of the Little Crow 
mission (Kaposia) was present, with several of the native Sioux." On 
May 18, 1850, the house of worship, just after its erection on the corner 
of Washington and Fourth streets, was consumed by fire. A new house 
of brick was at once commenced and was occupied (before it was fin- 


ished), the first time Xovember lo, 1850. This church edifice was erected 
on 'the corner of St. Peter and Third streets. It is now a business build- 

Rev. Dr. Neill continued to serve as pastor of First church until in 
1855, when he left it to organize House of Hope Church. Rev. j. K. 
Barnes then became "stated supply" of the pulpit until in August. 1856, 
when he was succeeded by Rev. John Mattocks, of Keyville. Xew ^"ork, 
who was the regular pastor until his death in 1875. Soon after the 
death of Dr. Mattocks, the Rev. N. W. Cary became pastor. He was 
succeeded in January, 1878, by Rev. Dr. Samuel Conn. The present 
pastor is Rev. E. H. ^loore. Its membership is 200. In 1870 the society 
decided to move into the lower part of the city. The church property 
was sold and a new location was ])urchased. In 1875 the church build- 
ing, at the corner of La Fayette avenue and Woodward, was occuified. 
At that time this was and seemed likel\- to remain a very eligil)le resi- 
dence center. But soon afterward the movement toward the hill district 
began, and twenty years later the church sold its lower town property 
and removed to its present location corner of Lincoln avenue and Grotto 
street, which it will occupy until its consolidation with the House of Hope 
church, agreed on in 1912, takes effect on the completion of the new 
building, near at hand. 

The Central Presbyterian church had its origin in 1851. when the 
idea was first entertained of forming a society in St. Paul, in connection 
with what was the Old School branch of the Presbyterian church. To- 
wards the close of the summer the Rev. J. G. Riheldaffer arrived in St. 
Paul, under the auspices of the Board of Domestic Missions of the Pres- 
bvterian church, O. S. Mr. Riheldaffer preached his first sermon at St. 
Paul, in the First Presbyterian church, by the courteous invitation of 
Rev. Mr. Xeill. its pastor, a courtesy which was occasionally repeated 
until other arrangements were made. 

On Saturdav, February 22. 1852, a little company, nine in number, met 
at the dwelling of the minister in a one story frame house on Sixth 
street, between Robert and Jackson. In that company, small as it was, 
two or three separate nationalities, and Scotch, German. English and 
American blood, were represented. Seven persons presented letters from 
other churches and were admitted to membership, viz: ^Ir. and Mrs. R. 
Marvin. Mr. and ^Irs. G. W. Farrington, Mrs. Catherine Riheldaft'er. 
lohn D. Pollock and J. Gise. The ruling elders chosen were Messrs. 
"Farrington and Marvin and the latter was appointed stated clerk of the 

Services were held successively in the Baptist church, in the court 
house, at the state capitol and in the schoolhouse on Jackson street. It 
was finallv decided to build a church on lots donated for the purpose by 
W. H. Randall and Louis Robert at Exchange and Cedar streets. In 
1836 a handsome brick church was erected. In 1867 it was enlarged at 
an" expense exceeding the oriG:inal cost. Dr. Riheldaffer resigned in 
1864 to enter educational work Annnvj his notable successors have been 
Rev. Dr. F. T. Brown. Rev. Wni. McKibbin and Rev. R. F. Maclaren. 
Rev. Harry Xoble Wilson is now the pastor. Amone those who have been 
rulintr elders and trustees of this church are: Richard Chute. Hon. S. L R. 
McMillan. Dr. T. D. Simonton. H. V. McCormick, James W. Hamilton. 
Edward Webb. T. D. Pollock. I. M. Brack. William Herriott, S. Dickev. 
\\'illiam F. Mason. W. T. Donaldson, O. B. Turrell. R. P. Lewis. O. 
Curtis;, I. W. Simonton. Rev. H. >,laltby. Dr. T'llm Steele, A\"illiam K. 


Gaston, Washington Stees, John Campbell, W. H. Braden, Webster 
Smith, W. F. Davidson, B. H. Dorsey, Gen. R. W. Johnson, Gen. J. B. 
Sanborn, Gates A. Johnson, Judge W. Wilkin and H. S. Ogden. 

The House of Hope Presbyterian church was founded by Rev. I'ld- 
ward D. Neill, its first pastor, in 1855. Mr. Neill came to St. Paul in 
April, 1849, under instructions from the Presbytery of Galena, of which 
he was a member, the territory of Minnesota then being included in its 
limits. After preaching for seven months, he organized the First Pres- 
byterian church of St. Paul, and for about five years remained its pastor. 
In November, 1855, he announced, through a circular, that the Presby- 
terian mission, which was commenced in April 1849, and discontinued 
upon the organization of the First Presbyterian church, in November of 
the same year, would be resumed by him, and further announced that 
"Services will be held every Sunday afternoon at fifteen minutes after 
three o'clock in the lower room of the district schoolhouse on Walnut 
street near Fort, commencing November 25, 1855." 

On December 24, 1855. the church was organized with J. H. Stewart, 
M. D., Mrs. William L. Banning, Mrs. Henrietta Home and Mrs. Ed- 
ward D. Neill. The church chose for its name, "The House of Hope," 
from that of the old Dutch redoubt, which in the seventeenth century 
stood upon the present site of the city of Hartford, Connecticut. Coin- 
cident with the organization of the church was the formation of a Sun- 
day school. It was first held in the Walnut street schoolhouse, Decem- 
ber 10. 1855. There were seven scholars in attendance and six teachers. 
On the first Sabbath of the new year, 1857, the first additions to the 
church were made, eight communicants being received by letter. The 
same day, January 3rd, Wilford L. Wilson was chosen ruling elder, the 
first to hold that office. 

In January, 1857, the congregation purchased some lots and set about 
building a church. It was determined at first to erect a stone building, 
which should cost not less than $25,000, but the panic of that, year forced 
the members to modify their desires and at last on the 12th of July, 
1858, the building committee was instructed to build a frame chapel, "at 
the lowest possible figures." In the meantime services were held in 
Irvine Hall, corner of Third and Eagle streets. In August, 1858, work 
was begun on the chapel, and December 22nd following it was dedicated. 
The entire cost was $2,775. The building contained seventy-five pews 
and forty of these were rented the first day. At this time the church 
contained 35 members. 

In June, i860. Dr. Neill resigned to accept the position of chancellor 
of the State University and ex officio state superintendent of public in- 
struction. In 1861 he became chaplain of the First Minnesota Volun- 
teers and in 1863 one of President Lincoln's private secretaries. After 
the war he returned to St. Paul and engaged in educational work until 
his death in 1894. He was succeeded temporarily in the pastorate by 
Rev. Ilenry W. Ballantine, who served three months ; Rev. William J. 
Erdman, who served six months ; and Rev. Henry Bushnell, D. D. of 
Hartford, Connecticut, who was at the time residing in the state. Rev. 
Frederick A. Noble, D. D., in June, 1862. was installed as pastor. In 
November. 1866, Mr. Noble resigned and was succeeded by Rev. F; W. 
Flint. In May, 1870. Rev. David R. Breed was called to the pastorate, 
and in Octol^eV was dulv installed. Mr. Breed remained in charge until 
T883 when he was succeded i^y Rev. Robert Christie. D. D., and he by 
Rev. Dr. T- P- Egbert in 1892, Rev. James D. Paxton served from 1899 


to iy02. The present pastor is Rev. H. C. Swearingen, D. D., and the 
church membership aggregate over 1,000. The church has an assistant 
pastor and several dependencies. 

On February 10, 1868, the trustees were instructed to proceed with 
the erection of a new church building, "to cost not less than $25,000.'" 
On January 28, 1869, the corner-stone was laid, and in December fol- 
lowing the first public service — the Christmas anniversary of the Sunday 
school — was held in the basement, and the next Sunday regular service was 
held also in the basement. On the first Sabbath in 1871 the whole amount 
of the church debt, $12,098.20, was raised by subscription. In February, 
1873, the new building was completed, and on the 23rd the main room 
was occupied. More than three years later, or on the 20th of August, 
1876. the church was dedicated. The building which is located on Fifth 
street, at the northwest corner of Exchange, is of Gothic architecture, 
built of blue limestone and is very spacious and imposing. Its spire is 
covered with \'ermont slate, and rises to the height of 166 feet. The 
original cost of the site, building, and furniture was $68,660 of which 
sum $50,912 was actually paid in cash by the people of the church. It 
has since been enlarged and improved at considerable expense. 

The House of Hope is a cherished St. Paul institution. It has been 
favored with a succession of pastors of distinguished ability, and its 
official members have included such men as Alexander Ramsey, D. R. 
Noyes, W. B. Dean, H. M. Knox, Thomas Cochran, F. Weyerhauser, 
F. Driscoll, H. Knox Taylor, C. H. Bigelow, R. C. Jefferson and H. J. 
Horn. Property has been bought on Summit avenue beyond Dale street, 
a fine new edifice will be built thereon at once, and a plan for consolidation 
with ihe First Presbyterian church has been agreed to. 

The Dayton Avenue Presbyterian church dates from April 20, 1871. 
On that day was held a meeting of the ministers and elders of churches 
of the city to consider the propriety of establishing a church on St. An- 
thony Hill. A committee consisting of D. W. IngersoU and Richard 
Marvin, from the First church; General R. W. Johnson and Edward 
Webb, from the Central ; Thoinas Cochran, Jr., and Hon. S. J. R. Mc- 
Millan, from the House of Hope; and Rev. F. W. Flint, at large, was 
appointed to select a site and erect a building. A lot was purchased at 
the corner of Dayton avenue and Mackubin street, and in the summer 
of 1873 a plain but substantial building was erected and dedicated July 
loth. The church was regularly organized on Sunday April 19, 1874. 
Twentv-three members united at the organization. Rev. Dr. John Mat- 
tocks presided. The first elders were S. J. R. McMillan, W. L. Wilson and 
L. A. Gilbert. The first pastor was Rev. Maurice D. Edwards, who en- 
tered on his labors July 19, 1874, and is still the pastor. The present 
church building of brownstone. a model temple of worship, was built in 
1886 at a cost of about $50,000. The church has had a steady growth, 
proportionate to the development of that portion of the city in which it 
is located, and the present membership is over 700; The remarkably long 
period of the devoted service of Dr. Edwards, with this church, is highly 
creditable alike to pastor and people. 

The following additional Pre.sbytcrian Churches are now in active 
operation in St. Paul : 

Arlington Hills ; Case, southeast corner Edgerton street. Organized 
December q. i888. Membership 200. 

P.ethlehem German ; Pleasant avenue and Ramsey street. Organized 
1887. Membcrshi]i t6o. 


Dano-Norwegian Golgotha; 196 Thomas street. Organized August 
6, 1893. Membership 138. 

East; Rose and Seventh streets. Organized August 28, 1884. 

First of South St. Paul; Fifth avenue, corner Marie Avenue. Mem- 
bership 65. 

Goodrich Avenue ; Goodrich avenue, east of Garfield. Organized 
April 6, 1884. Membership 219. 

Knox ; Asbury avenue, corner Minnehaha street. Organized Septem- 
ber 4, 1890. Membership 147. 

Macalester; Summit corner Cambridge avenue. Membership 135. 

First ; Merriam Park ; Iglehart, corner Moore avenue. Organized 
March 1884. Membership 300. 

Ninth; Edmund street, corner Farrington avenue. Organized 1885. 
Membership 122. 

Warrendale ; Cross avenue, corner O.xford street. Organized June 
12, 1889. Membership 42. 

Westminster ; Greenwood avenue and Winifred. Organized April 3, 
1885. Membership no. 

Plymouth and Other Congregational Churches 

The first Congregational church in St. Paul was the Plymouth, 
which was organized June 17, 1858. There were fifteen members in the 
organization, among whom were Rev. P. W. Nicholas, P. P. Furber, 
William L. Phinney and H. C. Wilson. Rev. P. W. Nichols was the first 
deacon of the church and continued in that position until his death in 
1863. Rev. Burdett Hart, of Fair Haven, Connecticut, was called to the 
laastorate September 9, 1858, and served until April, 1859. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. A. S. Fiske, who resigned in April, 1862, entered the Union 
army as chaplain of the Fourth Minnesota, and was, for many years, a 
leading pastor in \\'ashington, D. C. The first church building was a 
chapel on Temperance street, which was dedicated November 4, 1859. 
The present house of worship, at the corner of Wabasha street and 
Summit avenue was erected in 1872. Its total cost was $33,ocx). Its 
erection was accomplished during the pastorate of Rev. C. M. Terry, who 
came to the church in August, 1871, and retired in August, 1877. His 
successor was the Rev. Dr. McG. Dana. The present pastor is Rev. 
Clement C. Campbell and it has 250 members. 

The Park Congregational church, at Holly avenue and Mackubin 
street, was organized in 1883 and has had a singularly prosperous ca- 
reer. It engages in many educational and philanthropic activities, which 
enlist the interest of the peojile of the progressive residence district in 
which it is located. The membership is 300 and Rev. P. P. Womer is 

Other Congregational churches are : 

Atlantic ; located on Bates avenue, corner of Conway. Organized 
February 6, 1883. Membership 230. 

Bethany: corner Winifred street and Stryker avenue. West St. 
Paul. Membership 114. 

Cyril chapel ; on west side of Erie, near Grace street. Dedicated in 
October, 1887. 

Olivet; Prior avenue, corner of Rondo street. Organized January 
12, 1888. Membership 35. 


Pacific; Acker street, between Mississippi and Buffalo streets. Or- 
ganized in 1882. Membership 253. 

St. Anthony Park; Raymond, near Wheeler street. Organized July 
6, 1886. Membership 150. 

There are, also attached to this communion Bell Chapel, Desnoyer 
Park; Forest Street: Gladstone Mission; St. Paul; South Park; Tatum 
and University Avenue Congregational churches. 

The Peoples' Church 

The Peoples' Church, independent, but to some extent affiliated with 
the Congregational societies, occupies an unique and very useful position 
among the religious bodies of the city. This church was organized Jan- 
uary 1, 1888. The accomplished and able founder, Rev. Samuel G. 
Smith, D. D., formerly of the ^lethodist Episcopal church, has been its 
pastor from the first, and has preached regularly to large and attentive 
audiences. Services were held for some months in the Grand Opera 
House on Wabasha street, until its destruction by fire in January, 1889. 
Then they were conducted in the large tabernacle, erected at a cost of 
$85,000 by the congregation, on the corner of Pleasant avenue and Chest- 
nut streets. When this fine building was destroyed by fire, it was 
promptlv rebuilt, greatly enlarged and tastefully decorated. Dr. Smith 
has a nation-wide reputation as an orator, clergyman, sociologist and 
philanthropist. He has had many calls to larger fields, but remains true 
to the city and his church. On March 7, 1912, the congregation cele- 
brated Dr. Smith's sixtieth birthday with public exercises and a splendid 
reception ; among those who spoke in grateful recognition of the pastor's 
several religious and secular activities were Gov. A. O. Eberhart, Mayor 
Keller, President Cyrus Northrop and Judge O. Hallam. The con- 
gregation numbers 3,000. Rev. L. L. D. Curtis is assistant pastor. 

B.\PTiST Organizations 

In the little Jackson Street schoolhouse, December 30, 1840, was 
organized the First Baptist church of St. Paul, with twelve con- 
stituent members as follows : Rev. John P. Parsons, Mrs. Matilda Par- 
sons, A. H. Cavender, Mrs. Elvira Cavender, Lyman Dayton, Charles 
Stearns, Airs. Cornelia Stearns, Miss Mary G. Stearns, John B. Spencer 
and Mrs. Nancy Spencer. This salary of the pastor. Rev. J. P. Par- 
sons, was fixed' at $600 a year, of which the church was to pay $ioo 
and a missionary society the remainder. In 1851 a church building on 
Temperance street was 'finished. It cost $2,500 and a heavy debt was 
left on it. 

The pastor. Rev. Parsons, met a tragic death while in the east rais- 
ing funds. The second pastor of the church was Rev. T. R. Cressy, who 
was accorded a salary of $800 per annum, (ine-fourth of which was to 
be paid by the church, which had increased in numbers to twenty-three. 
During his pastorate of two years the membership of the church in- 
creased to sixty, six of whom he liaptized. Rev. A. M. Torbit became 
pastor in 1854, and was succeeded by Rev. John P. Pope, in 1857. In 
1863 the stone chapel on Wacouta street was built at a cost, including 
the lot, of about $12,000. It was opened for service New Year's morn- 


ing, ifiti3. Air. i'ope resigned in ibOO and was succeeded by Re\-. R. A. 
Patterson, who served until 1870. 

ihe year 1875 was made memorable by the completion of the elegant 
church structure, still in use, on the corner of Wacouta and Ninth streets, 
at a cost of M'93,ii50.95. To this should be added $16,000, the cost of 
the lot ; $8,000, the contract price of the organ, and $800, the cost of the 
^.lock — the latter the gift of H. P. Upham and L. E. Reed — making a 
total of $118,650.95. it is not too much to say that in solidity of con- 
struction, architectural effect and adaptation to use, it was then un- 
equalled by any other church edifice in St. Paul. The present mem- 
bership is 670 and Rev. Harold Pattison is pastor. 

The Woodland Park Baptist church was organized in 1883, and 
erected a building at the corner of Selby avenue and Arundel street, 
which it occupied for about twenty years. It then removed to a larger 
structure at Laurel avenue and Victoria street, which now accommodates 
a membership of 300. Rev. W. A. Hill is pastor. 

Other Baptist churches are: Burr Street; First German; First 
Norwegian; Danish; First Swedish; German of West St. Paul; He- 
bron; immanuel; Pilgrim (colored with a membership of 450); also 
Second Swedish. 

The Episcopalians 

Christ church, St. Paul, is the "mother parish" of the Episcopal 
diocese of Alinnesota. It was organized in the summer of 1850 by 
Revs. J. L. Breck, J. V. Merrick and Timothy Wilcoxson, who arrived 
in the month of June of that year. The cornerstone was laid on Tues- 
day, September 5th, by the Rev. E. G. Gear, chaplain at Fort Snelling, 
and the building, which stood on the corner of Cedar and Fourth street, 
was soon completed, being opened for services on Sunday, December 
8, 1850. Its cost was $1,275. It was dedicated July 20, 1851, by Bishop 
Jackson Kemper. The second church was erected in 1871, but was 
destroyed by fire soon after its completion. The present church build- 
ing at the corner of Fourth and Franklin streets, was completed and 
opened for service in November, 1S72. Its original cost was about 
$20,000. It was enlarged in 1889. The first regular rector of the par- 
ish was Rev. J. Lloyd Breck, who was chosen in April, 1852. He was 
succeeded in a" few months by Rev. Timothy Wilcoxon, and he, in 1854, 
by Rev. Dr. J. C. Van Ingen. In August, 1862, Rev. Dr. S. Y. McMas- 
ters, a distinguished author and educator, was chosen rector and served 
fourteen years. His successor was Rev. W. P. Ten Broeck, who served 
until October, 1880. His successor was Rev. Mahlon N. Gilbert, after- 
wards Bishop. The present rector is Rev. Fred G. Budlong and there 
are 490 communicants. 

St. Paul's Episcopal church was organized in December, 1856. The 
first regular service was held in the Washington schoolhouse on the first 
Sunday in July, 1857. The sermon was preached by Right Rev. Alonzo 
Potter, then bishop of Pennsylvania. On the 14th of July following, 
the cornerstone of the church building at the corner of Ninth and Olive 
streets was laid by Bishop Kemper and the building was put in condition 
for worship on Christmas day of the same year. The number of com- 
municants at that time was twenty-six. The spire was erected in i860, 
and the rectory in 1865. The original cost of the church building was 
$15,000; additions have since been made, but the property has been 


recently sold and a new church will be built on upper Summit avenue. 
The last service in old '"Saint Paul's" was held on July 28, 1912. The 
first rector was Rev. Andrew Pell Patterson, who served with great 
fidelity and efiiciency tor nineteen years and died "in the har- 
ness." During his rectorship he built the church, performed 410 bap- 
tisms, presented 178 persons for comhrmation, solemnized 146 marriages 
and ofticiated at 248 funerals. Dr. Patterson's successor was Kev. E. S. 
Thomas, who was installed July i, 1876, and from the rectorship of this 
church was elected bishop of Kansas. The present rector is Rev. John 
Wright, who has served here with great efficiency and zeal, a quarter of 
a century. The number of communicants of St. Paul's is 250. Men of 
historic importance in the city and state have served as wardens and ves- 
trymen of this church, including H. H. Sibley, Gen. N. J. T. Dana, and 
John L. Merriam, Harvey Officer, G. .A. Hamilton, H. M. Smythe, Henry 
Hale, Channing Seabury and J. \V. Bass. St. Paul's church has a 
liberal endowment fund. 

The notable Episcopal Church of the Good Shepherd was founded 
in 1867 by Rev. Wm. C. Pope, under the encouragement of Rev. Dr. 
S. Y. McMasters, as a city mission. The first service was held in 
Mackubin's block. May 26, 1867. The parish church on Twelfth street, 
at the northeast corner of Cedar, was dedicated October 6, 1869. At 
present the Church of the Good Shepherd has about 275 communicants. 
The rector. Rev. William C. Pope, is still in active service, beloved by 
his parishioners and held in universal esteem by the community for his 
eminent achievements in the cause of morality and religion and for 
his admirable qualities as a Christian citizen. 

The Church of St. John the Evangelist, was organized as a mission 
in January, 1881. Services were first held in the same month in the 
Dayton Avenue Presbyterian church. The chapel, at the corner of Ash- 
land avenue and Mackubin street, was built in May, 1881, and the parish 
was organized in April previously. Rev. H. Kittson was the first rector. 
The church edifice has been several times rebuilt and enlarged to meet 
increasing demands. It is now one of the leading city churches, with a 
membership of over 800. 

Other Episcopal churches are : Church of the Ascension ; Church of 
the Messiah ; Church of the Epiphany ; Saint Clement's ; Saint James' ; 
Saint Mary's: of Merriam Park; Saint Peter's; Saint Sigfried's (Swed- 
ish) and Saint Stephen's. 

Lutheran Churches of the City 

The Lutheran churches of St. Paul are so numerous ; embrace so 
many nationalities ; have such a large aggregate constituency ; have gone 
through so many interesting denominational episodes, and have con- 
tributed so much to the material, moral and religious advancement of our 
people, that a laree volume would be required to adequately cover their 
history. 'We can only give brief summaries of a few^ leading events. 

Trinity church, corner of Wabasha and Tilton streets, is the mother 
of all Evangelical Lutheran churches in St. Paul. This church dates 
from 1855, when Rev. F. Weir preached a series of sermons in the court- 
house, to 1857, when he was succeeded by Rev. C. F. Hyer. The latter 
held services in a schoolhouse on Fort street in the German language. He 
also preached occasionally in English, in a schoolhouse on Eighth street. 


The German members of his congregation on January i, 1858, organized 
themselves regularly into a church, which they called the Evangelical 
Lutheran Trinity church, or, in German, "die Kirche der Dreienigheit. 
Evangelisch Lutherisch." In February, 1858, the site was purchased 
for $1,000, and the erection of a church begun. At first only the base- 
ment was completed. Mr. Hyer had been sent to St. Paul by a mis- 
sionary society to establish a church and, having accomplished his mis- 
sion, he was succeeded by Rev. G. Fachtmann. The church building 
was completed and dedicated October 18, 1863. In October, 1867, Mr. 
Fachtmann resigned and was succeeded by Rev. J. H. Seiker. He was 
succeeded, in June, 1876, by Rev. O. Spehr, and he, in March, 1879, by 
Rev. M. Tirmenstein. In 1871 the congregation had become so large 
that it was deemed best to divide it. This was done and the organiza- 
tion of St. John's church was efi^ected. The present membership of 
Trinity is 1,000 and the pastor is Rev. Adolph C. Haase. 

The first religious services in the Swedish language in St. Paul 
were held March 25, 1854, at the house of F. Mobeck, near "Moffets 
Castle." The record states that on this occasion, "John Swanson read 
a sermon from a book." Meetings continued to be held at Mobeck's 
until the arrival of Rev. Erland Carlson, who, May 6, 1854, organized 
the society. At this time, the congregation numbered about thirty-five. 
In 1855, Mr. Mobeck moved to Chisago county, and Johann Johanson 
became leader of the church. Services were held in Martin Nelson's 
residence on Olmsted street. In 1861 Rev. E. Norelius was chosen pas- 
tor, but the members were too poor to pay his salary, in a few months 
he left, and Johann Johanson again became leader. In 1867 the first 
church building, on the corner of Stillwater and Woodward avenues, was 
built. The present church, on the site of the former, was erected in 
1883. It is of brick, 85 x 90 feet in area, and cost $25,000. The church 
now has over 1200 members, maintains two missions and has a large 
Sunday school. The pastor is Rev. Peter Peterson. 

St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran church, the first Norwegian Lutheran 
church in St. Paul, was incorporated December 20, 1869, with about 
fifty members. The first pastor was Rev. O. A. Normann. The first 
location of the house of worship was on Mount Airy street ; the pres- 
ent is on the corner of Canada and Thirteenth streets. The church 
building was erected in 1882, mainly through the earnest efforts and 
vigorous exertions of the pastor, Rev. W. M. H. Peterson. 

There are, in 1912, a total of thirty-seven Lutheran churches in St. 
Paul. Services were conducted therein in the German, Swedish, Danish, 
Norwegian and English languages, respectively. -Several of them maintain 
parochial schools and all of them are doing a beneficent, patriotic work 
among the children of foreign parentage whom' they are encouraging to 
become upright and useful American citizens. The Lutherans have more 
churches in the city than any other denomination. Only the Catholics 
exceed them in attendance (62,000.) 

There are also five "Evangelical" church organizations in the city, 
reaching the same nationalities and performing a good work among them. 


There are but two Swedenborgian churches in Minnesota, one in 
Minneapolis and the other in St. Paul. Both were founded by Rev. 


Edward C. Mitchell. In October, 1872, Mr. Mitchell began holding 
evening meetings here, and on the first of June, 1873, he organized a 
church with twenty-one members. Services were held in the Young 
Men's Christian Association rooms on Third street in the evening onlv. 
Jn the summer of 1876 the societ)- rented the old First Methodist church 
on Market street, and there the spiritual structure of the New Jeiusa- 
lem was contanied. The walls were not great nor high, but the" spirit- 
ual structure was strong in the union of such members as ex-Governor 
William H. .Marshall and wife, Edward H. Cutler and wife, John M. 
Oilman and wife, George T. Woodward and wife. Dr. H. Von Wedel- 
staedt and wife, Captain Simons and Miss \'on Wadelstaedt. Work was 
begun on the new church, corner of Selby and Virginia avenues, in the 
spring of 1887, and the building was dedicated Sunday, November 6, 
1887. It is an attractive structure, with its foundation of cobble-stones, 
set ill cement. Rev. Edward C. ;\Jitchell was pastor of the church from 
the first until his lamented death December 8, 191 1, aged seventy-five 
years. The membership is of a very strong character and composed of 
some of the best intellects of the city. 

Unity church represents the Unitarian denomination in St. Paul. 
The first service was held in a hall on Robert street in October, 1858, by 
Rev. F. R. Newell. After a year, meetings were discontinued, but re- 
vived in 1865, to be soon merged with the Universalists. In 1872 Unity 
church began a separate and successful career in Knauft's Hall, with 
Rev. J. R. Efiinger as pastor. The first trustees were W. L. Ames, 
Joseph S. Sewall, W. H. Kelley, Daniel AlcCaine and Edward Sawyer; 
the secretary and treasurer was H. P. Grant. On March 10, 1873, the 
society was incorporated under the state laws. In the fall of 1875. it 
moved into the then unused Universalist church; February 5, 1881, the 
articles of incorporation were revised, and the same year the church 
building, on Wabasha street opposite Summit avenue, was erected, full\- 
provided with club rooms, parlor addition, etc., which the Unitariaii 
theory of a church home demands. Rev. J. R. Effinger, the first regular 
pastor, resigned, in the spring of 1876 on account of ill health. Rev. 
W. J. Parrott then preached for a few months. In [March, 1877, Rev. 
W. C. Gannett took pastoral charge of the society. The present pastor 
is Rev. J. D. Reid and the society is domiciled in its new structure, cor- 
ner of Portland avenue and Grotto street. Its membership is 551. 

St. Paul's Universalist church was formed I\Iay 7, 1865. at Inger- 
soll's hall. The officers were Russell Blakeley, president ; Charles Leon- 
ard, treasurer; W. H. Grant, secretary; and the other incorporators were 
J. C. Burbank, W. D. ^^'ashburn and G. G. Griswold. Under the con- 
stitution the society was' to be known as "The First Universalist Society 
of St. Paul," or as "Tlie Church of the IMessiah." In June. 1866, lot's 
were purchased for a church site on Wabasha street near the capito!. 
On September 19, 1867, the plan of a church edifice was adopted, and 
October ist following, ground was broken for the erection of a building. 
The building was so far completed in January, 1869, that services were 
held in the basement. The building was fully completed and formallv 
dedicated October i. 1872. In the spring of i88t. the church edifice was 
sold to the French Catholics and was known as St. Louis church. Serv- 
ices were then held in the People's theater, and in other halls, until the 
fine new church, corner .\shland avenue and Mackubin street, was built. 
Rev. T. S. Robjent is the present pastor and the membership is 200. 


Hebrew Congregations 

The first Hebrew church organized in St. Paul was the Temple 
Mount Zion congregation, which was formed February 26, 1857. The 
officers were. President, H. Cole; secretary, L. Philips. Regular meet- 
ings were held and officers elected in 1858 and 1859, but early in i860 the 
meetings were discontinued. In October, 1868, the congregation was 
reorganized and Jacob Neuman elected president ; J. Rose, secretary ; 
A. Bloom, S. Lobenstein and A. Sternberg, trustees. In the fall of 1870 
the synagogue at the corner of Tenth and Minnesota streets was erected. 
Some years ago a new synagogue was built at the corner of Holly ave- 
nue and Avon street. The present membership is about 200. Rev. I. L. 
Rypins, an energetic and progressive man, popular in all circles, is the 

The Congregation of the Sons of Jacob (B'nai Jacob) was organized 
March 20, 1875, with twelve members. Rev. J. Goldstein officiated and 
the following officers were elected: N. Blumenthal, president; A. 
Marks, treasurer; A. Kaufman and D. Goodman, trustees. On the 15th 
of August, 1879, the Jacobs House, at Minnesota and Eleventh streets, 
was purchased. The present temple on College avenue between Wabasha 
and St. Peter streets, was erected in the fall of 1888. The present rabbi 
is Rev. J. B. Hurwitz. 

There are four additional Jewish synagogues in the city. 

Other Religious Bodies 

There are three Seventh Day Adventists' churches in the city, with a 
total membership of 250. 

There are two Christian churches. Of these, the "First church," 
formed in 1885, has an attractive place of worship at the corner of 
Nelson and Farrington avenues, with a membership of 350. 

The First Church of Christ (Scientist) was organized in 1897, and 
has a large membership. 

There are two Spiritualist societies, one of them dating back to 1889. 

The Salvation Army has two vigorous societies, and there are sev- 
eral Gospel missions. 

The Latter Day Saints maintain a society, with a membership of 35. 
Rev. A. Brinkman is elder. 

The Western Seaman's Friend Society established in St. Paul in 1873, 
what grew into the Bethel Mission. Capt. J. FT. Reany was one of its 
early promoters and Rev. Robert Smith was its first chaplain. Under 
the wise management of Rev. David Morgan, it has, during the past 
twenty years, developed into a benevolent and philanthropic institution 
of incalculable value. It now occupies the large hotel building on Wa- 
basha street, near Fourth, and has several collateral features of a chari- 
table and industrial kind. 

General Observations 

Americans are the most liberal contributors to religion in the world. 
In addition to providing $12,000,000 a year for the redemption of the 
heathen of other lands, they give to the churches the munificent sum of 
$127,000,000 a vear for their support and maintenance. In all these 
things the church-going people of St. Paul do their full share. 


Many of t'le St. Paul churches support foreign and home missions. 
They have from time to time sent hel]) to the natives of many countries. 
-Missionaries from St. Paul churches have gone into China, India. Japan 
and countries of South America and as far north as Alaska. For a time 
most of the home mission work was left to the Salvation Army, but re- 
cently the churches have been taking up this work and now many of 
them maintain home missions in the poor sections. 

The Sunday school movement has been strong in St. Paul for many 
years. Nearly all of the churches have large Sunday school classes, the 
largest being that of the First Baptist church, which has a membership 
of over 2,000. 

St. Paul has long been regarded as the most important religious centre 
of the Northwest. Besides being the headquarters of three powerful 
church organizations — the Roman Catholic, the Methodist and the I'~pis- 
copal, it is the home of twenty-one other denominations and has churches 
representing almost every known faith. 

Of the 218 congregations the Lutherans lead in number, having 37 
churches ; the Catholics follow with 24 churches ; next comes the Meth- 
odists with 20; Episcopalians with 17; the Presbyterians with 17: 
the Congregationalists with 16; the Baptists with 14; the Jews with 7; 
the Evangelical association with 5 : the Adventists with 2 ; the Qiris- 
tians with 2 ; the Spiritualists with 2 ; the Salvation Army with 2. and 
others with one each. 



Original Organization of the Y. M. C. A. — Civil War and City 
Missionary Work — First Proposed Great Building — Plans at 
Last Realized — The Late John B. Sleman — Young Women's 
Christian Association — National Campaign for Civic Better- 

D. D. JMerrill, bookseller, publisher, public-spirited citizen and active 
religious worker in St. Paul for forty years, was the father of the local 
Young Men's Christian Association. Early in July, 1856, a call, drawn 
up and circulated by Mr. Merrill, was read in the pulpits of the various 
churches in the city ; in response to which, a meeting of those interested 
in the formation of an association was held in the First Presbyterian 
church, on the evening of July 28, 1856. The meeting was presided over 
by Rev. Mr. Riheldaffer, and after an address explaining the object and 
aims of the meeting by Rev. Mr. Torbit, pastor of the First Baptist 
church, a resolution that "a Young Men's Association be formed in St. 
Paul" was unanimously adopted, and the association was formally or- 
ganized. "The object of this association," said its original constitution, 
"shall be the improvement of the spiritual, mental and social condition 
of young men, by such means as shall be hereinafter designated, or 
shall from time to time be adopted by the association." 

Original Organization of the Y. M. C. A. 

Eighteen persons placed their names upon the roll of members on its 
first call, as follows: Rev. J. G. Riheldaffer, Rev. A. M. Torbit, L. 
Marvin, W. R. Brown, G. A. Couplin, A. W. Hall, D. D. Merrill, L. H. 
Hunt, G. W. Farrington, J. D. Pollock, T. G. Merrill, B. K. Field, L. B. 
Morrow, L. Kreiger, J. R. Madison, E. G. Barrows, G. C. Cochran and 
T. W. Taylor. The following is the roll of the first officers of the asso- 
ciation : President, Dr. J. H. Stewart ; vice president, M. T. Kinsie ; 
corresponding secretary, John R. Madison ; treasurer, George Cochran : 
directors, L. B. Morrow, L. :\larvin, William H. Wolffe, R. !\Iarvin, Will- 
iam P. Brown, D. D. Merrill, .\. Levering, L. Kreiger, A. W. Hall. E. 
G. Barrows, S. J. R. ^McMillan and H. Russell. The churches repre- 
sented in the formation of the association, were the First Baptist, the 
First, the Central, and the House of Hope Presbyterian, the Methodist, 
the German Methodist and the Episcopal. 

After the formative period of the association, which, owing to the 
financial stringency of 1857, and later, lasted for several years, the 
principal energies of the members were devoted to accumulating a li- 



brary, by means of courses of lectures, etc. This library afterwards 
merged into that of the St. Paul Library Association, as related in another 
chapter, was the nucleus of the great public library of today. 

Civil War and City Missionary Work 

The period of army work in connection with the War for the Union, 
extended from November, 1863, to January, 1866. The war had been 
in progress for some time and the work of the Christian Commission 
was being extended and perfected, when on the 20th of November, 1863, 
the Y. yi. C. A. received from the commission an appeal for assistance. 
At a meeting held the same evening, the association constituted itself 
"The Army Committee for the State of Minnesota of the United States 
Christian Commission," thus entering upon a work large enough to en- 
gage fully the zeal and energy of the most active, enthusiastic Christian 
laborers. The sum total of $'8,707.33 was expended in this work during 
this period, which, however, does not include the large amount of stores, 
books, etc., sent here from the central office of the commission, for dis- 
tribution on the frontier and otherwise. The devotional meetings and 
Bible classes of the association were not neglected. 

A city missionary was employed in 1868, and all branches of the work 
received new life and strength. During the years of 1866 and 1867, the 
work of relief was carried on by ward committees, but its rapidly in- 
creasing proportions imperatively demanded more time and attention 
than could be given by the business men who largely comprised them. At 
the request of the association, Rev. E. S. Chase consented to assume 
this charge, and performed the duties with fidelity and acceptance until 
called to another field of labor in September, 1869. On the ist of Janu- 
ary, 1870, the services of E. W. Chase were secured in this field. For 
more than three years a pleasant and well furnished reading room, con- 
sisting of a small library and more than forty of the best periodicals 
had been kept open day and evening. E. W. Chase was continued in 
the service of the association from 1870 to May, 1876, as secretary 
and city missionary. During these six years he rendered assistance to 
thousands, both as to their temporal and spiritual necessities. 

Another distinct period which dates from June i. 1876, began with a 
reorganization of this excellent institution and the appointing of a gen- 
eral secretarv. A new constitution was adopted. O. C. Houghton suc- 
ceeded Mr. Chase in the work of tlie association and labored therein for 
nearly two vears as its general secretary. In the spring of 1877, new 
rooms were secured in the Odd Fellows' building, corner Fifth and Wa- 
basha streets. Here the reading room was attractive, being furnished 
with chairs, pictures and supi:)lied with plenty of good books, papers 
and magazines. The lecture room, well furnished and lighted, was used 
for holding the different meetings of the association. At the annual 
election of" officers in May, 1877, Mr. Houghton was reelected general 
secretarv. Resides maintaining four mission stations, a Bible class was 
held at the rooms every Sabbath afternoon for the study of the inter- 
national lesson, having an average attendance of over forty members. 
Soon after the resignation of Mr. Houghton, a call was extended to 
E. A. Holdridge, of New York, to serve as the general secretary of the 
association, .\fter due deliberation he accepted and entered upon tlie 
duties of this office in June. 1S78, which position he held very acceptably 
until Februarv. 1880. when he tendered his resignation. In November. 


1880, J. M. Lichtenberger was engaged by the association to serve as its 
acting general secretary. 

Among the prominent laymen who served as presidents of the Y. M. 
C. A. in its earlier days were Dr. J. H. Stewart, D. W. Ingersoll, George 
W. Prescott, H. K. Taylor, J. H. Randall, Prof. S. S. Taylor, Horace 
Thompson, D. R. Noyes, Thomas Cochran, C. B. Newcomb, T. A. Ab- 
bott, C. W. Hackett, L. A. Gilbert, A. E. Clark and John E. Miller. 

First Proposed Great Building 

During the prosperous decade from 1880 to 1890, the Young Men's 
Christian Association was in a flourishing condition and had a large 
membership. The rooms of the association were well supplied with lit- 
erature and amusements for the young men. Evening classes of different 
kinds and a finely equipped gymnasium received a liberal patronage. 
Entertainments, lectures, and socials were given at regular intervals. 
The association purchased a valuable property 150 by 150 feet, corner 
Tenth and Minnesota streets opposite the high school building, on which 
they planned to erect a building complete in all of its appointments for 
Y. M. C. A. uses, at a cost of upwards of $100,000. The corner-stone 
of the proposed building was laid with much ceremony on October 24, 
1889, in the presence of the "Pan-American" delegates, who were in St. 
Paul on that date, on their famous tour of the United States, and took 
a deep interest in the building. 

A very significant feature of this ceremony was an address by Senator 
Nicanor Bolet Peraza of Venezuela, who said: "It is a circumstance to 
be noted that the warmth of greeting and heartfelt interest of the Amer- 
ican people towards the representatives of the southern countries in- 
creases as we come westward. In the New England states we were 
received as cherished guests. In New York and Michigan they treated 
us as friends. In Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota we have been re- 
ceived as brothers. You have not been content simply to treat us with 
hospitality ; you have gone farther than that, and now admit us as parti- 
cipants in events which are to become historical. You invite us to take 
part in a ceremony which will be remembered for years to come. I hope 
you will tell future generations of the men from the south countries who 
came here ; who spoke a language you could not understand, but whose 
intense gratification you could discern in their smiling faces and flash- 
ing black eyes. Bring your children to this spot and tell them that one 
of these foreign brothers put his hand upon this stone, and in the name 
of the three Americas, invoked blessings upon this enterprise and wished 
a God-speed for all these generous people." 

But another period of general business depression intervened, and 
the aspirations of the Y. M. C. A. for a fit and permanent home were 
deferred for nearly twenty years. The well planned and beautiful struc- 
ture proposed for Tenth street was never built. The excavation, the 
foundation and corner stone, remained, for many months, a mute re- 
minder of hope deferred. The property was finally sold to a business 
firm and the association's building, when constructed, occupied another 


Plans at Last Realized 

At the corner of Ninth and Cedar streets, there was erected, five 
vears ago, the stately edifice, which has since served as the headquarters 
voi.n— T 


for the numerous benevolent, educational and evangelistic functions of 
the local Young Men's Christian Association, and has been one of the 
architectural attractions of the city. Six stories in height, 200 feet long 
and 90 feet wide, built of handsome brick and stone, with fire-proof 
interior construction and with all necessary equipments and conven- 
iences at a cost of $370,000. given by 10,000 subscribers living in the city. 
This building gave to St. Paul, for the first time, a proper domicile for 
one of its cherished institutions. It is concededly one of the finest of 
the Association homes which the generous rivalries between enterprising 
American cities have caused to be erected wthin the past decade. 

Bountiful in its provisions and recent in its construction, the mag- 
nificent new building of the Young Men's Christian Association, like so 
many other structures in this expanding city, already demands enlarge- 
ment. The last annual report of the general secretary urgently calls for 
the addition of two stories. This would provide 150 more bedrooms and 


would add from 400 to 500 members annually to the association. The 
night-school classes, occupying one side of the second floor, would be 
moved to the basement now occupied by the boys' department, and the 
latter should be in a building of its own. The second floor .space thus 
vacated could be thrown into one large recreation department. "To ac- 
complish all this will require about $150,000," said the secretary. "The 
St. Paul association would then own an equipment costing $500,000, 
which would place it on a par with other cities of like size and import- 

With reference to the current work, this report adds: "In some re- 
spects, the last vear has been the most satisfactory since the association 
was reorganized at the time of my coming, thirteen years ago. The 
gymnasium, swimming pool, dormitories, restaurant and the Turkish baths 
have all enjoved theirlargest patronage during this last year. In the reli- 
gious work department, the shop meetings and the Bible classes have 
both increased in numbers and efficiency. The total enrollment in the 
educational department slightly exceeded last year, although some of the 


classes have not been so well attended. On account of limited space, the 
emphasis in our boys' work this year has been successfully placed on im- 
proving the efficiency of the department rather than upon increasing its 
numbers. Our 138 dormitories have housed nearly 900 different men 
during the twelve months, and a much larger number, seeking our shel- 
ter, could not be accommodated." 

The officers for 1912 are: A. B. Driscoll, president; G. P. Lyman 
and F. R. Bigelow, vice presidents; W. A. Scott, general secretary. 
There is a large office and building staff, with the general secretary as 
the administrative head. 

Some comprehension of the present importance of the St. Paul Y. 
M. C. A. and of its numerous useful activities may be gained from the 
following report of a year's work: 

The total membership 1,900 

Number of different men using gymnasium, swim- 
ming pool and baths 1,432 

Total attendance in gymnasium classes 20,034 

Total attendance in gymnasium and baths 52,782 

Total number taught to swim 206 

Total medical and physical examinations given 902 

Total attendance at swimming pool 34. 800 

Total attendance at shower baths 38,400 

The average number of baths per week 1,315 

Subjects taught in night school 28 

Attendance in night school (different men) 349 

Daily attendance in reading room 200 

Total attendance at religious meetings in the build- 
ings 23,000 

Total attendance at religious meetings outside of 

buildings 16,480 

Different men living in 138 bed rooms 842 

Total social events given 65 

Young men directed to boarding houses 200 

Thousands of young men were counseled with and advised by the sec- 
retaries, and several hundreds were helped to secure situations. To the 
Summer Camp on Lake St. Croix, boys go in relays of thirty-six each, for 
two weeks. Here they can fish, swim, row, roam the woods, etc., all un- 
der upbuilding influences, at a nominal expense. The Association never 
proselytes ; every member's personal religious belief is respected. 

The Late John B. Sleman 

Few persons outside the circle of those active in association work 
fully appreciate the rapidity with which its usefulness is expanding. In 
the death of John B. Sleman, Jr., of Washington, D. C, in July, 1911, 
the Christian forces of the country lost a leader of great value. In the 
prime of life and devoted from his youth to good works, his early death 
seems to have been the result of his consuming zeal and constant labor, 
even to the extent of exhaustion, for his fellow-men. A memorial ser- 
vice in his honor at the national capital was attended and addressed by 
men of the highest rank in the country's service — an unprecedented dis- 


tinction for a young man of thirtj'-six, who had never held a civic or 
mihtary office. 
. Born in Washington in 1874, Mr. Sleman entered the service of the 
Union Savings Bank there when it opened its doors in 1891, and was 
thereafter continuously an officer or chrector in that institution. In 1898 
he became general secretary of the Washington Y. M. C. A., and in 
eighteen months raised its membership from 164 to nearly 2,000, giving 
it an impetus that is still carrying it forward. Later he was for several 
years a member of the Washington Y. M. C. A. board of managers, the 
organizer of its club for foreign extension work, a vice president of the 
National Y. M. C. A. and chairman of its boys' department. In the civic 
life of Washington he took an eager and active part. 

Most far-reaching of all his enthusiasms was his vision of a Lay- 
men's Missionary movement. It was his idea that this movement would 
help to neutralize the influence of our so-called western civilization upon 
the non-Christian world. Unless this is done the men that are going to 
the non-Christian world in diplomatic, commercial, industrial and social 
engagements will undo with one hand what the missionaries, with devo- 
tion and sacrifice, are trying to do with the other hand. In other words, 
we have been sending out two great streams of influence — one has largely 
been due to un-Christian impact, the other by purely Christian impact. 
These must no longer fight against each other. Laymen are spreading 
the former over the world ; they only can carry the Christian impact. 

He was, in this, the originator of an idea that has, in the past four 
years, profoundly influenced the spiritual life of the whole country and 
grows with each season in its beneficience. The Student Volunteers 
were in convention at Nashville in IQ06, when Mr. Sleman, speaking as 
a business man, presented his vision of the application of business methods 
to the spread of the Christian faith in foreign lands. A few months 
later the centenary celebration in New York of the Haystack meeting, 
out of which grew the American Board, gave occasion for the formal 
adoption of Mr. Sleman's plan and the organization of the Laymen's 
movement. That movement has outgrown the need of any individual, 
hut it will never forget to honor the memory of John B. Sleman. 

The Young Women's Christian Association, of which the St.^ Paul 
branch is only four years old, has shown great capacity for growth and 
enthusiasm. After a whirlwind campaign, it raised a building fund and 
proceeded to the erection of a splendid home on the site generously don- 
ated by D. S. B. Johnston, located on Fifth street opposite the Audito- 
rium — a building which ranks among the important structures of the 
city and among the best of this assocation's homes in any city. 

Young Women's Christi.\n Associ.\tion 

The Young Women's Christian Association of St. Paul is part of a 
world-wide organization having for its object the fourfold development 
of young women. The motto of the national organization is: "I am 
come that they might have life and that they might have it more aljund- 
antly." It is this abundant life, physical, mental, social, and, above all, 
spiritual, which the association seeks to bring to each one of its mem- 
bers. To this end it makes use of every point of contact and seeks to 
supply so far as possible every legitimate need of the young women who 
come within the circle of its influence. The association is under the 
management of a board of directors consisting of twenty-one women. 


who meet each month for the consideration of all association interests. 
Under their direction committees are organized which take the various 
departments of work more in detail. As the work of the association 
extends, there is more and more for the volunteer worker in St. Paul 
to do. One of the chief advantages of the association is that it is open 
seven days in the week, so that young women may always be sure of 
attention whenever they need the privileges of this organization. In 
order that there may be the regularity of method necessary to attain this 
end, there must be, in addition to the volunteer workers, a corps of 
regularly employed salaried officials, chosen with a view to their special 
adaptability and training for the particular part of the work which they 
assume. They serve not only as the executive of the board and commit- 
tees, but are in a position to be the personal friends and advisers of 
young women and girls. 

All women of good moral character are entitled to membership in 
the association. The regular fee is one dollar a year and carries with it 
all the ordinary privileges of membership outside of classes which re- 
quire special tuition fees. Those who are financially able to do so are 
given the privilege of helping to support the association by the payment 
of five dollars a year. It is the ambition of the membership committee 
to enroll 1,000 sustaining members and a corresponding number of regular 
members the coming year. A membership of 5,000 is the goal. The 
association is not a charity. The members pay for what they receive. 
The receipts from the cafeteria, the tuition for educational classes and 
for the gymnasium and the membership fees, constitute the chief sources 
of internal revenue. But as no college is self-supporting, although the 
students consider themselves by no means objects of charity, so the Young 
Women's Christian Association calls upon the public for a portion of 
its budget. The association has already the foundation of a good library. 
These books may be taken out on library cards similar to those used in 
the Public Library. A substation of the Public Library is also main- 
tained at the association and books are issued on Public Library cards. 
About twenty-five of the leading periodicals are to be found on the read- 
ing table. The library in the new building is situated on the second 
floor, and will be kept quiet for the use of those who wish to read or 

The building, erected in 191 1, cost $200,000, exclusive of the valuable 
site in the business district, donated by Mr. Johnston. The administra- 
tive ability of the women who planned the structure and its equipment is 
shown by the fact that in addition to its attractive exterior, there is in 
every detail a practical, working arrangement, from the juvenile rooms 
in the basement to the Hannah Stanton Johnson home, for the accom- 
modation of young women who must reside in the building. The taste- 
fully arranged furniture in the parlors and the quiet decorations in all 
of the rooms impress the visitor with the good taste and excellent judg- 
ment which mapped out the details. The furniture and equipments are 
all St. Paul products. 

Plan of Y. W. C. A. Building 

In the basement is the juvenile department, a large well-lighted and 
well-ventilated room extending half the length of the building on the 
Fifth street side. Here the children's classes are held and every con- 


venience, including an open court, is anticipated. The juvenile depart- 
ment includes the large assembly room, class rooms and the kitchenette. 

On the east end of the basement is the employment office, in charge 
of an employment secretary. Ample space is provided here for girls 
seeking positions, both in business houses and in private families. The 
laundry also is situated in the basement. This is a large room equipped 
with all of the latest appliances for modern laundering. In the rear of 
the basement directly under the gymnasium are the shower baths, lockers 
and dressing rooms of those using the gym above. The arrangements 
for these accessories for physical culture are unsurpassed in the country 
in a building of its kind. The baths are reached by a spiral staircase 
leading to the gymnasium on the main floor. 

As one enters the building from Fifth street the suite of three offices 
for the use of the general secretary, the financial secretary and board of 
directors are to the right ; to the left are the public parlors. These par- 
lors show the taste and thought of those in charge of the arrangements. 
There are four rooms where the young women wishing to entertain com- 
pany may do so with all the privacy of the modern home. The furniture 
is of the best mahogany, with tapestries and rugs to match. 

Passing through the lobby one comes to the gymnasium on the left 
and the auditorium on the right. It is said that no department is more 
popular than the "gym." This is a feature of the plan of the building 
upon which much thought was given, for it is conceded that many weary 
girls are allowed the true relaxation which their bodily health requires, 
under no other conditions. Every piece of apparatus necessary for exer- 
cise, from the flying rings to Indian clubs, is among the equipment. Ad- 
joining this and separated by a glass partition is the physical director's 
office. Also opening from the gymnasium is a rest room especially for 
the use of the department. Going across the hall one finds the entrance 
to the auditorium, known as the association hall, which has a seating 
capacity of five hundred. This hall is finished in white and is one of the 
finest in the country. All of the entertainments will be held in this hall, 
and the recessed porches near the entrance may be used for outside tea 
parties during the summer months. 

On the second floor is the library, clubroom, another parlor and the 
chapel. The last is indeed a place for spiritual rest, with its dim lights 
surrounded by subdued coloring of the walls and situated in the heart of 
the building. Opening from the lobby of the second floor is the logia or 
porch, which is entered through the high French windows, giving the 
entire arrangement an air of completion. The library is delightfully 
arranged for quiet reading. 

On the third floor the front of the building is used mostly for the 
class rooms. These rooms are arranged for the regular classes in ele- 
mentary subjects, art and general instruction. Another room is devoted 
to mission study. All of the class rooms are arranged with the simplicity 
characteristic of the entire building. On this floor in the rear of the 
building is the entrance to the Hannah Stanton Johnson boarding home. 
This home is in charge of the house secretary. It covers three floors, 
and each of the fifty-seven rooms is an "outside" room, furnishing plenty 
of natural light and air. ]\Tost of the rooms are arranged for a single 
occupant and are tastefully furnished. An important feature of the home 
is the dormitorv. which contains nine cots, where young women forced 
to economize may be accommodated. 

The fourth floor of the Iniilding proper includes the domestic science 


department. In this department the large class room is equipped with 
individual gas plates and cooking utensils for the use of the class. Ad- 
joining this is the small model kitchen, equipped with the gas range, 
kitchen cabinet and refrigerator ; next to this is the model pantry, and the 
last room of the suite is the model dining room. Each member of the class 
receives instruction beginning with cooking on the gas plate and ending 
with "how to serve and set a table." On the opposite side of the hall 
from the domestic science department is the dressmaking department, 
also a large airy room, and at the east end of the corridor is the millinery 
class room. The association offers a variety of educational classes for 
foreign-speaking young women, for young women whose early oppor- 
tunities in the common branches have been limited, and for those who 
wish to take cultural studies. Provision will also be made for those who 
wish to equip themselves for better positions in the business world. Valu- 
able training for the eye and the hand may be obtained in the various 
industrial classes. There is scarcely any limit to the possibilities of the 
department, as classes will be formed in any subject for which there is 
sufficient demand. 

The cafeteria on the fifth floor is located in the choicest portion of 
the building. In this dining room 150 people can be comfortably seated. 
It has large windows on each side, affording plenty of light and an excel- 
lent view of the river bluffs on the east and the hill district on the west. 
It is reached by means of an elevator, and the kitchen is a model of 
equipment, with its electric bread mixers and other arrangements. Every- 
thing served is "homemade," and the opportunity offered the girls to 
secure home cooking, as well as neatly served food, is highly appreciated. 
Back of the large dining room is a small private dining room in which a 
girl may entertain a small party at dinner and have everything provided 
as comfortably as in her own home. The china is of the best and nothing 
has been left unprovided for the comfort and well being of the girls. 

Perhaps no building has provided more extensively for purely social 
life. The association has realized keenly from the very beginning the 
social need among hundreds of young women who have come to St. Paul 
as utter strangers, and who have no place, many of them, to entertain 
friends outside of a small bedroom. The building is admirably arranged 
for every phase of social life, and for all its other useful purposes. We 
have been thus specific in describing its features because its transcendent 
importance in the social and religious development of the city entitles it 
to permanent record as a long step forward in our municipal history. 

The fundamental purpose of the association is spiritual and trans- 
formation of character is the ultimate aim of every department. One of 
the distinctly religious features in the past has been the vesper service 
held each Sunday afternoon, when practical messages, helpful in every- 
day Christian life, have been presented. A committee of young women 
have visited the Union depot each Sunday to invite travelers to these 
meetings and many words of appreciation have been expressed by 
strangers. The Thursday noon meeting, which has been held each week 
in the living room, has been an encouraging feature of the work. Prac- 
tical talks, not always along strictly religious lines but always striking 
the spiritual note, have proven most helpful. The chapel on the second 
floor has been fitted in ecclestiastical style and will be devoted exclusively 
to meetings of this kind. Four classes in Bible study, arranged to form 
a four years' course, have been held at the same hour immediately follow- 
ing a class supper. 


Tho Boating, Tennis, Riding, Philothean, Geneva and South Ameri- 
can clubs, which have been so successfully carried on in the past, will 
be continued, and doubtless many other clubs will be formed a^ the 
membership increases. For the past year the association has had the 
services of a Travelers' aid secretary at the Union depot. She has been 
able to give valuable assistance to hundreds of women and girls. Women 
traveling with children have been assisted; girls have been met at the 
train in many instances guarded from evil agencies ; temporary and 
permanent boarding places have been secured through the instrumentality 
of this department. An employment agency, a boarding house directory, 
an information bureau and other useful adjuncts, are maintained. In a 
word, the sphere of activities is almost vmlimited. The West End branch 
has been organized for the colored women and girls of St. Paul. The 
branch has enrolled more than one hundred members, and the privileges 
offered have been much appreciated. Rooms on University avenue have 
been occupied during the last two years. A house at 633 Central avenue 
has been secured for the work. Classes have been held in Bible, mission 
study, cooking, sewing, millinery, physical training and music, and have 
been taught by the secretaries of the Central Association. 

The following are the officers of the Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciation of St. Paul : President, Mrs. Charles P. Noyes ; first vice presi- 
dent, Mrs. C. M. Power; second vice president, Mrs. Benjamin Longley; 
treasurer, Mrs. C. E. Riggs ; recording secretary, Mrs. Joseph Stronge ; 
general secretary. Miss Lillian Truesdell; associate secretary. Miss Ger- 
trude Sly; financial secretary, Miss Gertrude I. Williams; religious work 
director. Miss Ruth E. McComb ; house secretary, Mrs. Allie H. Fitz. 

National Campaign for Civic Betterment 

The functions of the Young Men's and the Young Women's Chris- 
tian associations in the new and important nation-wide campaign for 
civic betterment, are better appreciated every year. In his "Holy War" 
Bunyan likens the soul of man to a city which he calls "Mansoul," the 
gates to which are the five senses — Eargate, Nosegate. Mouthgate, etc. 
In the siege of this city the efforts of attackers and defenders alike are 
concentrated upon these gates, and it is through failure to guard them 
all properly that the besiegers win entrance, coming as insidiously as the 
titled foreign degenerate who lays his rank, his heart and his contagions 
at the feet of the American dowerette. What Bunyan saw so clearly 
more than two centuries ago in regard to the danger-points in the defenses 
of a man's soul, our municipal, state and national governments are just 
beginning to realize in regard to man's body, which, if neglected, imperils 
his soul. Hence the belated efforts to protect Nosegate, Mouthgate and 
the others from the attacks of the enemies of life, health and happiness. 
It was Eyegate that first attracted attention. Some one made the dis- 
covery that people of taste and refinement did not live by choice in cities 
that were uglv and unattractive, and the city beautiful campaign was 
launched. Later the warfare against the assailants of Nosegate and 
Mouthgate was taken up by commercial bodies, women's clubs and other 
organized instrumentalities for concentrating aroused public opinion. 
But none of these instrumentalities has been more effective in conducting 
a well-rounded propaganda of policies and principles that lead to a 
general and permanent uplift of the community, than the two praise- 
worthy institutions which are described in this chapter. 



Organization and Objects — Acker Post — Its Average Charter 
Member — Distinguished Members — Commanders of Depart- 
ments — Auxiliaries — Outside Work — Exultation for the 

Most imposing in character, comprehensive in principles, and numer- 
ous in membership of all the societies which grew out of the comradeship 
of the survivors of the Union army after the great war is the Grand 
Army of the Republic. It has survived all vicissitudes, — the indifference 
of friends, the opposition of foes, the assaults of time, — and still com- 
mands the devotion of its members as well as the respect of the com- 

Organization and Objects 

The Grand Army of the Republic was organized April 6, 1866, in 
Decatur, the county seat of Macon county, Illinois. Its originator was 
Dr. Benjamin F. Stephenson, a physician of Springfield, Illinois, who 
had served during the war as surgeon of the Fourteenth Illinois Infantry. 

The objects of the order cannot be better stated than those given in 
the Rules and Regulations : 

1. To preserve and strengthen those kind and fraternal feelings 
which bind together the soldiers, sailors and marines who united to 
suppress the late Rebellion, and to perpetuate the memory and history 
of the dead. 

2. To assist such former comrades in arms as need help and protec- 
tion, and to extend needful aid to the widows and orphans of those who 
have fallen. 

3. To maintain true allegiance to the United States of America, 
based upon a paramount respect for, and fidelity to its constitution and 

The first provisional department in Minnesota was organized in the 
governor's room at the capitol in St. Paul, on the evening of August 
I, 1866 — less than a month after the organization of the first department 
of the order and a little less than four months after the order itself 
was instituted. General W. R. Marshall, who was then governor, in- 
vited a number of ex-soldiers to meet at his office in the capitol to con- 
sider the expediency of starting the order in Minnesota. In response 
to that invitation the following persons attended and were duly mus- 
tered in by Colonel Snyder of Illinois, who was present, clothed with the 
necessary authority : 

Gen. John B. Sanborn, Gen. William R. ^Marshall, Gen. Horatio 



P. Van Cleve, Col. Ross Wilkinson, Lieut. Col. Henry C. Rogers, Maj. 
John Moulton, Maj. Hening von Winden, Maj. John P. Owens, Capt. 
E. Y. Shelley, Capt. Miles Hollister, Capt. Einil Munch, A. P. Connolly, 
Surgeon Jacob H. Stewart, Brewer Mattocks, Sergt. Edward Richards 
and M. R. Merrill. 

The following officers were elected: Grand commander. Gen. John 

B. Sanborn; adjutant general, Capt. E. Y. Shelley; assistant adjutant 
general, Lieut. A. P. Connolly. 

Acker Post 

This organization flourished vigorously for a time, but owing to the 
absence of General Sanborn from the state for a considerable period, 
fell into a comatose condition, and many of the posts disbanded includ- 
ing that at St. Paul. It was not until April, 1870, that, on the initiative 
of Henry A. Castle and Hiram A. Kimball, measures were taken which 
resulted in Acker Post, which is still full of life and vigor after a con- 
tinuous existence of over forty-two years. 

Pursuant to invitation there assembled on the evening of April 8, 
1870, at the law office of Kimball & Davidson, twenty ex-Union soldiers 
who had agreed to become members of the proposed post. Fifteen other 
eligibles, who were unable for various reasons to attend the first meeting, 
was subsequently mustered in and became charter members. The orig- 
inal "muster in" was conducted under orders from department head- 
quarters by Comrade H. G. Hicks of Minneapolis, a past department 

The following are the names of the charter members of Acker Post: 
Henry A. Castle, Hiram A. Kimball, Mark D. Flower, T. S. White, A. 
R. McGill, W. H. Dixon, J. Sanford Dixon, James H. Davidson, Wil- 
liam Penner. E. H. Judson^ D. Kennedy, J. P. Leitner. Henry T. Johns, 
Homer C. Eller, J. B. Chanev. George T. Browning, William H. Brown, 
John Smith, J. A. Roby, E.'H. Wood. Dr. J. H. Murphy. B. Brack. J. 

C. Becht, F. G. Brown, George M. Brack, H. W. Busse, J. B. Ashel- 
man, A. P. Connolly, James H. Donaldson, R. A. Lanpher, W. S. Peck, 
O. W. Sears, Dr. J. H. Stewart, John Way and Wilford C. Wilson. 

Of these charter members only the following are known to be still 
living: Davidson, Castle, Connolly, Lanpher, B. Brack and Way. 

The organization of the post was perfected by the election of Henry 
A. Castle, post commander; Hiram A. Kimball, S. V. C. ; T. S. White, 
T. V. C. ; A. R. McGill, quartermaster; M. D. Flower, adjutant; J. H. 
"Murphv, surgeon; W. H. Dixon, officer of the day; J. P. Leitner, offi- 
cer of the guard. 

At the second meeting it was unanimously decided to adopt the name 
of Acker Post in honor of the memory of Captain W. H. Acker, orig- 
inally of the First Minnesota Volunteers and later of the Sixteenth United 
States Tnfantrv. an honored young soldier from St. Paul, who was 
killed in the battle of Shiloh, in April. 1862. 

The post thus launched on its existence devoted its first energies to 
the celebration of Memorial Day on the thirtieth of ATav follo\ying. 
This was done with a zeal and enthusiasm that commanded the univer- 
sal approval of the community, and brought about one of the largest 
demonstrations that had. un to that time, ever taken place in St. Paul. 
The parade was most brilliant, embracing manv military and civic so- 
cieties, the fire department, etc. Gen. H. H. Sibley was chief marshal 



and the division commanders were Generals Willis A. Gorman and John 
T. Averill, Col. C. S. Uline and Major J. H. Donaldson. At Oakland 
Cemetery the post commander presided and addresses were delivered 
by the post commander and by Col. E. A. Calkins, Capt. Cushman K. 
Davis and Ex-Gov. William R. Marshall. Services were also held in 
the Lutheran and Catholic cemeteries. Those at the latter were in charge 
of Comrade Rev. John Ireland, who from the beginning manifested deep 
interest in the welfare of Acker Post and in the conduct of all its patriotic 
observances. He afterwards became a member of the post. 

From this time on, for seven or eight years, Acker Post maintained 
a vigorous and successful existence. It was the only Grand Army 


organization in St. Paul, grew to a membership of perhaps two hun- 
dred comrades, embracing many of the leading men in the city and it 
engaged in numerous enterprises for the public good. 

Remembering its cardinal principles — fraternity, charity, loyalty — 
it embraced all these within the sphere of its activities. A large majority 
of its membership consisted of soldiers who had served from other 
states and were now residents of Minnesota. These it merged into a 
homogeneous body, creating ties of friendship and business interest which 
lasted through life. 

By various public entertainments, including the successful presenta- 
tion of four highly interesting and instructive military dramas, the post 
raised a substantial relief fund, aggregating more than $2,000, which was 
carefully disbursed by its committees for the relief of stranded ex-sol- 


diers passing through the city, and of the widows and orphans of those 
vvho had fallen during the war, or who had died thereafter. It is a 
significant fact, and one highly creditable to the energy and industry 
of the members of the post, that for at least seven years not a single 
application for relief came from any of the members; all the disburse- 
ments were made for the benefit of those outside of the organization. 
All the post comrades were, at least, self-supporting. 

About three years after the post was formed, occurred the grass- 
hopper visitation on the Alinnesota frontier which had been largely 
settled by discharged soldiers. Great destitution prevailed among these 
comrades and the energies of Acker Post were taxed to the utmost 
during the following winter seasons in gathering and forwarding sup- 
plies of clothing, etc., which enabled these afflicted homesteaders to re- 
tain their claims, and carried them through to the period of prosperity, 
which thereafter came to them. 

During this period also, the post was extremely active in organizing 
and assisting the Minnesota State Soldiers' Orphans' Home, at Winona, 
advancing considerable sums of money for its support in emergencies and 
helping in every way to promote this noble charity which, during a period 
of twelve years, furnished support and education for about three hundred 
orphaned chidren of men who had given their lives to their countrv, dur- 
ing the War of the Rebellion. 

On February 20, 1873, Acker Post was duly incorporated under the 
statutes of the State of Minnesota and thus became a legal body qualified 
to make contracts, hold property and perform other corporate functions. 

From 1878 to 1881, a period ensued during which the post lapsed into a 
comatose condition, owing partly to the fact that its principal object seemed 
to have been largely attained and partly to the intense preoccupation in 
their private affairs of several of those who had given much time to build- 
ing up and maintaining its interest. The old name and number were re- 
tained, however ; occasional meetings were held, and the per capita tax was 
regularly paid by the post to department headquarters. When the period 
of resurrection came, a new charter was accepted under protest, but the 
post always, insisted that its existence had been continuous, and that con- 
tention was officially ratified by the acknowledgement of its past command- 
ers by the department authorities, and its full recognition as an existing 
body from the date of its original charter. 

After 1881 the growth and prosperity of the post were continuous for 
more than twenty years, until like other organizations of veterans, it 
reached a high tide in its membership after the Ijeginning of the twentieth 
century. But at no time has it maintained a higher position or made a 
more honorable record than during the first six or seven years of its ex- 
istence, when its work, as a somewhat direct result of the recent war, was 
more spectacular than at a later date. During the entire forty-two years, 
Acker Post has, on each successive Memorial Day, conducted, either alone 
or in cooperation with sister posts, the tender observance of strewing the 
graves of departed comrades with the flowers of springtime in memory 
of their heroic services. Nearly one thousand graves of ex-soldiers in 
our different cemeteries are thus honored every year. As a post it has also 
conducted or participated in many celebrations of Independence Day and 
other national holidays. It has moreover borne a part in innumerable civic 
observances of interest to the city, thus testifying to its public spirit and 
devotion to the common weal. 


Its Average Charter Member 

Going back to the beginning of Acker Post, it may be said of its aver- 
age member : 

He was about twenty-eight years old. 

He was just entering active business or professional life, but had al- 
ready passed through three momentous decades of his country's history. 
The decade from 1841 to 1850 had been the boyhood era of the coming 
Union soldier. The decade from 1851 to i860 had been the era of prepa- 
ration. That from 1861 to 1870 had been the era of achievement and re- 
adjustment — first, four years of war and wounds and peril ; then six years 
of education or business and professional training, taking up the suspended 
threads of opportunity, and getting established for his life work. He was 
a clerk, a bookkeeper, a junior partner, a young lawyer, waiting for 
clients, or perhaps a traveling salesman ; he was fairly merged again into 
the ranks of productive citizenship. He had been a better soldier for hav- 
ing been a citizen and he was now a better citizen for having been a 

He had gone through rare and radiant experiences, but how much he 
had yet to see and to learn! He had helped to make history, but how 
much more he was destined to make and observe! He was wise to the 
marvels of a splendid civilization, but he had never seen or heard of an 
electric light, a telephone, a phonograph, a perfecting press, a typesetting 
machine, a self-binding reaper, a typewriter, an automobile, a fountain 
pen, an aeroplane, a wireless telegram, a special delivery stamp, a grape 
fruit, a hobble skirt or a merry widow hat. Microbes, meningitis, and the 
vermiform appendi.x were undreamed of, though doubtless existent — 
measles, small-pox and graybacks had been sufficiently aggressive during 
the war period. The song of the musical mule yet charmed his memories ; 
the odor of bacon broiling on a ramrod was still an appetizing reminis- 

Ulysses S. Grant was president of the United States ; Horace Austin 
was governor of Minnesota : Alexander Ramsey and Daniel S. Norton 
were our senators; Morton S. Wilkinson and Eugene M. Wilson were the 
state's only representatives in congress. Robert A. Smith had not yet 
commenced serving as mayor of St. Paul — it was a long time ago. 

Louis Napoleon was emperor of France ; Theodore Roosevelt and 
William H. Taft were boys in knickerbockers ; the average Spanish war 
veteran of today was yet unborn. Men were then living who had been 
cradled in the storms of the Revolution ; soldiers of the War of 181 2 still 
numerously abounded ; the Mexican war was recent history ; the aboli- 
tion of human slavery was scarcely yet recognized as an accomplished 
fact — echoes of the snap of the lash and the hiss of the branding iron 
still lingered in the air. 

The commanders of Acker Post, from the date of its organization to 
the present have been the following: Henry A. Castle, Mark D. Flower, 
George T. Browning, Zene C. Bohrer, True S. White, Jacob Meese, Wil- 
ford C. Wilson, Joseph J. McCardy, W. H. Brown, Walter T. Burr, W. 
H H Taylor, Edward Simonton, Roswell V. Pratt, William T- Sleppv, 
Charles D. Parker, I. H. B. Beebee, C. J. Stees, J. B. Chaney, E. C. 
Starkey, T. W. Forbes, M. K. Williams. George R. Lewis, R. A. Becker, 
Patrick Henry, George N. Lanphere, Frank B. Doran, A. M. Bartlett, 
R. H. L. Jewett, Gideon S. Ives, John P. Larkin, Sidney Smith, Isaac L. 


Mahan, J. L. Brigham, Frank D. Garrity, E. S. Chittenden, Jolin W. 
Cramsie, James H. Davidson and W. W. Hall. 

The total number of names enrolled on the books of Acker Post is 
about six hundred. These names represent honorably discharged ex- 
soldiers from every loyal state and from every branch of military serv- 
ice — cavalry, infantry, and artillery ; regulars and volunteers ; white and 
colored; old and young. Men of all ranks, from private to major gen- 
eral, have signed this roll and in the broad democracy of their comrade- 
ship all stood on a plane of absolute equality. But, as the best soldier 
in the army was always proudest of his commanders, so the average 
membership of Acker Post rejoices in the fact that on that roll are found 
inscribed the signatures of officers who held high positions in the war- 
time and of ex-soldiers who have been recognized by their fellow-citizens 
in all avenues of public activity, as worthy to be trusted with the honors 
and responsibilities of public ofifice. 

DisTiXGUisiiED Members 

Collecting from this roll some conspicuous examples of those who 
have been thus promoted or have been distinguished during their mili- 
tary and civil careers, and in professional or business life, since the close 
of the war, the following illustrations of the principle referred to are 
submitted : 

Governors of Minnesota: Sibley, Marshall, Davis, Hubbard and 

United States Senator: C. K. Davis. 

Representatives in congress : John T. Averill, J. H. Stewart and 

A. R. Kiefer. 

Mayors of St. Paul : A. R. Kiefer and F. B. Doran. 

Sheriffs of Ramsev county: J. C. Becht and Charles Chapel. 

Postmasters of St.' Paul : ' J. H. Stewart, H. A. Castle, A. R. IMcGill 
and M. D. Flower. 

Flolding other prominent offi.cial positions under the state and na- 
tional governments. R. N. -McLaren, W. H. H. Taylor, W. W. Braden, 

B. W. Brunson. J. P. IMcIlrath. Charles Kittelson, J. J. McCardy, Charles 
D. Kerr, Norman Perkins, James H. Donaldson, E. D. Libby, James H. 
Baker and J. C. Donahower. 

Colonels of Minnesota regiments: J. W. Bishop, C. C. Andrews, 
John B. Sanborn, L. F. Hubbard, James H. Baker, R. N. McLaren and 
John T. Averill. 

Officers of the Regular Armv : Gen. E. C. Mason, Gen. M. R. Mor- 
gan. Gen. R. W. Johnson. Col.' C. H. Alden, Col. H. R. Tilton, Maj. 
John Kelliher, Maj. George Q. White, Maj. W. R. Bourne, ]Maj. F. D. 
Garrity and Capt. Josias R. King. 

Prominent in the professional iife of the city: Most Rev. John 
Ireland, archbishop of St. Paul ; Rev. Dr. S. Y. IMc^Iasters, Revs. C. C. 
Griswold, E. J. Funk, William McKinlev. Clav Macaulev and Sidney 
Smith: Doctors D. W. Hand, J. H. IMurp'hv. S.'D. Flagg, C. C. Higbee, 
P. F. Dillon, D. R. Greenlee. Parks Ritchie. W. Richeson and D. K. 
Caldwell; Attorneys H. A. Kimball, C. K. Davis, Warren H. Mead. 
James H. Davidson, W. T. Burr, H. C. Eller. E. Simonton, C. J. Thomp- 
son, Harvey Officer. John Espey, E. S. Chittenden and Charles D. Kerr. 

Active in St. Paul journalism: E. V. Smaliey, A. P. Connolly, Ed- 


ward Richards, H. A. Castle, George B. Winship, H. T. Johns and John 
M. Keatly. 

The following, in addition to numbers of those already classified, have 
been conspicuous in the business affairs of St. Paul and the northwest, 
including its financial and transportation interests : C. W. Hackett, D. 
R. Noyes, J. C. Hamilton, H. P. Grant, James H. Drake, C. H. Kellogg, 
B. F. Wright, C. H. Osgood, Z. C. Bohrer, Henry Hasenwinkle, W. A. 
Van Slyke, Albert Scheffer, Joseph Lockey, J. W. Lusk, Henry L. Car- 
ver, C. A. Zimmermann, W. H. Dixon, George W. Cross, J. P. Larkin, 
T. Doherty and J. C. Becht. 

In the earliest days of Acker Post many valued comrades identified 
themselves with it, applied for membership, but through failure to com- 
plete the then complicated process of "muster in," or through defects in 
the first records, their names do not appear on the rolls. They were to 
all intents and purposes members. They contributed in time and money 
to its work, marched in its parades, participated in its public exercises 
and rejoiced in their eligibility to comradeship. It is a pleasure to recall 
a few of their names at this point, and pay this tribute to their honored 
memory. Among them were Gen. W. A. Gorman, Gen. W. S. Hancock, 
Gov. Horace Austin, Col. James Gilfillan, Gen. S. D. Sturgis, Gen. Geo. 
Sykes, Col. Jas. F. Jaquess, Col. J. H. Hammond, Col. C. W. Griggs, 
Col. Wm. Crooks, Gen. A. Baird, Gen. O. D. Greene, Col. C. S. Uline, 
Gen. A. H. Terry, Gen. T. H. Ruger and Gen. John R. Brooke. 

Among the patriotic citizens whose sympathy and aid was ever at 
command, and who are specially entitled to grateful mention here, were: 
Alexander Ramsey, Henry M. Rice, Frederick Driscoll, Thomas Coch- 
ran, Chas. E. Flandrau, A. B. Stickney, John S. Prince, William B. Dean, 
Wilford L. Wilson and James J. Hill. 

Commanders of Dep.vrtments 

As bearing more directly on the esteem in which members of this 
post have been held by their associates, it may be stated that nine of 
them have been elected commanders of the Department of Minnesota, 
G. A. R., viz. : Comrades Hamilton, Castle, Becker, Parker, Ives, Mc- 
Cardy, Starkweather, Mahan and Compton. In addition. Comrades Geo. 
B. Winship and W. H. Brown have been commanders of the Depart- 
ment of North Dakota, and Comrade U. S. Hollister has been com- 
mander of the Department of Colorado, since severing their connection 
with Acker Post. 

Twelve commanders of the Minnesota Commandery, Military Order 
of the Loyal Legion, have been chosen from among the comrades of 
Acker Post, as have all the recorders of the commandery since it was 
organized in 1885. 

Notwithstanding the exceptional number who have achieved distinc- 
tion in public and private stations, the comrades of Acker Post have al- 
ways maintained inviolate the principles of absolute fraternity. No ex- 
cessive annual dues have ever been exacted in order to secure "exclu- 
siveness." No expensive uniforms or other extravagances have been in- 
dulged in. Honor as a soldier and merit as a citizen have been the tests 

During the forty-two years continuous life of Acker Post several 
other posts of the order have been established in St. Paul. Two of 
them, Ord and Gettysburg posts, after some years of usefulness, volun- 


tarily disbanded and a considerable number of their members united 
with Acker, and Garfield Post No. 8, organized in 1882, is still a vigor- 
ous contemporary and colleague in all good works. 


The Woman's Relief Corps, auxiliary to Acker Post, has been for 
twenty years a welcome aid, in many cases indeed the acknowledged 
leader, in the fraternal, charitable and patriotic enterprises it has under- 

St. Paul Camp, Sons of \'eterans, for nearly an equal period has co- 
operated in reducing the burdens entailed upon the post. 

Acker Post has occupied during its career a dozen meeting places in 




various localities, but in 1905 was granted, by the state, commodious 
quarters in the old capitol, which may no doubt be regarded, henceforth, 
as its permanent home. 

The National Encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic in 
St. Paul in 1S96, and those held in Minneapolis in 1884 and 1906, en- 
gaged the enthusiastic attention of the post, both as to participation in 
parades and the entertainment of visitors. All these occasions were of 
transcendent interest and of inestimable value to the public, as object les- 
sons in patriotism. 

Accused, in the beginning, of political objects, and of a tendency to 
keep alive the animosities of the war, the Grand Army of the Republic 
has long since vindicated itself from these aspersions. With a mem- 
bership representing all parties e.xccpt anarchists and all sects except 


Mormons, the post has been, from the beginning, free from the slightest 
suspicion of partisanship or intolerance. 

Outside Work 

The Minnesota Soldiers' Home has, from its inception, been an object 
of the fostering care of this post. One of its members drafted the law 
creating the institution ; another, as governor, signed it when passed ; 
comrades of the post have rendered more than twenty years' gratuitous 
service on its board of trustees, one of them serving twelve years as 
president of the board, and another serving as president at this time. 

When the war with Spain came on, perhaps two score of the sons of 
members of Acker Post entered their country's service. The St. Paul 
Camp, Sons of Veterans, volunteered and served as a body. Our hon- 
ored comrade, L. F. Hubbard, has the distinction of being the only Min- 
nesotan commissioned by President McKinley as a brigader general of 
volunteers in that contest. 

One of the later and most creditable of the achievements of Acker 
Post was the erection of the St. Paul Soldiers' Monument at Summit 
Park. Efforts have been made to question this fact, but the records 
show that this post inaugurated the plan by formal resolution; that its 
committee headed by Joseph J. McCardy, on whose willing shoulders 
rested the chief responsibility, carried on the work, from securing the 
site to conducting the dedication. The official records of Acker Post, 
as well as of the city and county governments, bear witness to the truth 
of this assertion. The archives of the State Historical Society are the 
depository of the conclusive proofs. Here, he who cares to investigate 
the question, may always find them. 

Exultation for the Future 

Forty-two years have passed since the thirty-five charter members of 
Acker Post affixed their names to its honorable roll. As time went on, 
a goodly company of their comrades and contemporaries gathered around 
them and a fraternity was formed with ties no other association can 
equal. A eulogist of the post, said on a recent anniversary occasion: 
"The ranks are thinned, but there is exultation and not sadness in the 
hearts of the survivors, as they greet with broadened vision the glories 
of the rising future. 

"Their ranks are thinned, but their works do follow them. Acker 
Post has been a potent influence for good in this wonderfully progressive 
and prosperous community. It has stood for law and order, for honor 
and purity in private dealings and public affairs. It has been a beacon 
of patriotic illumination to the polyglot nationalities which have helped 
expand the population of St. Paul from 15,000 to 250,000 during its 
memorable career. 

"Individually, the members of this post have, in widely differing 
spheres of activity, done their part in building up the city and the state. 
Collectively, they have helped to stimulate the affection for the nation 
they fought to save. 

"The Grand Army of the Republic is unique in having no pledge of 
perpetuity. Its membership is not replaced. Twenty years hence the 
surviving comrades of Acker Post, if any, will be few and feeble, and its 


ranks will have been disbanded. Forty years hence, it will have become, 
perhaps, a fading memory. 

"But the patriotic forces it has inspired will be still in vigorous 
operation, to freshen the glories of the flag, to brighten the destinies of 
rising generations of freemen, and to strengthen the all-conquering im- 
pulses of progressive, exultant, triumphant Americanism." 



Soldiers Descendants, the Stanchest Reformers — Americanizing 
Inferior Immigrants — Sons of the American Revolution — 
Daughters of the American Revolution — Affiliated with the 
Grand Army of the Republic — Military Order of the Loyal 
Legion — Order of the Cincinnati — The Spirit of the Sons — 
Early Settlers and Their Descendants — Military Organiza- 
tions of Germans. 

The place occupied in the American life of the twentieth century by 
the various patriotic societies which have been organized among our 
citizens, is of great importance to the future well-being of the nation. 
They are buttresses of law and order; bulwarks of patriotism; beacon- 
lights of rational freedom ; custodians of priceless national, state and local 

We hear large segments of our people clamoring for deliverance from 
the grasp of the boss on the one hand and the guile of the demagogue 
on the other — protesting against machine politics, corporate domination, 
plutocratic greed and socialistic nostrums. From certain sections come 
the pungent fumes of applauded lynchings ; the shrieks of enslaved thou- 
sands in blood-stained prison camps ; the expostulations of disfranchised 
millions, to whom "the consent of the governed" is a sterile sarcasm. In 
other sections, we are pointed to festering abscesses in state and munici- 
pal government, tainting the air with the deadly fetors of political cor- 
ruption. From various congested localities come the imported roar and 
tumult and jargon of mongrel, alien races, seething with sporadic revolt 
in the alembic of assimilation. 

Evils like these must be encountered and vanquished before we can 
have a perfect peace. Meantime, other evils will be generated in the 
measureless caverns of human cupidity and venality. Thus the never 
ending warfare goes on, between the forces of error on the one side 
and on the other those who stand in all sincerity and manliness for an 
uplift of political honor, of culture, of morals, of religion undefiled. 

Soldierly Descendants, the Stanchest Reformers 

But the forces that stand for the uplift must be organized and affili- 
ated, and earnestly co-operative in their laudable efforts, if success is to 
be expected. And strange as it may seem, the fact remains, that the men 
who are most dependable for this organized and federated effort to 
garner the harvests of peace and ensure the progress of civilization, are 
the survivors of the wars of the republic and the descendants of its 



gallant soldiers in past generations. The surviving veterans of the L'nion, 
with the vows of their unselfish, youthful consecration still vivid in their 
inmost souls, demanding honor and purity in public affairs, have stood 
four-square against the wrongs that we deplore. Rejoicing in the splen- 
dors of a dimless reminiscence, they have done their share to promote 
the genuine reforms which alone can work a cure. The young soldiers 
of the Spanish-.-\merican war, and the Philippine campaigns have later 
incentives to organization and the sons of the Union veterans, with 
the descendants of Revolutionary and Colonial wars, and their auxil- 
iaries among the patriotic women, all have abundant incentives for the 
formation of their several societies, and should all be encouraged to 
extend and perpetuate them. 

The great problem of properly assimilating and Americanizing an 
enormous annual immigration, each immigrant a thermal unit of dynamic 
energy for good or evil, largely depends for its proper solution on the 
wisdom and activity of the churches, the press, the patriotic societies 
and the managers of our educational system. 

Americ.\nizing Inferior Immigr.xnts 

From July i, 1819, to June 30, 1910, 27,818,710 immigrants were 
admitted to the United States. Of this number 91.5 per cent came from 
European countries, which countries are the source of about 93.5 per 
cent of the present immigration movement. From 1819 to 1883 more 
than 95 per cent of the total immigration from Europe originated in the 
United Kingdom, Germany, Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Belgium, 
France and Switzerland. Following 1883, there was a rapid change in 
the ethnical character of European immigration, and in recent years more 
than 70 per cent of the movement has originated in southern and eastern 
Europe. In a single generation .Austria-Hungary, Italy and Russia have 
succeeded the United Kingdom and (iermany as the chief sources of 
immigration. In fact, each of the three countries first named furnished 
more immigrants to the United States in 1907, than came in the same 
year from the United Kingdom, Germany, Scandinavia, France, the 
Netherlands, Belgium and Switzerland combined. 

The old immigration movement in recent years has rapidly declined, 
both numerically and relatively, and under present conditions there arc 
no indications that it will materially increase. The new immigration 
movement is very large, and there are few, if any, indications of its 
natural abatement. The new immigration, coming in such large num- 
bers, has provoked a widespread feeling of apprehension as to its effect 
on the economic and social welfare of the country. As a class the new 
immigrants are largely unskilled laborers, coming from countries where 
their highest wage is small compared with the lowest wage in the United 
States. Nearly 75 per cent of them are males. About 83 per cent are 
between the ages of 14 and 43 years, and consequently are producers 
rather than dependents. They bring little money into the country and 
send or take a considerable part of their earnings out. More than 35 
per cent are illiterate as compared with less than 3 per cent of the old 
immigrant class. 

These facts, taken from the reports of the United States Immigra- 
tion Commission, strongly emphasize the importance of the educational 
work required in .Americanizing tliis tremendous influx of foreigners. 


The task of assimilating the new immigration is manifestly a far greater 
one than that which confronted our fathers. In the matter of languages, 
racial traits and social environments, these new comers are infinitely 
farther removed from the standards we wish them to achieve, than were 
our welcome kinsmen from northwestern Europe, whose transition was 
readily accomplished. 

Sons of the American Revolution 

Among the patriotic societies of St. Paul, basing its foundation 
on ancestral services, perhaps the foremost is that of the Sons of the 
American Revolution. It is a state association and was organized De- 
cember 26, 1889. It now has 533 members. Its purposes and objects 
are declared to be patriotic, historical and educational, and include those 
intended or designed to perpetuate the memory of the men who, by their 
services or sacrifices during the war of the American Revolution, achieved 
the independence of the American people ; to unite and promote fellow- 
ship among their descendants ; to inspire them and the community at 
large with a more profound reverence for the principles of the govern- 
ment ; to encourage historical research in relation to the American Revo- 
lution ; to acquire and preserve the records of the individual services of 
the patriots of the war for independence, as well as documents, relics, 
and landmarks ; to mark the scenes of the Revolution by appropriate 
memorials ; to celebrate the anniversaries of the prominent events of the 
war and of the Revolutionary period ; to foster true patriotism ; to main- 
tain and extend the institutions of American freedom, and to carry out 
the purposes expressed in the preamble of the constitution of our coun- 
try and the injunctions of Washington in his farewell address. 

Any man is eligible to membership in the society, who, being of the 
age of twenty-one years or over and a citizen of good repute in the 
community, is the lineal descendant of an ancestor who was at all times 
unfailing in his loyalty to, and rendered active service in, the cause of 
American independence, either as an officer, soldier, seaman, marine, 
militiaman or minute man ; or as a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence ; or as a member of a committee of safety or correspondence ; 
or as a member of any congress or legislature ; or as a recognized patriot 
who performed actual service by overt acts of resistance to the authority 
of Great Britain. 

The founders of the Minnesota society were John B. Sanborn, Al- 
bert Edgerton, George K. Shaw, A. S. Tallmadge, Rev. E. C. Mitchell, 
John W. Boxell, Sherwood Hough, C. B. Palmer, R. R. Nelson, G. H. 
Moffett, Benjamin Nute and E. W. Durant. Albert Edgerton was first 
president; A. S. Tallmadge, secretary, and Douglas Putnam, treasurer. 
Among its active officials in subsequent years, were W. H. Grant, S. J. 
R. McMillan, H. P. Upham, E. S. Chittenden, D. R. Noyes, D. D. Mer- 
rill, Alex Ramsey and W. D. Washburn. 

The officers of the society are: President, Edward P. Sanborn, St. 
Paul ; vice presidents — Saxe G. L. Roberts, Pine City ; Ambrose D. 
Countryman, Appleton ; Stillman H. Bingham, Duluth ; Gen. Lewis A. 
Grant, Minneapolis ; — secretary, Charles H. Bronson, St. Paul ; assistant 
secretary, Ernest A. Countryman, St. Paul ; treasurer, Edward S. Strin- 
ger, St. Paul; registrar, Charles Stees, St. Paul; historian, Henry A. 
Castle, St. Paul ; chaplain. Rev. M. D. Edwards, D. D., St. Paul. 

The Sons of the Revolution, an organization for similar purposes. 


and with substantially the same conditions of membership, has also a 
state society, closely affiliated with that just mentioned. 

The Society of the Sons of the American Revolution has done good 
work during the last twenty years in the erection of numerous monu- 
ments and tablets commemorative of the important events and the emi- 
nent patriots of the War for Independence. Much has also been accom- 
plished toward the permanent preservation of the records of that period. 
During the last four years the society has been carrying on a still greater 
work in preserving the principles and the institutions founded by the 
men of 1776. The millions of aliens in the United States are being taught 
what the nation stands for, what it means for them to become a part of 
the body politic, participating in the duties and responsibilities of active 
citizens in an intelligent manner. 

The immigrants of today may be the good Americans of tomorrow, 
if they are made to know their privileges and their duties in their 
adopted country. The children of our alien population may become 
leaders in the advancement of American ideals. The composite char- 
acter of our nation is an advantage, in that it gives to it a variant energy 
and a distinctive type of American character. 

The committee on information for aliens has distributed hundreds 
of thousands of leaflets throughout the land wherever aliens congregate, 
telling them in a dozen different languages what they most need to know 
about the government and our institutions. Another leaflet, printed in 
English only, explains the importance of becoming naturalized citizens. 
The society's leaflets have been made text books in many schools of 
children of aliens in our large cities ; they have been widely distributed 
in settlements of foreigners ; newly arrived immigrants have been en- 
couraged to leave the cities and their evil influence and take up employ- 
ment in regions of the country where they may more speedily become 
active factors in civil and business affairs and in the general promotion 
of the nation's industrial growth. 

Daughters of the Revolution 

The Daughters of the American Revoluti(jn, the largest and most 
aggressive association of patriotic women in the world, now 90,000 
strong, is well represented in St. Paul. It is entirely independent of 
the Sons though w^orking for similar jjurposes, and is organized into 
local "chapters" which, in turn, are represented in state and national 
congresses. The annual congresses of the Daughters held in Continental 
Hall, their own splendid building at Washington, D. C. are events of 
national interest. The chapters in St. Paul are St. Paul, Distaff', and 
Nathan Hale, all well organized and ready for any good work. 

The Daughters of the American Revolution of the Twin City have 
assumed the patriotic task of buying, restoring and furnishing the old 
home of Gen. H. H. Sibley, at Mendota. which next to the Round Tower 
at Fort Snelling is our most valued antif|uity. They aim to have the 
house as nearly as possible as it was when hiiilt, and decorative cff^ects 
and furnishings are being carried out with this idea in mind. The in- 
terior is finished in white, and each chajncr will provide for decorating 
and furnishing its own room. 

The Colonial Dames, the Society of Colonial Wars and other associa- 
tions based on descent from the earlier generations of .'\mericans. have 
branches in the city, wMth a membership less numerous than those we 


have named, but not less inspired by patriotic zeal for the preservation 
of republican institutions. 

The Grand Army of the Republic, the all-embracing organization of 
the veterans of the War for the Union, has been given in another chapter 
the consideration due to its unique character, high aims, and great achieve- 
ments. Subsidiary to it are numerous associations for ex-soldiers and 
sailors by regiments, by battalions, as naval veterans, ex-prisoners of 
war, etc., by means of which the fraternal ties that bind the comrades are 
preserved and strengthened, while the principle of unswerving loyalty is 
religiously cherished. There is also the Union Veteran Union with a 
goodly membership of battle-service comrades. 

Affiliated With the Grand Army of the Republic. 

Auxiliary to the Grand Army of the Republic, are the Woman's Re- 
lief Corps, and the Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic. These or- 
ganizations have done and are doing a noble work in aiding needy veter- 
ans in providing comforts and delicacies for inmates of the Soldiers' 
Home, and in giving patriotic entertainments which have a distinctly bene- 
ficial historical and educational influence. These societies are : Acker Relief 
Corps No. 7 ; Garfield Relief Corps No. 5 ; Hancock Regiment Woman's 
Veteran Relief Union; the Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic; 
Ladies' Auxiliary No. 12 to the Sons of Veterans and Daughters of Veter- 
ans. Each of them is subordinate to a state organization, which usually 
maintains a headquarters in St. Paul. In one sense the society of "The 
Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic" is not auxiliary to the Grand 
Army of the Republic. Its members consider themselves a part of it. 
Every honorably discharged soldier and his family may become members 
of the order. The order is not designed to be purely charitable, but is 
social as well. The national organization was perfected in Chicago on the 
i8th day of November, 1886. At this first convention only four states 
were represented viz. — New Jersey, Pennsylvania, California and Illinois. 
Miss Laura McNeir of Camden, New Jersey, was elected president. The 
membership at that time was 2,473. At the present time there are de- 
partments in twenty-eight states and territories and a membership of 
more than 20,000. 

The ofiicially recognized "auxiliary of the G. A. R" is the Woman's 
Relief Corps. Its avowed objects are to assist the Grand Army of the 
Republic to perpetuate the memory of their heroic dead; to aid needy 
■ veterans and their widows and orphans and find for the latter homes 
and employment; to cherish and emulate the deeds of army nurses and 
other women who rendered loving service in the war ; to maintain alle- 
giance to the Union and inculcate patriotism among children. All women 
over sixteen years of age of good moral character and deportment, who 
have not given aid and comfort to the enemies of the Union, and who 
would perpetuate the principles of the association, are eligible to mem- 
bership. The Woman's Relief Corps, in its national capacity, dates from 
July, 1883. It was formed by representatives of various soldiers' aid 
societies and relief associations, which then existed under different forms 
in sixteen states, some of them organized during the war. It has a full 
system of reports, maintains strict discipline, and imposes secrecy for 
the protection of its beneficiaries and members. The national conven- 
tion meets annually at the same time and place as the Grand Arrny. The 
corps has endowed and supports a national home for the wives and 



mothers of soldiers and dependent army nurses; it has led to the found- 
ing of soldiers' homes in many states, and has built a lary;e number of 
monuments, memorial lialls, etc. During the year ended June 15, 191 1, 
the Woman's Relief Corps, of Minnesota, besides expending $2,047 cash 
for relief and bestowing charities otiier than money estimated at $5,220, 
contributed $511.35 to the department treasury of the Grand Army of 
the Republic. The aggregate amount of patriotic and charitable work 
done in the state of IMinnesota every year by these working bodies of 
loyal women is simply incalculable. 

The Sons of \'eterans is an association composed of descendants of 
honorably discharged Union soldiers, and is gradually assuming the patri- 
otic work of the Grand Army of the Republic, as the comrades of that 
great order, reduced in numbers and enfeebled by age, consent to surren- 
der portions of it to the willing hands of their energetic sons. St. Paul 
Camp No. i, Sons of Veterans, was organized twenty-five years ago, 




and has numbered in its ranks some of our prominent citizens. When 
the Spanish war broke out, this camp, which had for some years held 
a company status in the National Guard of Minnesota, enlisted en masse, 
in the Fourteenth Regiment, Minnesota Infantry \'olunteers, May 15, 
1898, and went to the front, the new generation emulating the gallantry of 
their sires in promptly rallying to the defense of their country's flag. 
The present officers of the camp are : John Gunther, commander : Geo. 
T. Drake, secretary, and George Doran, treasurer. Thomas P. O'Reagan 
of St. Paul is commander of the division of Minnesota and George T. 
Drake, secretary and treasurer. The "sons" emulate the Grand .Armv of 
the Republic in the practice of true fraternity. The equality for which 
some men yearn is an equality with superiors and a superiority to e(|uals. 
But both these orders practice what they preach — a genuine equality. 

The e.x-soldiers of the war with Spain and of the camiiaigns in the 
Philippines also have their associations to perpetuate their comradeship, 
preserve their history and encourage patriotic observances. The United 


Spanish War Veterans maintain Worth Bagley Camp and an auxiliary, 
with headquarters at the old Capitol. Camp Mervin M. Carleton, No. 4, 
Army of the Philippines, meets once a month at the same hall. C. W. 
Albretch is commander and William F. Lewis is adjutant. 

Military Order of the Loyal Legion 

One of the most successful and influential organizations having in 
view the inculcation of patriotic principles and the transmittal of correct 
history is the Military Order of the Loyal Legion, which maintains a 
state society of large membership with headcjuarters in St. Paul. It 
holds monthly meetings alternately at St. Paul and Minneapolis during 
eight months each year, at each of which a bancjuet is served and a his- 
torical paper is read. The meeting in February of each year is made 
specially notable by the presence of ladies and other guests, and by a 
dedication of the exercises to the memory of Abraham Lincoln, whose 
birthday anniversary occurs on February 12th. 

The Military Order of the Loyal Legion was instituted at Philadelphia 
in April, 1865, The following is the preamble to the original constitu- 
tion: "We, officers and honorably discharged members of the army, 
navy and marine corps of the United States whose names are annexed, 
do acknowledge, as binding upon the conscience and required by all the 
precepts of our holy religion, as a part of our allegiance to God, un- 
qualified loyalty to the government of the United States of North Am- 
erica ; and, in remembrance of the dangers and glories of this sacred 
duty, do hereby solemnly associate and continue together in the estab- 
lishment of a permanent and perpetual organization." 

From the beginning, the order has been very particular as to the eligi- 
bility for membership. Even the records of the three original members 
were examined by a committee appointed b)' the commander. Not only 
must applicants of the war service class have a stainless army or navy 
record, but their standing as citizens must be satisfactory to their com- 
panions. Commissioned officers of all grades in the regular or volunteer 
army, navy and marine corps of the United States, during the war for 
the suppression of the Rebellion, are eligible to first class original mem- 
bership, and the privileges are extended to their descendants. The order 
in the United States had a total membership on July i, 1911, of 8,347, 
of which 4,617 were "original," or war service companions. Among those 
who have served as commanders-in-chief of the order, are Generals W. 
S. Hancock, Philip H. Sheridan, R. B. Hayes, Lucius Fairchild, John 
Gibbons, John M. Schofield, John R. Brooke and John C. Bates. 

The Commandery of the State of Minnesota was instituted June 5, 
1885, with the following charter members: Maj.-Gen. John B. Sanborn, 
Bvt. Maj.-Gen, Henry H. Sibley; Bvt. Brig.-General L. F. Hubbard; 
Bvt. Maj.-Gen. R. W. Johnson; Bvt. Brig.-Gen. Jas. H. Baker; Bvt. 
Brig.-Gen. Judson W. Bishop; Brig.-Gen. William Smith; Bvt. Brig.-Gen. 
Samuel Breck ; Capt. C. W. Hackett ; Capt. Henry A. Castle ; Lieut. 
Albert Schefifer; Lieut. Samuel Appleton ; Maj. Geo. W. Baird; Maj. 
William R. Bourne ; Chaplain Edward D. Neill, D. D. ; Bvt. Brig-Gen. 
S. P. Tennison ; Bvt. Lieut. -Col. Charles Bentzoni ; Col. Chas. J. Allen ; 
Capt. W. W. Braden, and Bvt. Maj. George Q. White. Major White 
was elected to the executive office of the commandery recorder on its 
organization and held that important position continuously until his 


death in 1897. Lieut. David L. Kingsbury succeeded him after a short 
interval, and was annually reelected until his death. 

Among those who have served as commanders of the Minnesota 
Commandery, are Generals Sanborn, Marshall, Sibley, Bishop, Merritt, 
Mason, Grant, Brooke, Andrews, Hubbard and Adams; Colonels Gilfil- 
lan, Jennison, Hicks, Benton and Newport; Majors Bourne and Hale; 
Captains Lochren, Castle, Collins, Torrence, Higbee, Doherty and Har- 
ries. The officers for 1912 are: Lieut. S. H. Towler, Commander and 
Capt. Orton S. Clark, recorder. The total membership is now 267. 

Six handsome volumes, averaging 500 pages each, of the historical 
papers read by companions at the regular meeting of the commandery, 
have been published under the uniform title of "Glimpses of the Na- 
tion's Struggle." A volume of 200 pages entitled "Addresses in Memory 
of Abraham Lincoln" delivered before the ^Minnesota Commandery at 
its special Lincoln banquets, has been printed by the state, under' the 
direction of Hon. C. G. Schulz, superintendent of public instruction. 

Order of the Cixcinn.\ti 

The society which furnished the precedent and the model for the 
Loyal Legion was that of the "Cincinnati," formed by the Revolutionary 
officers at the close of the War for Independence. The early history 
of this association is of interest. It was organized in 1783, while the 
remnants of the Continental army lay in cantonments at Newburg on the 
Hudson. The initiation fee was one month's pay, and an order on the 
treasury of the United States was taken in payment. The officers had 
no money. Baron Steuben was the principal promoter and George Wash- 
ington was the first president general. The following was the declara- 
tion of principles and objects : "An incessant attention to preserve in- 
violate those exalted rights and liberties of human nature for which they 
have fought and bled, and without which the high rank of a national be- 
ing is a curse, instead of a blessing. 

"An unalterable determination to promote and cherish between the 
respective states, that union and national honor so essentially necessary 
to their happiness and the future dignity of the American empire. 

"To render permanent the cordial affection subsisting among the 
officers. This spirit will . . . extend to the most substantial acts of 
beneficence . . . towards those officers and their families who unfor- 
tunately may be under the necessity of receiving it." 

This declaration aroused vehement opposition. The legislatures of 
some of the states fiercely denounced the order, by resolution, and passed 
laws aimed directly at its existence. The principles of the order were 
declared to be in conflict with American institutions, because it permitted 
the hereditary descent of honors, and because, being an organization of 
military men, it tended to create a privileged class. So severe was the 
storm that the president general thought it best to yield to it, and in an 
elaborate address to the order advised a change of its constitution, abolish- 
ing the hereditary feature, retaining its charitable provisions and decla- 
ing its chief purpose to inculcate the "duty of those taking uy> arms in 
time of war for the national defence, to lay them down in times of 
peace." The state societies, however, neglected to take action upon the 
proposed amendments and they were never adopted. We, who have seen 
millions of armed men melt in a day into a mass of citizens like snow- 
flakes falling upon water, can smile at this exhibition of jealous fear. 


But what we ought to admire and imitate is that passionate love of free 
institutions that will brook no attack, come from what source it may. 

In spite of hostility and opposition, the Cincinnati has maintained 
an existence until the present time. But owing to the failure of later 
generations to aggressively avow the patriotic principles of its founders, 
it has not been the influential force in the republic which those founders 
evidently expected it to be. 

The Spirit of the Sons 

An an index of the spirit which animates the rising generation of loyal 
young men, enrolled in the Sons of Veterans, and the inheritance classes 
of the Loyal Legion, we may quote from the address of greeting by Divi- 
sion Commander Villars to the Department Encampment of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, at St. Paul, June i6, 191 1. "We are your sons. We 
have your blood in our veins, your spirit our hearts. The purposes that 
influenced you fifty years ago, I believe dominate us. It has taken some 
of us a long while to realize all this ; a good many a long time to appre- 
ciate all that sonship means. But if you will bear with us for a few 
years longer, you will live long enough to see that the army of the Sons 
of Veterans will be worthy its sires. We believe in Old Glory; we be- 
lieve in all that for which she stands ; we believe in the Grand Army of 
the Republic, and we stand not only as the defenders of our flag upon 
the battlefield, if God please, but in civic affairs, in municipal affairs, in 
social affairs; standing not only for the flag in its relation to political 
and civic organization, but standing also as your sons, whose duty it is, 
as your hair become frosted by winter and your breasts filled with cares 
that are becoming burdensome, and your feet just a little bit more un- 
certain in some cases, I find, than they were a few years ago, to bring to 
you our strong arms and our loving hearts, to help you in these days to 
carry the loads and to walk with you in this wearisome way. I am 
the son of a veteran, the one thing in all the world that I brag about, even 
if I wasn't to blame for it. I am glad that my father was man enough 
to desert his wife. Pretty tough proposition for some fellows. He left 
her on a little farm in Illinois, three miles from any other residence; left 
her with a little babe on her breast to run her farm in the summer time, 
to get her coal for winter herself : haul it herself, teach school in the 
winter time and wait for reports from the battlefields. 

"Father came home on a sick furlough one time and while he was 
there the little lad of the home suddenly sickened and died. They had a 
funeral procession. They couldn't have as big ones then as we have now- 
adays, for the simple reason that all the men were gone practically, and 
that funeral procession was a team of mules hitched to a lumber wagon, 
in which was a little pine box that my father had made himself, for he 
didn't have the salary then of the Methodist preachers of today. The 
second vehicle in the procession was another lumber wagon ; its occu- 
pants a boy in blue, and a woman in calico wearing an old-fashioned 
slat-bonnet. There was not a preacher in the country to say the words 
over the body of the little baby. They went to the cemetery and laid it 
away and then my father took my mother in his arms and kissed her 
good-bye and went directly from the grave to the train. His furlough 
had expired. It was hard for him, comrades. But listen. He went back 
to the battlefield ; he went back to the camp, with its excitement and its 
enthusiasm, and its jokes ; back to it all. Mother went back to that lit- 


tie two-room shack on the plains, alone, to waken in the night and miss 
the little hands that clasped her neck and the little face that nestled on 
her breasi. She was as great in her heroism as was he ; and I am only 
one of the multitude of sons who stand today proud of the blood that 
flows in their veins. And so be patient with us a little while and we 
will demonstrate to you that we believe in our ancestry, and we will 
show you in the days to come the blood that is in us." 

E.\RLY Settlers and Their Descend.\nts 

Scarcely second in interest and value to the societies which incul- 
cate a nation-wide spirit of patriotism, are those organized to perpetuate 
the traditions, the comradeship and the records of achievement, by the 
early settlers of Minnesota, their descendants and successors. The prin- 
ciples, policies and methods of these associations correspond, on a less 
e-xtended but equally lofty plane, with those held by the national organi- 
zations. Rightly handled they will transmit to posterity something of the 
pioneer enthusiasm which founded and built up our imperial common- 
wealth. St. Paul is the natural headquarters of these societies, since 
so much of its history is inextricably interwoven with that of the terri- 
tory and state. Responsibility often produces ability, but power always 
floats into the hands of men who can do things. The men who did things 
royally and nobly in those first years, and their early successors, have 
done well to organize and transmit and perpetuate the story of what 
they did and saw and suffered. 

The first of these societies was the Old Settlers' Association of Min- 
nesota, incorporated March 23, 1857. Its first meeting was held in the 
hall of the Historical Society in St. Paul February 27, 1858 — H. H. Sib- 
ley, chairman ; A. L. Larpenteur, secretary. The original incorporators 
numbered one hundred and one. The object of the association was to 
provide a fund for the support and assistance of such old settlers of 
Minnesota as may be deemed worthy of support ; to collect and dissemi- 
nate useful information in relation to the early history and settlement of 
Minnesota ; to record and preserve the names of its members and the 
date of their arrival in the territory, the state and county from which 
they emigrated, etc. The first officers were : Socrates Nelson, presi- 
dent; Charles H. Oakes, first vice president; Philander Prescott, second 
vice president; Aaron Goodrich, secretary; Lott Moffett. treasurer — 
executive committee : John P. Owens, H. F. Masterson, Mahlon Black, 
W. R. Brown and J. E. McKusick. Eligibility to membership was based 
on settlement in Minnesota prior to January i, 1850. The association re- 
solved to commemorate the organization of Minnesota territory by a 
banquet at the ^Merchants Hotel, St. Paul, on the first day of June, the 
anniversary of that event, which occurred in 1849. The celebration has 
been annually observed until this day, with a steadily diminishing at- 
tendance. The following members were present at roll call Tune i, 1881 : 
H. H. Sibley, William P. ]\Iurray, Richard Chute, Bart. Presley, J. W. 
Bass, Aaron Goodrich, Oliver Parsons, A. D. Nelson, H. F. Masterson, 
Hon. Alex. Ramsev, Joseph Guion, John B. Spencer, A. L. Larpenteur, 
H. L. Moss, J. Viflaume. Thomas Odell, B. W. Lott, Dr. J. H. Jilurphy, 
Sylvester Stateler, B. F. Irvine, A. H. Cavender, David Day, Dr. John 
Dewey, E. W. Durant, H. M. Rice, Edmund Rice and J. D. Ludden, — 
quite a vigorous representation for "thirty years after." But another 
thirty years passed, and at the dinner held at the Alerchants Flotel June 


I, 191 1, there were present only: A. L. Larpenteur, J. K. Humphrey, 
Sylvester Stateler, J. Villaume, and J. H. Randall, with E. \V. Durant 
reporting by letter from a southern state. 

The Territorial Pioneers of Minnesota is an association composed of 
persons resident here on or before May 11, 1858, the day the state was 
admitted to the Union. The society was organized at the Merchants 
Hotel, St. Paul, May 11, 1897, by 100 eligibles. The first officers were: 
Alvaren Allen, president ; William E. Lee and H. S. Fairchild, vice presi- 
dents ; W. H. Hoyt, secretary, and John A. Stees, treasurer. The asso- 
ciation has had a vigorous career. Judge L. W. Collins was its second 
president, and M. J. O'Connor was secretary. Subsequent presidents 
included E. W. Durant, John S. Pillsbury, J. B. Gilfillan, Edwin Clark 
and others equally prominent. In 1904 George H. Hazzard was elected 
secretary and has continued in that position ever since. He maintains an 
office at the old capitol, and keeps open house at the Log Cabin on the state 
fair grounds during "fair week" every year. With but little financial as- 
sistance he is gathering up relics of the early settlement of the territory 
and states; hundreds of portraits of pioneers; bits of household goods 
and the crude farming implements of those early days — ancient days 
they are to Minnesota — and doing his best to preserve them for the time 
when they will be regarded priceless in value as historic mementoes. The 
interesting exhibit of these things in the Log Cabin and Institute Hall 
on the fair grounds, for which Mr. Hazzard deserves the chief if not en- 
tire credit, is, it may be hoped, the prelude to a historical museum, in an 
imposing building filled with relics, mementoes and specimens of handi- 
craft illustrative of the progress of the state. Minnesota is to be con- 
gratulated upon having one citizen possessing the relic-hunting taste ; the 
industry and enthusiasm of Mr. Hazzard in this line of endeavor. 

The officers of the Territorial Pioneers for 1911-12 are: E. F. Ber- 
risford, president; George H. Hazzard, secretary, and John A. Stees, 
treasurer. The membership is over 2,000. 

Tlie Junior Pioneer Association of Ramsey County is a vigorous and 
active organization of the younger generation of Minnesotans, many of 
them born in St. Paul, children of the pioneers, imbued with the energy 
and zeal of their revered ancestors and full of faith in the future of the 
city. The membership is over 600. Among its active promoters and ex- 
presidents are E. W. Bazille, Silas E. Foreman and Edward Dahl, the 
last named being secretary. The association owns a costly and conven- 
ient building, with ample halls, dining rooms, etc., at Ninth and Ex- 
change streets. 

Military Organizations of' Germans 

j\Iany of the older set of Germans in St. Paul were soldiers in the 
Imperial army ; a number of them fought in the Franco-Prussian war or 
in the Schleswig-Holstein trouble. There are natives of Austria-Hungary 
living in St. Paul who have gone to war for the double monarchy so 
closelv allied to the German empire. Both the German and Austrian 
warriors and former soldiers have formed military organizations, among 
vdiich the "Deutscher Krieger \'erein," "Deutscher Soldaten Unterstuet- 
zungsverein" and the "Austrian Hungarian ]\Iilitary Association" take 
the lead. It is the purpose of these societies to cultivate among the 
members and at home good comradeship, the love and patriotism for the 


country for which they fought and at the same time uphold the principles 
of real American citizenship. 

There is also an organization of Germans who served as volunteers 
in the Civil war, the German-American Veteran Association. There can 
certainly be no more reliably patriotic society than one composed of 
foreign born citizens who risked their lives in defense of the Union when 
many native sons evaded their duty. 



The Protestant Orphan Asylum — For the Relief of the Un- 
employed — Board of Control of Public Charities — The City 
AND County Hospital — Societies and Homes — Society for the 
Relief of the Poor — Prevention of Tuberculosis — The Am- 
herst H. Wilder Charity — Modern Charitable Methods 

Climatic conditions have, from the beginning, called attention to the 
necessity for ample provision to care for unfortunate and destitute indi- 
viduals in the community — a necessity which has never failed to elicit 
an adequate response from the sympathetic and generous people of the 
city. The benevolent organizations of St. Paul cover a wide range, both 
in the diversified elements of which they are composed and the variety 
of objects for which they are formed. Protestants, Catholics and He- 
brews vie with each other in endeavors to alleviate poverty and suffering 
among those who have claim upon their special care. Large German 
and Scandinavian societies are active in aiding their own countrymen. 
Both men and women contribute generously according to their means, 
and the universal participation by St. Paul people in personal charitable 
work commands admiration for their unselfish devotion to promoting the 
welfare of the less fortunate. 

The relief takes the form in turn of educational, spiritual and material 
aid. It is administered in the home or through some institution. It 
reaches all classes — the aged, the children, mothers, widows or deserted 
wives; the unemployed, homeless men, wayward or unprotected girls; 
the sick and those afflicted with permanent physical disabilities. Clothing 
is freely supplied to those who are in need of it. Hospitals, asylums 
and homes have been built and endowed for those requiring temporary 
or permanent shelter. Medical care, drugs and even nursing are be- 
stowed upon those who cannot afford to pay for them. Shiftless and 
ignorant mothers are taught the elements of housekeeping; children are 
trained to use their hands in useful occupations. Work is found for 
those who are able and willing to work. Food and fuel are furnished to 
tide over periods of destitution. Families are instructed in the value of 
thrift and self-reliance. 

Of the numerous beneficent institutions maintained by the Catholic 
church due mention has been made in a preceding chapter. Those en- 
dowed by other denominations, as well as non-sectarian and public char- 
ities, will be considered herein. 

The Protestant Orphan Asylum 

The Protestant Orphan Asylum was organized May, 1865, for the 
care of Protestant orphans and destitute children. In the fall of the 



same year, property on the corner of Western and Marshall avenues was 
purchased and the institution was opened with six children as inmates, 
which in 1878 had grown to a family of forty-four persons. In 1872 a 
more commodious house was secured, then deemed sufficiently extensive 
for the needs of many years, but the number seeking aid of the asylum 
was so large that they were obliged to enlarge the building. The 
present is a very fine stone building located on Marshall avenue. The 
house and grounds were purchased from a gentleman who formerly oc- 
cupied it as a summer residence ; there were twenty-five acres of land be- 
longing to the place, a beautiful grove of trees back of the house making 
a delightful playground for the children. There is a good school con- 
nected with the institution in which the common branches of education 
are taught. Religious services under the charge of diiTerent Protestant 
clergymen are held Sunday afternoons at the asylum. The children are 
cared for until they are old enough to take care of themselves, and then 
good places are provided for them, unless they are previously adopted 
by some good family. It is supported partially by the city ; the balance 
is raised by private subscriptions, cash donations, etc. The first officers 
were : Mrs. Horace Thompson, president ; Mrs. G. A. Hamilton, vice 
president ; Mrs. E. F. Drake, treasurer ; Mrs. C. W. Griggs, secretary. 
Board of managers: Mrs. Col. Morton, Mrs. A. G. Foster, Mrs. G. P. 
Jackson, Mrs. Dr. S. Conn, Mrs. Horace Thompson, Mrs. E. F. Drake, 
Mrs. G. A. Hamilton, Mrs. A. H. Wilder, Mrs. S. B. McConnell, Mrs. 
D. R. Noyes, Miss E. M. Terry, and Mrs. C. W. Griggs. Miss Emma 
Siebert is matron. Miss Stone, teacher, and Dr. C. G. Higbee, physician. 
There are now forty-five inmates and the officers are Mrs. H. T. Drake, 
president, and Mrs. W. R. Ramsey, recording secretary. 

For the Relief of the Unemployed 

A special emergency arose during the fall and winter of 1893-4 which 
led to the formation of the citizens committee for the relief of the un- 
employed, and to the adoption of measures which, having since served 
as a model for other cities, are worthy of record here. As early as 
August, 1893, it became evident that there would be many destitute un- 
employed during the ensuing winter, owing to the financial depression 
that had closed many industries. The matter was brought to the notice 
of Mayor F. P. Wright and meetings were held in his office to consider 
the subject. .Among those who were invited by the mayor to attend 
these conferences, were J- J. McCardy, comptroller. E. T. Chamberlain, 
attorney. Alderman O. O. Cullen and Assemblyman F. B. Doran, repre- 
senting the city government ; John Kerwin and Adam Fink, of the board 
of control ; Peter Daly and Robert Seng, of the county commissioners ; 
J. A. Wheelock, president of park commissioners ; Rev. S. G. Smith, D. 
D. and Rev. H. H. Hart, of the State Board of Corrections and Charities ; 
President Henry A. Castle and Directors R. S. Tallmadge and Thomas 
Cochran, of the Chamber of Commerce; W. L. Wilson. D. R. Noyes and 
M. L. Flutchins, of the Relief Society; Rev. P. R. Heffron. represent- 
ing the Catholic benevolent societies ; Rev. David Morgan, rcjiresenting 
the Friendly Inn ; James Morrow and Harry Gray, of the Trades and 
Labor Assembly : C. E. Flandrau, H. P. Hall and George Thompson, in 
addition to Mr. W'heelock, representing the daily newspapers. 

As a result of many conferences a plan of organization and opera- 
tions was adojited. wliich resulted in the citizens' executive committee 


consisting of Mayor F. P. Wright, chairman; A. S. Tallmadge, secre- 
tary; Henry A. Castle, treasurer; W. L. Wilson, superintendent; F. B. 
Doran, James Morrow, O. O. Cullen, Geo. C. Squires and T. A. Abbott. 
The active work of this executive committee began October i6, 1893, 
and continued until April 30, 1894. The plan was adopted of furnishmg 
employment, not giving charity. A total of 1,687 nien, heads of families 
aggregating 8,932 persons, received employment during the winter, work- 
ing on the city streets and parks at the uniform wage of a dollar a day. 
A total of almost $50,000 was thus disbursed, at a cost of only $749 for 
clerical help, stationery, etc. 

The funds used by the committee came from the following sources : 

City contingent fund, 1893 $ 9,000.00 

City contingent fund, 1894 10,000.00 

Transferred assessments 5,650.01 

Park funds 13,822.98 

Citizens' contributions 9,562.20 

Donations of fuel and tlour 588.00 

Wood yard 483.10 

Total $49,106.29 

The city money was paid out in the regular way, on street and park 
pay rolls, to the men who did the work. Of the citizens' contributions 
over $7,000 was deposited in the city treasury and paid out in the same 
way, while $^,728 was paid on orders for wood and groceries furnished 
to certain classes of laborers, with their consent, in order that their 
families might get the entire benefit. When the committee submitted 
its final report the Pioneer Press made the following editorial comment 
on its operations : "The detailed report of the operations of the citizens' 
relief committee since they began their work last fall is a model of con- 
cise statement which presents, in its statistical results, a bird's eye view 
of the magnitude of the task they undertook in finding work for the 
unemployed and in winnowing out the undeserving applicants, of the 
energy and fidelity and success with which they performed it. In all 
it appears that nearly $50,000 was expended from funds contributed 
by the city and by private citizens, through the agency of the citizens' 
relief committee in giving work at one dollar a day to the needy un- 
employed, in addition to all the large sums expended by other organi- 
zations, most of them in relief of the destitute for whom no work could 
be found or who were unable to work. After reading this report, no 
one can doubt that the system adopted by the citizens' relief committee 
was the very best which could have been devised for making the funds 
available for the purpose go as far as possible for the relief of destitute 
families. That system was to make aid conditional on work. A dollar 
a day was fixed as the wage for relief work in order not to encourage 
a feeling or habit of depending upon public aid. It was limited to men 
with families whom investigation proved to be in need of assistance. It 
has worked immensely better than soup houses or other forms of indis- 
criminate charity. The citizens' relief committee — especially Mr. W. L. 
Wilson, Capt. Henry A. Castle and those immediately in charge of the 
work — are entitled to the earnest gratitude not only of the beneficiaries 
of their charitable labors, but of the whole communitv, for their un- 
selfish unremitting devotion to the interests of the Lord's poor, and for 

Vol. n— 9 


the great good they have accomplished with tlie small means at their 

In all the benevolent work and in all the charitable organizations 
in the city's history, certain honored names stand out as willing helpers 
in every good cause. Liberal contributors were numerous and always 
appreciated, but the men who could spare time from their pressing 
business cares to carefully administer the private benefactions and 
public appropriations were held in special esteem. Without discrimi- 
nating against some others perhaps equally worthy, we may be per- 
mitted to name a few as entitled to grateful remembrance. They are 
Wilford L. Wilson, D. W. Ingersoll, D. R. Noyes, Dr. Samuel G. 
Smith, Charles E. Mayo, C. D. Strong, D. D. Merrill, Dillon O'Brien, 
J. B. Sanborn, George Benz, Thos. Cochran, John Nicols, H. M. Rice, 
F. Driscoll and C. E. Flandrau. They were philanthropists in the best 

Board of Control of Public Charities 

The public charities of the city and county, including outdoor relief, 
the administration of the city and county hospital, the alms house and 
poor farm, the detention hospital for the insane, the smallpox hospital, 
etc., are managed by the Board of Control. This board had its incep- 
tion in the directors of the alms house and hospital, Ramsey county; 
organized July 22, 1872; first meeting consisting of C. H. Schurmeier, 
Thomas Grace and Lorenzo Hoyt, with William Welch, clerk. On 
April 10, 1873, William Lindeke succeeds Schurmeier, deceased. June 
4, 1874, H. J. Brainard succeeds L. Hoyt. May 21, 1877, B. Michel 
succeeds Wilham Lindeke. June 21, 1877, William Freeman succeeds 
H. J. Brainard. January 13, 1881, Jacob Heck succeeds B. Michel. City 
and county physicians: Drs. Smith and Hand from 1872; Dr. Mattock's 
succeeds, in September, 1877; December 15, 1880, Drs. Stewart and 
Wheaton succeed Dr. Mattocks. 

The Board of Control, formerly appointed by the judges of the dis- 
trict court, now by the county commissioners, succeeded to all these 
functions, with additional powers, which have been administered with 
wisdom and prudence. The lamented death of N. P. Langford, presi- 
dent of the board, in October, 191 1, removed one trusted and venerated 
figure, who for many years had exercised a wholesome influence on all 
its enterprises. 

When in 1885 the Ramsey county poor farm on Snelling avenue 
was donated for State Fair grounds, a quarter section of land was pur- 
chased on White Bear avenue just beyond the city limits and adjoining 
North St. Paul. On this tract the new and modern alms house of the 
county has been built, and is fully equipped with all the necessary 
appliances of such institutions. 

The City and County Hospital 

The development of the city and county hospital, at Jefferson ave- 
nue and Colhorn street, under the jurisdiction of the Board of Control 
and under the direct management of Dr. A. B. Ancker. superintendent, 
also city and county physician, has fully kept pace with the growth of 
the city itself. In 1883. when Dr. Ancker took charge, the hospital 
consisted of a single building, an old stone residence; the water came 
from a well, and kerosene lamps supplied light. Attendants divided 


their time between cooking, cleaning, washing and nursing. Operations 
were performed behind a screen, and the cellar served as a morgue. 
There was no training school, no staff, and Dr. Ancker attended to the 
patients, to the police surgery of a young community, and to the city and 
county outside sick. Step by step, by patient planning, persistent effort 
and tireless exposition of its most urgent needs, the organization has 
grown in three decades to its present great proportions, adding a wing, 
a building, a department as often as means could be obtained. 

The St. Paul City hospital is now the eighth largest general hospital in 
North America ; it is constantly growing, and each department as it is 
added represents the most recent advances in medical science. There 
is no suggestion of lavish expenditure or waste and the effort seems to 
have been realized to make every dollar spent produce its equivalent in 
perfect cleanliness, the most sanitary conditions, and material of the best 
quality. The grounds, which are beautifully kept, command near views 
of the Mississippi river and its steep bluffs, and are about five acres in 
extent. The main building is 400 feet long, with large wings, and all 
buildings are connected by an underground passage. The capacity is 
now 615 beds. Fifty-five hundred patients received treatment in 1910, 
representing an increase of about eight hundred over the preceding year 
and requiring a staff of fifty visiting physicians, ninety nurses and many 

The newest part of the hospital proper is the west wing, a three-story 
addition, in operation about two years and devoted to the women's and 
children's wards, including the maternity department, of which class of 
cases there are 400 a year. The operating and sterilizing rooms are 
complete and immaculate. The linen is snowy; beds and cribs, chairs, 
tables, screens and other necessary furniture, while severely plain, are of 
the best quality and chosen with an eye to their enduring quality. The 
wards vary in size from those that contain a single bed to those with 
eighteen or twenty. No class of inmates receives more scrupulous care 
than the babies. Those born in the hospital can in no sense be called 
patients, but are given the best start in life which plenty of nourishment, 
fresh air and sunshine can furnish. 

Most of the patients cared for here are free. It occasionally hap- 
pens that a person willing and able to pay applies for admission, and 
such a case is admitted, provided it does not require such extraordinary 
care as to interfere with what is due to the free patients. As a matter 
of fact, the very great majority belong to the industrial classes, laborers, 
artisans, domestic servants, who are, under normal conditions, self-sup- 
porting and who often have others dependent upon them. St. Paul has 
taken the broad, wise view of this enterprise, and the city government has 
invariably responded generously to the applications of the hospital man- 
agement, not only for maintenance but for funds for specific improve- 
ments and additions. There is being built a two-story laundry. 100 by 105 
feet, which will increase the resources of the old laundry more than two- 
fold. Three four-story service buildings are next to be built, to con- 
tain kitchen, bakeshop, cold storage boxes, storerooms, dining rooms for 
nurses, officers and help, and sleeping quarters for about two hundred 

Other Hospitals and Sanitariums 

There are in St. Paul a number of other hospitals and sanitariums, 
about twenty in all, both large and small, for general or specific treatment. 


in part or wholly supported by the charge made to patients. Among them 
may be mentioned St. Joseph's, a large hospital founded in 1854 and con- 
ducted by the Catholics ; St. Luke's, an Episcopalian institution chartered 
in 1857, enlarged in 1873 and in part maintained by that denomination; 
the St. Paul German hospital; the Cobb hospital, homeopathic, at Mer- 
riam Park with 22 rooms and a complete equipment; the new Lutheran 
hospital, Dayton's Bluif; Bethesda hospital and Deaconess' home, a 
Methodist undertaking which does much charitable work; the Mounds 
Park Sanitarium and Cuenca Sanitarium for the Treatment of Tuber- 
culosis. To the excellent conduct of these and similar institutions, as 
well as the free dispensaries and the high professional standards of their 
medical staffs, must in part be ascribed the remarkably low death rate. 
The prevalence of antiseptic creeds and predigested theology does not 
seem to interrupt the good work of the churches in caring for man's 
physical welfare. 

Societies and Homes 

The Hebrews have the only social settlement. Neighborhood House, 
which, while it has a non-sectarian board, works principally among the 
Jews of the city. There are also the Hebrew Ladies' Aid Society and 
the Jewish Relief Society, working along the same general lines as the 
Guild of Catholic Women ; and the Jewish Home for the Aged provides 
for the needs of that most helpless element of society. 

The Deutsche Gesellschaft is a German aid society of comparatively 
recent origin, supported by German citizens of St. Paul, and designed to 
give aid primarily to their own countrymen here. The King's Daughters' 
Aid Society is a strong organization with a large membership, which does 
a great deal of genuinely useful, intelligent work, keeping track of the 
cases that come under its observation and embodying the restdts in re- 
ports which are filed for future reference or comparison. On somewhat 
the same order is St. Margaret's Guild, an active, well managed society 
connected with St. John's Episcopal church. Probably every church in 
the city has one or more charitable societies in full operation. The Sun- 
shine Society is also well represented in St. Paul, and does some par- 
ticularly valuable work in establishing summer outing camps. 

The St. Paul branch of the Needlework Guild of America is sub- 
divided into thirty-four districts, each with its own president and sepe- 
rate organization, which obtains contributions and superintends the mak- 
ing of garments and other necessary articles for the poor. The officers 
of the St. Paul society for 1911-12 are: Mrs. A. R. McGill, president; 
Mrs. O. B. Lewis, secretary : Mrs. A. T. IMoss, treasurer. It was or- 
ganized in 1892. During 191 1 the total number of garments collected 
was 6,029. About 1,800 were distributed to needy individuals. 

The Home of the Friendless Association was organized May 26. 1867, 
under the name of the Ladies Christian Union. The olificers of the society 
were Mrs. D. W. Ingersoll, president; Mrs. F. A. Noble, Mrs. G. W. 
Hamilton, Mrs. D. Cobb, vice presidents; Mrs. A. J. Rulifson, correspond- 
ing secretary; Mrs. C. D. Strong, recording secretary; Mrs. William 
Wakefield, treasurer, with a board of managers consisting of thirty-six 
ladies, being three from each of the twelve churches represented. Be- 
sides the ladies above named, earnest attention to the interests of the 
home was given, in its earlier years, by Mrs. Pascal Smith, Mrs. Emily 
Huntington Miller, Mrs. Henry A. Castle, Mrs. Mary C. Flagg, Miss Kate 


Nicols and others. In January, 1869, a home was established on Walnut 
street, which existed only a few months. In the same year a new con- 
stitution was adopted, and the name changed to the Ladies Relief Asso- 
ciation of St. Paul. In Alay, 1869, the property known as the Collins 
place, situated on Collins avenue, was purchased, and the Home for the 
Friendless was established in its present location, just two years from the 
organization of the society. The Ladies Relief Association procured a 
charter and became an incorporated body in April, 1870. In 1877 the 
name was changed from Ladies Relief Association to the Home of the 
Friendless Association of St. Paul, which was done by a special act of 
the legislature. The object of the home is to provide temporary shelter 
for destitute women and children, and to assist those who are able to 
work to find places where they can support themselves. 

Mr. D. R. Noyes contributed to Vol. XII of the Minnesota Historical 
Society Collections a very complete history of the charities of the city and 
state — a subject for which no man was better equipped by sympathy and 

The Women's Christian Home was founded by the Magdalen So- 
ciety, which began its work by opening the home and receiving inmates 
November i, 1873, it being at that time under the official control of the 
following board of managers : Mrs. D. S. B. Johnston, president ; Mrs. 
A. G. Menson, vice president; Charles E. Parker, recording secretary; 
J. B. Cook, corresponding secretary ; F. B. Farwell, treasurer. The ob- 
ject of this society is the promotion of moral purity, by affording a home 
to erring women who manifest a desire to return to the path of virtue and 
by procuring employment for their future support. 

The Bethel Mothers' Club has recently assumed the form of a per- 
manent organization with headquarters in the Bethel hotel, where civic 
problems, such as proper housing, playgrounds and the like, are discussed 
and studied, and also where women may come and work for clothing. 
The Bethel hotel is itself a most interesting institution which has been in 
existence more than twenty years, and is maintained under the direction 
of Rev. David Morgan. It is intended to furnish a temporary home at 
very low cost for homeless men, of whom there are many drifting through 
the city ; it performs for St. Paul much the same office that the famous 
Mills hotels do for New York. In connection with this same enterprise 
an industrial school is conducted by the Relief Society ; and another in- 
dustrial school is carried on from October to April in each year by the 
People's Church. In these schools classes are conducted in kitchen gar- 
dening, sewing, cooking, housework and for boys in wood and iron work. 

Society for the Relief of the Poor 

The Society for the Relief of the Poor is one of the oldest of St. 
Paul's charities, undenominational in character and catholic in its pur- 
poses. It gives such timely aid as seems most imperative, whether food, 
fuel, work for people who are too poor to pay, clothing, or temporary 
financial assistance. The Relief society was first organized March 16, 
1876, under the name of St. Paul Society for Improving the Condition 
of the Poor, and it assumed work previously done by the Y. M. C. A. 
H. M. Rice was president ; Alex. Ramsey, H. H. Sibley, Wm. R. Mar- 
shall, C. K. Davis, vice presidents; Daniel R. Noyes, treasurer; E. W. 
Chase, relief secretary. It reorganized November 13, 1877, as the St. 
Paul Relief Society, by the consolidation of the Society for the Improve- 


inent of the Poor and the Woman's Christian Association. AI L 
Hutchnis, secretary, is the executive officer. During the past five years 
68,664 cases have been cared for, the cash value of supphes and aid being 
$84,560. Closely affiliated with it is the Day Nursery where, for a 
nommal fee of five cents, a mother can leave her children for the day 
while she goes out to work. 

An interesting experiment in welfare work has recently been inau- 
gurated m connection with one of the largest factories of the city, where 
the management are taking special pains to care for their employes. They 
employ a philanthropic woman as welfare worker to study and minister 
to the needs of the women employes, have an excellent liinch room and 
restaurant, wash rooms, lavatories and rest room, and make all the pro- 
vision possible for the health, comfort and well-being of those who work 
for them. 

Prevention of Tuberculosis 

The study of practical means for the prevention and cure of tuber- 
culosis_ is receiving special attention from the St. Paul Anti-Tuberculosis 
Committee, which maintains a corps of visiting nurses and has within the 
last two years established the Cuenca sanitarium for curable cases at 
Bass Lake. The Eva Shapiro Memorial Camp at White Bear Lake was 
founded by Mrs. Pauline Shapiro to give children of tuberculus par- 
ents, or those who show malnutrition, an opportunity for an open life 
under favorable conditions of supervision and nourishment. Other fea- 
tures are the dispensary at No. 26 West Third street, where the number 
of cases examined run up into the thousands in a single year, and a most 
important educational campaign, including a tuberculosis exhibit. The 
largest single element in its financial support is Tag day, conducted by 
the women of St. Paul, and which on November i, 1910 and 191 1, col- 
lected an aggregate of over $36,000. 

It is possible for a society organized like this to do pioneer work in 
discovering local conditions, to help in pointing out the most efl^ective 
manner to improve these conditions and do valuable work along pre- 
ventive and educational lines. But all of this is rendered painfully 
wasteful and extravagant, if the community itself refuses to provide for 
that most dangerous of its citizens, the advanced tuberculous patient. 
Such a person is, with a few exceptions, in St. Paul, compelled to re- 
main in his own home, it makes no difference how improper it is, and 
there to die and leave behind him an ever widening circle of infection. 
A house has been discovered here where three generations have de- 
veloped tuberculosis and in families coming under the direct care of the 
committee's nurses, seven families have had four cases : three, five cases, 
and two families, eight cases, all occurring in a few years. The strenuous 
efforts of Supt. A. B. Ancker of the City Hospital to secure funds for a 
tuberculosis building now bids fair to meet with success. 

The Sunshine societies and women's clubs of the city are aiding in a 
movement to raise by subscription $25,000 for the Church Home for the 
Aged on Fuller avenue to enable that institution to erect a new building 
so that the ground donated by Joseph Elsinger may be utilized. 

The women of the Jewish and other clubs of the citv are much in- 
terested in the completion of the St. Paul Hebrew Institute and Shelter- 
ing Home, Kentucky and Fenton streets, which is to serve as a social 
center for the Hebrew district on the West Side. The building, which 
cost $20,000. was dedicated in 191 1. The Jewish Relief Societv, the St. 


Paul Council of Jewish Women and other clubs of similar nature are 
working along the same lines which the new home is expected to cover, 
namely the care of the Jewish strangers in the city. 

The Union Gospel Alission works chiefly among down-and-out men, 
providing them with temporary shelter and trying to rehabilitate them. 
The city furnishes relief in the form of fuel or food suppHes through its 
Board of Control. The State Soldiers' Relief Fund, headquarters in 
St. Paul, contributes to the families of soldiers who do not receive an 
adequate pension from the federal government. An important beneficial 
society for Germans is the German Aid Society. This organization, whose 
head is Hans E. Grunow, Imperial German consul in St. Paul, is in con- 
stant cooperation with the Wilder Charities and the Relief Society, and 
provides for the poor or unemployed. 

The Salvation Army is a notable factor in the city's benevolent en- 
terprises. Its industrial home for men is a very useful adjunct, and its 
rescue home for women does much good. The church home for old 
and homeless women has loo inmates. The Young Women's Friendly 
Association, founded in 1888; the Free Medical Dispensary, founded in 
1896; the Newsboys Home; the City Mission; The Society for Preven- 
tion of Cruelty ; the Women's Work Exchange ; the Volunteers of Amer- 
ica ; the Parental School for Boys ; the Swiss Benevolent Society ; the 
Women's Christian Temperance Union ; in addition to the numerous 
Catholic societies elsewhere enumerated, all contribute to the grand ag- 
gregate of relief extended to the needy. 

Colored citizens of St. Paul who have maintained an orphanage and 
old people's home on Randolph and Snelling avenue for a number of 
years now hope to be able to raise a fund sufificient to enable them to 
build and maintain a larger and more modern institution. The institu- 
tion is known as the Attucks Industrial School and Home, and the loca- 
tion on which the new building is to be built eventually is Randolph 
street, between Brimhall street and Snelling avenue. 

Associated Charities 

The number and scope of the associations enumerated show how 
broad and comprehensive the effort has been to meet and provide for 
every class of want and suffering in the city. To guard against over- 
lapping and duplication, pauperization, and unwise gifts of money, the 
Associated Charities of St. Paul co-operates as far as it is permitted to 
do so with all other organizations, investigating cases brought to its atten- 
tion, keeping histories of them, advising as to the best form of relief, 
and making a systematic and continuous study of the general causes pro- 
ducing misery and poverty and their permanent elimination. Its organized 
charity is avowedly the union of two of the mightiest forces in the universe, 
law and love — a combination of charitable impulse and sensible action. 
The special lines of direct work carried on by the society, friendly visit- 
ing, visiting nurses, visiting housekeeper, legal aid and provident fund 
work, are all along the lines of prevention and education. This associa- 
tion was formed by Rev. Dr. Samuel G. Smith, and others connected 
with the Relief Society, to supplement and systematize its work. 

The Amherst H. Wilder Charity 

The people of St. Paul have, in the "Wilder Charity," a unique insti- 
tution, and one which wisely administered, is to prove of great impor- 


tance. Interest has been lent to the subject by the long struggle which the 
trustees had to gain possession of the bulk of the property, and the deli- 
beration with which their plans for its disposition are matured. The 
fund, which now amounts to about two and three-quarter million dol- 
lars, represents practically the entire fortune of one family, now extinct, 
whose members were exceedingly generous in a quiet and unostentatious 
way during their lives. 

Amherst H. Wilder came to St. Paul from New York state when a 
young man, and by activity in many lines built up a large property. He 
died in 1894, and by his will left $400,000 to found a corporation to be 
called "The Amherst H. Wilder Charity," the income from which should 
be used to furnish relief for the poor, sick, aged or otherwise needy 
people residing from time to time within the limits of St. Paul. Nine 
years later his only child died, herself childless, leaving her property 
amounting to about $600,000 in practically the same manner, the corpora- 
tion to be called "The Amherst H. Wilder Charity Founded by Cornelia 
Day Wilder Appleby." In the same year the only remaining member of 
the family, j\Irs. Amherst H. Wilder, also died, providing by her will 
for the establishment of a third corporation, for the same general object 
as the other two, to be called the "A. H. Wilder Charity Founded by 
Fanny S. Wilder." Her estate, amounting to about a million and a 
quarter dollars, immediately became the subject of litigation by collateral 
relatives residing in California and elsewhere, and her will was fought 
by them unsuccessfully through all the courts to the Supreme court of 
the United States. The will was sustained in every successive tribunal. 
The litigation occupied nearly seven years, and twenty lawyers partici- 
pated in it. It is interesting to learn that the fund was about $300,000 
larger at the close of the contest than when it began. 

When the money was at last available, it was decided, in the interest 
of efficient management, to consolidate the three corporations. The fund 
originally left by Mr. Wilder had been used in accordance with the terms 
of his will for about five years, and its annual income of some $15,000 ap- 
plied to the relief of the poor, over three thousand cases having been 
helped. Permission of the court was obtained to consolidate the three 
properties, and on December i, 1910, Amherst H. Wilder Charity, rep- 
resenting the combined estates, commenced its corporate existence. The 
fund now amounts to $2,700,000, yielding a yearly income of $72,000. 

Victor M. Watkins. who had been appointed trustee under the succes- 
sive wills became the president of the new corporation. With him were 
associated as directors John I. H. Field, who is also treasurer ; Charles 
L. Spencer, secretary ; Geo. C. Power, president of the Second National 
Bank, Kenneth Clark, president of the Merchants National Piank, and 
James H. Skinner, of Lanpher, Skinner & Co., all men who by their 
standing and character command the confidence of the community. The 
office of director is permanent and terminable only by death, resignation, 
removal from St. Paul, or by a court of competent jurisdiction for suf- 
ficient cause. The management of the afTairs of the corporation is 
vested wholly in the hands of these six men and their discretion is very 

The general purposes of the corporation are defined to be : "To aid 
and assist and to furnish charity for the worthy poor, sick, aged or other- 
wise needy people of the city of St. Paul, or who may be found within 
the said city and who are legitimate objects of charity, without regard 


to, or discrimination for, any such persons by reasons of their nationality, 
sex, color or religious scruples or prejudice." 

One of the first tasks undertaken by Amherst H. Wilder Charity is 
the building at the corner of Fifth and Washington streets, on Rice Park, 
of a structure which is to be the headquarters of charity. After reserv- 
ing for its own purposes, probably the third and fourth floors, it will 
utilize the remainder of the building, which is four stories in height and 
occupies a lot 90 by 120 feet, to furnish quarters for other charity or- 
ganizations of St. Paul, which, it is assumed, will promote cooperation 
among them and increase the effectiveness of their work. 

The relief work in which the Wilder family was particularly inter- 
ested, is being actively carried on by the new corporation. About two 
hundred names appear on its pension list, representing probably over a 
thousand individuals that are being aided regularly. It maintains four 
visiting nurses, and a nurse for the baby welfare work, which force it 
intends to increase. But for the application of the fund as a whole the 
directors are taking time to study existing charities and methods pur- 
sued in other cities. It is better to be sure than to be sorry. It is their 
desire so to administer their trust that the utmost good to the greatest 
number shall be derived from it; that it shall not have the effect of 
lessening the responsibility of the rest of the community, or drying up . 
the wells of charity. 

Poverty and Suffering Traced to their Sources and Eliminated 

Our sociologists and benevolent citizens will not sit down and let the 
Wilder charity, or the board of control do their appointed work. St. 
Paul is awakening to the view, adopted by philanthropists, that extreme 
poverty, disease, moral obliquity and even crime, are social evils arising 
from conditions requiring scientific treatment which shall diagnose and 
cure the producing cause. It is therefore of the utmost importance that 
all forms of charitable work should be well organized and should proceed 
in a spirit of cooperation and mutual helpfulness, supplementing each 
other, seeking to discover the sources of human suffering and so far as 
possible adopting measures which shall go to the root of the evil. Among 
the most important means of reform are better housing conditions : more 
play grounds ; practical education ; warfare against tuberculosis and other 
dangerous and contagious forms of illness ; restrictions as to liquor sell- 
ing, and the continuous struggle to inculcate in individuals habits of thrift, 
cleanliness, industry, and the spirit of self-respecting self-reliance. 

"If charitable work continues with its present impetus, we will, for 
the first time in the history of the world, be able to contradict the Bible, 
which says that the poor we have always with us," said Dr. I. L. Rypins, 
who presided at a meeting at the Y. M. C. A. by the friendly visitors' de- 
partment of the associated charities. "With each denomination caring 
for its own people, and the non-secular organizations caring for all the 
needy, each one of us is working for the uplifting instead of the de- 
grading of the poor, and the millennium is sure to come to St. Paul and 
to come soon." 



St. Paul Lodge No. 3, A. F. & A. M. — First Grand Lodge of Masons 
— Formation of Grand Chapter, R. A. M. — First Grand Council 
— Commanderies — Pioneer Odd Fellows Lodges — Encampment 
and Grand Lodge — Other St. Paul Odd Fellows Lodges — Mutual 
Benefit Society — Odd Fellows Block and Home — United Order 
of Druids — Knights of Pythias — Ancient Order of United 
Workmen — Other Fraternal Bodies 

Probably the first lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons or- 
ganized in Minnesota territory was St. Paul Lodge, but as charters were 
issued to lodges at Stillwater and St. Anthony, with earlier dates affixed, 
St. Paul Lodge became No. 3 on the official roll. 

St. Paul Lodge No. 3, A. F. & A. M. 

The St. Paul Lodge was organized under dispensation September 8, 
1849; chartered by the Grand Lodge of Ohio, October, 1852, A. L. 5852; 
chartered by the Grand Lodge of Minnesota at its organization, Febru- 
ary 23, 1853, and rechartered January 10, 1856. In response to call a 
number of members assembled in the schoolhouse, and resolved to apply 
to the grand master of Ohio for a dispensation. The petition was signed 
by Brothers C. K. Smith, ]er. Hughes, D. F. Brawlev, Aaron Goodrich, 
Lot Mofifett, W. C. Wright. Justus" C. Ramsey, John Conden, Albert Tit- 
low, John Holland, Levi Sloan and J. A. Atkinside. The dispensation 
was granted August 8, 1849, appointing Brothers C. K. Smith (territorial 
secretary), W. M. ; Jer. Hughes, S. W. ; Daniel F. Brawley, J. W. Meet- 
ings were regularly held during that and the following year and consider- 
able work was done. 

The first work done was the initiation of Charles Scott, September 
17, 1849. A charter was granted at the October session of the Grand 
Lodge of Ohio, 1852. The first meeting under the charter was held Janu- 
ary 24, 1853, and the following officers installed: D. F. Brawley, master; 
D. W. C. Dunwell and Lot Mofifett, wardens ; J. C. Ramsey, treasurer ; 
C. S. Cave, secretary; C. P. V. Lull and B. W. Brunson, deacons; C. D. 
Elfelt, scribe; J. Truman, tyler. .At the meeting of January 7, 1856, 
the lodge instructed the master to surrender the charter, jewels, etc.. to 
the Grand Lodge. The charter was surrendered on January 9th. The 
next day the grand secretary presented a petition signed by fourteen 
brethren for a new lodge to be named St. Paul Lodge. The same day 
the following resolution, which had been prepared and reported by a com- 
mittee, was adopted : "Resolved, That a charter be granted for the estab- 




lishment of a new lodge in St. Paul, to be named and known as the St. 
Paul Lodge No. 3." The jewels and furniture became the property of 
the now lodge. St. Paul lodge retains the number, 3, yet in the roll of 
lodges it ranks as No. 8. Its present officers are Robert T. Gourley, 
W. M. ; T. P. Edwards, secretary. 

First Grand Lodge of Masons 

The first communication of the Grand Lodge of Masons of Minnesota 
was held in St. Paul, February 23, 1853, in accordance with a resolution 
adopted by each of the several chartered lodges in the territory. Dele- 
gates from three lodges, at St. Paul, St. Anthony and Stillwater, met 
at the lodge room of St. Paul Lodge to take such measures as were nec- 
essary in order to form a Grand Lodge. The committee was called to 


order by A. T. C. Pierson, of St. Paul Lodge, and organized by the 
appointment of A. E. Ames as president, and A. T. C. Pierson as sec- 
retary. Whereupon the following delegates presented the credentials in 
due form : From St. Paul Lodge, D. F. Brawley, master ; D. W. C. Dun- 
well and Lot Mofifett, wardens ; Aaron Goodrich and A. T. C. Pierson, 
past masters. From St. John's Lodge, at Stillwater: Dr. Hoyt, proxy 
for F. K. Bartlett, master; H. N. Setzer, senior warden; D. B. Loomis, 
proxy for William Holcombe, junior warden. From Cataract Lodge, at 
St. Anthony: A. E. Ames, master; D. W. Coolbaugh and C. T. Stearns, 
wardens. Aaron Goodrich, of St. Paul, offered the following resolu- 
tion, which was unanimously adopted : "Resolved, That we proceed to 
the preliminaries for the formation of a grand lodge by the appointment 
of a committee to draft a constitution and regulations for the govern- 
ment thereof, and that said committee be requested to report to this con- 
vention tomorrow." The president of the convention appointed Judge 
Aaron Goodrich of St. Paul Lodge, Hon. D. B. Loomis of St. John's 
Lodge, Stillwater, and E. Case of Cataract Lodge, St. Anthony, such com- 


mittee. The committee then adjourned until next day at two o'clock 
P. AI. Upon the opening of the convention, February 24th, a lodge was 
opened in the third degree in due and ancient form. The convention 
completed the organization of a grand lodge by the election of grand 
officers for the ensuing year, and the following were duly elected and 
installed : A. E. Ames, grand master ; Aaron Goodrich, deputy grand 
master; D. F. Brawley, grand senior warden; A. Van Vorhes, grand 
junior warden. The Grand Lodge now has jurisdiction over 253 lodges. 
The principal officers now are : E. A. Kling, Little Falls, grand master ; 
W. Hayes Laird, Winona, grand treasurer; John Fishel, St. Paul, grand 
secretary; Owen IMorris. St. Paul, D. G. M. 

Ancient Landmark Lodge, No. 5, was organized January 5, 1854. 
The charter members were A. T. C. Pierson. I. P. Wright, A. G. Chat- 
field, George L. Becker, A. T. Chamblin, James Y. Caldwell, Henry Mor- 
ris, Reuben Haus, George W. Biddle, Charles Rauch, P. T. Bradley, 
Charles D. Fillmore and A. J. Morgan. The first officers were A. G. 
Chatfield, master; I. P. Wright, senior warden; A. T. C. Pierson, junior 
warden. The present officers are: William Dinwoodie, master; A. P. 
Swanstrom, secretary, and G. C. Knispel, treasurer. 

Other lodges of the order in St. Paul are: Summit Lodge, No. 163, 
chartered in 1885; Braden Lodge, No. 168, chartered in 1886; Shekinah 
Lodge, West St. Paul, chartered 1888; Midway Lodge, Hamline, char- 
tered 1889: Mizpah Lodge, South St. Paul; Triune Lodge, Merriam 
Park ; ^Montgomery and Capital City lodges. 

FoRM.\Tiox OF Grand Chapter, R. A. M. 

A convention for the purpose of forming a grand chapter of Royal 
Arch Masons for the state of Minnesota, was held at Masonic hall, in 
St. Paul, on Saturday, the 17th day of December, A. D. 1859, at 3 
o'clock P. M., and the following proceedings were had: The convention 
was called to order by Companion A. T. C. Pierson, M. E. H. P., of 
Minnesota Royal Arch Chapter No. i, of St. Paul, and on motion, Com- 
panion A. E. Ames was called to the chair and Companion Geo. W. 
Prescott was chosen secretary. A committee was appointed to draft a 
constitution, by-laws and rules of order, to be submitted to the conven- 
tion. This report was adopted and an election held. The following of- 
ficers were elected and installed : A. T. C. Pierson, G. H. P. ; A. E. Ames, 
G. S. ; William H. Skinner, G. T. : G. W. Prescott, G. S. ; Rev. D. B. 
Knickerbacker, G. C. ; Geo. L. Becker, G. C. H. The grand honors were 
then given and the grand marshal made proclamation that the most 
Excellent Grand Chapter of Minnesota was duly organized, and the of- 
ficers thereof duly installed. There are now 75 active chapters, with a 
total membership of about 8,000. 

First Graxd Council 

The first Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters of the state of 
Minnesota was held in .St. Paul. December 12. 1870. when delegates from 
three councils met at the hall of St. Paul Council No. i. to take such 
measures as were necessary in order to form a Grand Council. The 
convention was organized by the election of A. E. Ames, president, and 
William S. Combs, secretary. A constitution was adopted and an elec- 


tion of officers was held with the following result: J. C. Terry, M. P. 
G. M.; A. E. Ames, R. I. G. M.; E. C. Cross, G. P. C. W.; M. W. 
Getchell, G. T. ; William S. Combs, G. R. The Grand Council of Minne- 
sota was then opened, and Illustrious Companion A. E. Ames installed 
the officers elect and appointed, D. H. Goodrich acting as marshal. The 
M. P. G. M. appointed William S. Combs, A. E. Ames and E. C. Cross 
a committee on foreign correspondence. 


Damascus Commandery No. i. Knights Templar, was organized in 
July, 1856, with the following charter members : A. T. C. Pierson, An- 
drew J. Whitney, William Paist, Thomas Lombard, Sylvanus Patridge, 
J. W. Lynde, Alfred E. Ames, Samuel E. Adams and J. W. Boxell. The 
officers of the commandery now are : E. C, Owen Morris ; generalissimo, 
Charles P. Montgomery; recorder, C. S. Schurman. 

Paladin Commandery No. 21, was organized in 1888 and chartered in 
1889. Its present officers are: E. C, Arthur Christofferson ; generalis- 
simo, F. H. Parker; recorder, George Herbert. 

The Grand Commandery of Knights Templar of the state of Minne- 
sota was organized in the city of St. Paul, October 23, 1865, under a war- 
rant of the G. G. encampment of the United States, by H. L. Palmer, 
grand master Knights Templar. A convention for the purpose of form- 
ing a grand commandery of Knights Templar for the state of Minne- 
sota was held at Masonic hall, in the city of St. Paul, on the above date, 
when A. E. Ames was called to the chair and E. D. B. Porter appointed 
secretary. Delegates were present from Damascus Commandery No. i, 
.'^t. Paul; Zion Commandery No. 2, Minneapolis; Coeur de Leon Com- 
nv idery No. 3, Winona, and IMankato Commandery No. 4, Mankato. 
At the election the officers chosen were : George W. Prescott, St. Paul, 
G. C. ; A. E. Ames, Minneapolis, D. G. C. ; S. Y. McMasters, St. Paul, 
G. P. ; E. D. B. Porter, Mankato, G. T. ; C. W. Carpenter, St. Paul, G. 
R. ; J. C. Terry, St. Paul, G. S. B. All the officers present were installed 
in due form. There are now 33 commanderies in the state with an ag- 
gregate membership of over 4,000. G. F. Dix of St. Paul is grand com- 
mander for 1911-12. 

Besides the subordinate lodges, councils, chapters and commanderies 
of the dififerent recognized branches of the Masonic order, there are five 
organizations of colored masons, who also maintain a grand lodge with 
headquarters in this city. 

The Order of the Eastern Star, a woman's auxiliary to the masonic 
bodies, has six chapters and a grand chapter here which exhibit great 
zeal and vitality in carrying on their social and charitable work. If it 
be true that few men know what is good for them until some wise woman 
tells them, the brethren of this mystic tie ought to get that valuable infor- 
mation in generous supplies from unquestionable sources. 

The masonic order maintains the "Masonic Union ;" a state veteran's 
association and a relief association. The St. Paul Masonic Temple Asso- 
ciation a year ago completed, at Sixth street and Smith avenue, a beau- 
tiful and costly building, as a common place of meeting and the head- 
quarters of the order's numerous activities. Masonry, in St. Paul, has, 
at last, a home of its own, and one to be proud of for decades to come. 


Pioneer Odd Fellows Lodges 

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows, generously competes with 
the Masonic orders for the palm of public usefulness and general popu- 
larity. Odd Fellowship sprang from the human need of sympathy and 
helpfulness. Among the pioneers who, in early days, made Stillwater 
their home were a number of Odd Fellows, and they determined, in 
the latter part of 1848, to form a lodge. It was authorized Ajjril 25, 
1849, and finally instituted August 15, 1849, with Sylvanus Trask, Henry 
L. AIoss, Charles K. Smith, Bushrod W. Lott and L. B. Wait, nearly all 
of whom then were or afterwards became residents of St. Paul, as charter 
members. This became "Minnesota Lodge No. i." 

In August, 1849, the Odd Fellows of St. Paul joined in an applica- 
tion for a lodge, the charter of which was granted in the fall of that 
year and forwarded to Deputy Potts, at Galena. But before he could 
come to St. Paul navigation closed, and it was not until May 3. 1850, 
that St. Paul Lodge No. 2 was instituted. The charter members were 
B. W. Brunson, John Dunshee, B. W. I,ott, John Angdin and J. B. Cole. 
This lodge has had a continuous existence and its officers are S. R. Har- 
per, N. G., and W. H. Geiselman, R. S. 

Encampment and Grand Lodge 

A year later it was deemed advisable to secure an encampment. 
Several scarlet degree members forwarded the necessary petition to 
Grand Secretary Ridgely, and in 1851 the charter was issued. This 
charter was subsequently burned, and its exact date is not known. Dep- 
uty Grand Sire Potts again visited St. Paul and September i, 1851, 
duly mstituted Minnesota Encampment No. i. For sixteen years this 
was the only incampment in the state, and it was only in 1871 that steps 
were taken to organize a Grand Encampment when five encampments 
were represented. There are now fortv-two encampments in the state. 

The convention to form a Grand Lodge of Odd Fellows in Minne- 
sota was held in St. Paul, September 6, 1852. It was composed of the 
past grands from Minnesota Lodge No. i, St. Paul No. 2 and Hennepin 
Lodge No. 4. The convention was organized by the election of P. G. 
Trask, of No. i, as president, and P. G. Brunson, of No. 2, as secretary. 
The following named past grands took their seats as the representatives 
from the several lodges: From Minnesota Lodge No. i, Sylvanus Trask, 
D. B. Loomis, W. C. Penny, George W. Battles, and N. Greene Wilcox ; 
from St. Paul Lodge No. 2. B. W. Lott, Comfort Barnes, B. W. Brun- 
son and S. W. Walker. Resolutions were passed to take proper steps 
and frame a petition to obtain a charter from the R. W. G. L. of the 
United States, which was done and the convention adjourned sine die. 
On May 5. 1853, representatives met to attend the institution of the 
Grand Lodge of Minnesota. John G. Potts was present as installing of- 
ficer. The Grand Lodge then" elected and installed the following officers 
and thus was duly organized: N. Greene Wilcox, grand master; B. W. 
Brunson, deputy grand master ; G. B. Dutton, grand warden ; A. Bryant, 
irrand secretary: S. W. Walker, grand treasurer. The Grand Lodge has 
had a flourishinij career of fifty-nine years and now represents subordi- 
nate lodges in all principal towns. Its officers now are G. M,. Peter A. 
Nelson. Red Wing; G. S.. A. L. Bolton, St. Paul ; G. W.. Wm. R. Palmer, 



Other St. Paul Odd Fellows Lodges 

Germania Lodge No. i8, was instituted August 23, 1867. The follow- 
ing were the first officers and members: John Thorworth, noble grand; 
Ben Rose, vice grand; H. Habighorst, treasurer; F. Knauft, secretary. 

German American Lodge No. 58 was instituted January 10, 1877. Its 
first elected officers were William Porter, noble grand; W. H. Stormer, 
V. G. ; C. E. Knauft, C. S. ; C. F. Hennige, financial secretary ; F. Knauft, 

Union Lodge No. 48, was instituted January 21, 1875. The follow- 
ing were the charter members who also were the first officers : Alexander 
Wilson, P. G. ; O. W. Wimpler, N. G. ; William M. Edgecomb, V. G. ; 
John W. Wood, R. S.; H. T. Sattler, P. S. 

Excelsior Lodge No. 60 was organized March 26, 1877. The charter 


members were R. Schiffman, M. D., John Remick, Walter Scott, H. L. 
Mills, Thomas Riley, George H. Smith, W. H. Mead, Max Whittleshofer, 
C. L. Marvin and Fred Sturneyk. The first officers of the lodge were 
H. L. Mills, N. G. ; W. G. Mead, V. G. ; John Remick, R. S. ; Thos. Riley, 
P. S. ; Max Whillteshofer, T. The growth of this lodge was unparalleled 
in the history of the order of this state. It soon numbered over two hun- 
dred members. 

There are now fourteen Odd Fellows lodges in St. Paul. There are 
also four encampments and militant associations, and nine lodges of the 
"Daughters of Rebekah," the ladies' auxiliary to the I. O. O. F. The 
general relief committee of St. Paul cooperates with the lodges. 

Mutual Benefit Society 

The Minnesota Odd Fellows' Mutual Benefit Society was incorporated 
in 1878. The first officers were Charles D. Strong, president ; Ed. A. 
Stevens, vice president; Dr. R. Schiffman. secretary; Robert A. Smith, 


treasurer, and Joseph Bergfeld, David Ramaley, August Ende, Sher- 
wood Hough, R. Schiffman, H. R. Brill, H. J. Strouse, Joseph Lewis, 
C. D. Strong, Robert A. Smith, Edward A. Stevens and William Cheney, 
directors, ihe general purpose of the society is the insurance of the 
lives of its members upon the plan of paying to the representative of 
every deceased member a certain sum, to be assessed pro rata, according 
to age, upon other members of said corporation. 

Odd Fellows Block and Home 

Tlie Odd Fellows of St. Paul have built and own a fine business block 
at Fifth and Wabasha streets, the heart of the city. Its lower floors are 
devoted to stores and offices, and the upper ones to lodge rooms and pub- 
lic halls. Its construction was a notable exhibition of civic enterprise 
at that period, thirty years ago, which has been fully justified by the 
conveniences secured, and by the great increase in the value of the 

The Minnesota Odd Fellows Home at Northfield has always been the 
object of the justifiable pride and fostering care of the order in this city. 
This splendid benefaction was inaugurated by laying the corner stone of 
the original building June 16, 1899, the elaborate ceremonies being in 
charge of Hon G. S. Ives, president of the Home, and Hon. W. C. Gamble, 
grand master — the former gentleman being the originator and persistent 
advocate of the enterprise. 

United Order of Druids 

The United Order of Druids was introduced into the state (then ter- 
ritory) of Minnesota, August 12, 1856, by the organization of Minne- 
sota Grove No. i, and was instituted by S. E. Burkhard as the district 
deputy G. A. of the Grand Grove of the United States, with eleven char- 
ter members. Washington No. 2, of Watertown, was organized with 
eleven charter members. Schiller Grove No. 3 was instituted September 
16, 1869, by J. P. Leitner. North Star Grove No. 4 was organized Sep- 
tember 10, 1870, with twenty-three charter members, and was the first 
grove to work in the English language in the state. St. Paul Grove No. 
7 was organized by members of North Star Grove No. 4, June 28, 1873, 
with seventeen charter members, and was instituted by S. L. Pollock, 
N. G. A. There are now five "Groves" and one "Royal Circle" (ladies' 
auxiliary) in St. Paul. The Grand Grove of the state has its headquar- 
ters in this city. 

Knights of Pythi.\s 

Champion Lodge No. 13, Knights of Pythias, was instituted Febru- 
ary 17, 1877, with sixty-one charter members. There are now St. Paul 
Lodge No. 2 and Okoda Lodge No. 9. There are also the Grand Lodge 
of the State; the Bureau of Transient Relief; the headquarters of the 
Uniformed Rank; sections of insurance and endowment rank; the im- 
perial council and a temple of Pythian Sisters — all connected with this 
aggressive and beneficent order. 

Ancient Order of United Workmen 

The Ancient Order of United Workmen was established in St. Paul 
by the organization in 1876 of Noble Lodge No. 2 and Franklin Lodge 
No. 3. These were consolidated a few years later into Noble-Franklin 


Lodge No. 2. J. F. Williams was the first master workman of Noble 
Lodge and W. R. Noble was the first past master workman of Franklin 
Lodge. Banner Lodge No. 4 and Concordia Lodge No. 5 were also 
formed in November, 1876. Eureka, Harmonia, St. Paul and Humboldt 
lodges were organized in 1877. There are now seventeen lodges in the 
city and four legions of Select Knights ; also ten lodges of the Degree of 
Honor, the woman's section. The Grand Lodge of Minnesota has its 
headquarters in St. Paul, corner Jackson and Sixth streets. Its officers 
are : G. M. W., August F. Floerkey ; Grand Recorder, C. E. Larson ; and 
receiver, J. F. McGuire. 

Other Fraternal Bodies 

St. Paul Lodge No. 59, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, was 
organized December 5, 1880. It built a beautiful hall at Elk's Place, 
opposite Rice Park, which was badly damaged by fire, but is now being 
reconstructed and improved. Its officers are : Exalted ruler, James P. 
Healy; secretary, W. G. Jennings. 

The Independent Order of Foresters is represented by twelve courts 
in St. Paul ; the Catholic order by fourteen courts, and the "United 
Order" by five courts. The officers of the High Court of Minnesota, 
I. O. F. are: H. C. R., F. J. Leonard, Jordan; H. S., A. McDonald, St. 

The Sons of Hermann (Hermann's Sohne), a German fraternal order, 
was founded in this city, October 28, 1870, by the establishment of Wash- 
ington Lodge No. I, which still maintains a vigorous existence. There 
are now twelve lodges in the city, including the ladies' societies. The 
Grand Lodge of Minnesota was organized in 1870. The grand president 
is Gust Brochert. The national grand president is William Foelsen of 
St. Paul. 

The Modern Woodmen of America maintain fourteen camps in St. 
Paul. There are ten camps of its ladies' auxiliary, The Royal Neigh- 
bors of America. 

The Woodmen of the World have seven camps in the city, and the 
women's branch, or Woodmen Circle, has three "groves." 

There are four lodges of the Independent Order of Good Templars, 
a fraternal and benevolent association of temperance workers, which, for 
fifty years has been doing goods deeds of charity and reform, through- 
out the state and nation. 

The Ancient Order of Hibernians are represented in St. Paul by ten 
divisions, by the state president, the county president, the A. O. H. Life 
Insurance Fund of Minnesota and eight divisions of the Ladies Auxiliary 
to A. O. H. This constitutes a highly efficient working organization 
capable of accomplishing beneficial results in the line of the special activ- 
ities of this great institution. J. J. Regan of St. Paul is the energetic 
and popular president of the national organization. 

The Royal Arcanum has six councils in the city, including one at 
Merriam Park. 

The C. S. D. P. T., a Slavonian order, has seven societies here; also 
the national headquarters. 

The Order of Columbian Knights has three lodges, including the 
Court Imperial No. 30, Daughters of Columbia. 

The Roval League has two councils and the state headquarters. 

The following secret or fraternal associations are represented in St. 

Vol. n— 1 n 


Paul by one or more local societies and in many cases by the officers of 
state or national organizations: American Yeomen; Court of Honor; 
Faithful Catholic Shepherds; Fraternal Order of Eagles; United Order 
of Odd Fellows (colored); Improved Order of Red Men; Knights of 
Columbus; Knights and Ladies of the Maccabees; Loyal Order of Moose; 
Modern Brotherhood of America ; Modern Samaritans : Mystic Work- 
ers of the World; National Protective Legion; National Union; Loyal 
Americans; Order of Owls; Sons of Denmark; Sons and Daughters of 
Norway; Sons of St. George; Tribe of Ben Hur; United Commercial 
Travelers ; and six independent temperance societies. 

A large majority of these fraternal orders have, besides their systems 
of immediate relief to needy members, an endowment or insurance fea- 
ture, adapted to the limited financial resources of wage earners. These 
indemnity sections have been brought within the jurisdiction of the state 
department, and undergo a careful supervision. They constitute an at- 
tractive savings system, an encouragement to thrift and a provision for 
the family against the illness or death of the breadwinner. Most of them 
have been judiciously managed and the total amount of indemnity funds 
distributed among the beneficiaries every year is a valuable contribution 
to the welfare of the community. 



Old St. Paul Musical Society — Singing Societies — St. Paul Sym- 
phony Orchestra — -Mrs. F. H. Snyder — The Schubert Club — 
Popular Musical Education — Social Clubs — Commercial Or- 

An enthusiastic partiality for musical entertainments and for musical 
culture has always been a characteristic of St. Paul people. So widely 
has this characteristic been recognized throughout the country that many 
times this city has been held up as an example for the imitation of others 
with far greater population and artistic pretensions. While the liberal 
scope of the purposes of the St. Paul Institute includes musical culture 
in its curriculum, that feature has not, as yet, become prominent. Pend- 
ing its assumption of the pleasing responsibility, many existing organiza- 
tions consecrated to this art have, along different lines, wrought success- 
fully for its advancement. 

Old St. Paul Musical Society 

The old St. Paul Musical Society was long one of the cherished local 
institutions, with a state-wide reputation, whose series of winter enter- 
tainments during many successive years, rivaled the popular "library lec- 
ture" courses as a perennial attraction. This society was organized in 
October, 1862, and gave its first concert December 28 of that year at 
Ingersoll's Hall. The soloists of that concert were G. Hancke, C. Zen- 
zius and Frank Wood. Among the members who for twenty-five years 
or more kept up the interest and participated in the performances were 
George Seibert, Richards Gordon, Dr. T. D. Simonton, Charles Scheffer, 
R. C. Munger, Charles E. Rittenhouse, S. P. Jennison and many others 
equally prominent in professional and business circles. 

Singing Societies 

The St. Paul Liederkranz, a German singing society, was organized 
on the 23d of November, 1867, by the following gentlemen : Joseph Moos- 
brugger, Carl Rapp. Joseph Sausen, Joseph Deiring, George Reis, John 
Wagener, Nick Christophel, John Wagener, Jr., Anton Hoenle, B. Or- 
thaus, Frank Rochler, PI. H. Miller, John Schillo. Adam Fetsch and 
Joseph Hermann. First officers of the society: H. H. Miller, president; 
George Reis, vice president ; Jacob Moosbrugger, secretary ; John Wage- 
ner, treasurer. Lender the leadership of Mich. Esch, the society received 
the first prize at the State Saengerfest, held at Minneapolis in 1870. The 



prize was also awarded to the society at the State Saengerfest held at 
Stillwater, in 1877, under the direction of the leader, J. T. Kerker. In 
1873 the society procured a very fine banner, made of white and blue silk. 
It was embroidered in New York and was considered the finest banner in 
Minnesota. The society paid $250 for the same. Combined with the 
male chorus of 25 voices was a mixed chorus consisting of 28 young 
ladies. After a highly successful career, the Liederkranz was disbanded 
in 1882 and its membership was merged into other associations, still exist- 

Concordia German Singing Society was organized January 10, 1875 ; 
its object is social intercourse among its members, and mutual improve- 
ment in vocal music. The founders were Frank Werner, W. Weiss. 
August Hammer, Julius Schneider, Ed. Penshorn, Peter Thauwald, T. 
Rohland, F. Roemer, Hermann Schnelle, John Ipps, Robert Schnelle, C. 
Sachse, C. Schmidt, Robert Lufsky, William Geisenheyner and Henry 
Niemeyer, the last named being the first director of the society. For 
twenty-six years, the "Concordia" was under the direction of the same 
professor, L. W. Harmsen. 

Arion Singing Society was organized January i, 1877, with nineteen 
members, and was incorporated in 1881. The object of the society is the 
cultivation of the voice and practice of vocal music. Also to provide 
social and musical entertainments for its members and their families and 
friends. Seventeen energetic young men were the founders, and this is 
the list of the original officers: Heinrich Thielen, president; Fritz Ben- 
der, vice president ; Joseph Hassler, secretary ; Carl Hildebrandt, treas- 
urer ; Franz Griebler, director. At the saengerfest in 1879 in Minne- 
apolis, the Arion received the first prize. The society is now under the 
direction of Prof. Paul Zumbach. 

The ]\Iozart Club was founded in the spring of 1895 by Peter Joseph 
Giesen, one of the pioneer German residents of St. Paul and the oldest 
active singer in the northwest. Giesen founded the society after a suc- 
cessful production of the opera "Zar und Zimmermann." The club made 
the former Turnhalle its headquarters, baptizing it "Mozart hall." The 
first officers were P. J. Giesen, honorary president; Emil Traeger. pres- 
ident ; A. J. Lufsky, secretary ; F. Werner, treasurer, and Prof. Maenner, 
director. "Papa" Giesen is still the head of the organization, and active 
as ever. 

"The United Singers of St. Paul," which comprises five leading St. 
Paul singing societies, was organized March 24, 1907. Its principal pur- 
pose is to appear in large and representative numbers at all great musical 
occasions. Following are the societies belonging to the L^nited Singers 
of St. Paul: Arion; ^1ozan Club; Eintracht; Liedertafel of North St. 
Paul, and West Side Liedertafel. The first officers were: Otto W. Roh- 
land, president ; William Conradi, vice president ; C. F. Trettin, secretary, 
and Anton Gleissner, treasurer. 

The United Singers took an active part in the festivities attending the 
dedication of the Auditorium. The organization was also represented 
by an active delegation at the unveiling of the .^chiller monument at Como 
Park, under the leadership of Prof. Claude Madden. The United Sing- 
ers participated in the various festivities at the .Auditorium during fair 
week, 1908, and take part in the celebrations of the annual German days 
in St. Paul. Last year the society went in a body to Omaha on the in- 
vitation of the Commercial Club and other associations of this city, and 
were successful in procuring the saengerfest of 1912 for .St. Paul — a 


festival occasion which brought many thousands of visitors, filled a joy- 
ous week with uplifting exercises, and added to the city's fame for musical 
culture. The present officers are Anton Gleissner, president; August 
Staak, vice president ; C. F. Trettin, secretary ; and Ernst Hadlich, treas- 

The Dania Singing Society meets every Monday evening in Vasa 
hall, 254 East Seventh street ; the Fram Singing Society meets every Wed- 
nesday evening at the same place ; the Emanuel Mixed Choir meets every 
Friday evening on Goff avenue; the Normanna Society meets every 
Thursday evening, at Vasa hall. 

St. Paul Symphony Orchestra 

The organization and successful operation of these various musical 
societies of the past, have prepared St. Paul to securely embark on the 
wave of musical enthusiasm flooding the country in the last decade. 
While still much smaller than many of the cities that do not aspire to half 
its artistic ambitions, it has firmly established at least the beginnings of 
practically every sort of musical institution known to the metropolitan 
cities of the world. The maintenance of a symphony orchestra is apt to 
be a high-water mark in the cultural aspiration of a community, and four 
years ago St. Paul decided that it could and should support its own or- 
chestra. So, in the fall of 1907, a group of citizens planned the organiza- 
tion, engaged as director Chevalier E. B. Emanuel, and proceeded to 
enjoy St. Paul's first season of home-made symphony concerts, embel- 
lished by the performances of world-famous soloists. 

The experiment proved successful, and the bi-weekly concerts came 
to be looked upon more as necessities than luxuries. A bar of Haydn 
makes the whole world kin. The music for which people had hitherto 
to wait until some orchestra condescended to come out of the east was 
now being provided in sufficiently good form to make them feel that it 
was indispensable. Following two seasons under the baton of Emanuel, 
the directorship was given to Walter Henry Rothwell, a man of English 
parentage on one side of his house, but with a Viennese education and 
musical training. He made his mark at the Vienna conservatory before 
starting out as a conductor, although he is still a young man. Mr. Roth- 
well has completed his second season with the St. Paul Symphony 
Orchestra, and has led an organization of some seventy-two men through 
the performance of the world's greatest orchestral masterpieces. Ap- 
pearing at the concerts have been singers and instrumentalists of inter- 
national reputation — grand opera stars from European capitals and the 
best American musicians to be obtained. On March 25, 1912, the or- 
. chestra left St. Paul for an extensive "tour of the provinces." The trip 
lasted six weeks, and about forty towns were visited in Minnesota, the 
Dakotas, Montana and Canada. The concerts were received with enthu- 
siasm everywhere. The officers of the association for 1911-12 are: 
L. W. Hill, president; C. O. Kalman, vice president; J. L. Mitchell, sec- 
retary and treasurer ; Edmund A Stein, manager. 

Mrs. F. H. Snyder 

There has been no more active agent for the artistic welfare of St. 
Paul than Mrs. F. H. Snyder, one of the best known impresarios in the 
United States, who has kept in constant touch with the world of music 


in its best phases. At its installation she was business manager of the 
symphony orchestra, but rehnquished the office later to devote her time 
exclusively to managing the other numerous events which go to make 
up a city's full musical life. In April, 1910, she undertook the most im- 
portant venture of her local career, namely, the booking of the Metro- 
politan Opera Company of New York for six performances in St. Paul. 
And here the importance of the Auditorium as an adjunct to musical 
activity made itself felt. The operas given were "Lohengrin," "Madam 
Butterfly," "Haensel and Gretel," "Aifa," "Pagliacci," and "The Bar- 
tered Bride," under the direction of Arturo Toscanini. Financially and 
artistically the brief season was an immense success, and a season of 
opera for the following year was practically assured at that time. Sub- 
sequently came the establishment of permanent grand opera in Chicago, 
and it was from Chicago that this city had its season of opera in January, 
191 1, when, under the baton of Cleofonte Campanini, five performances 
were given, including "Thais," "Tales from Hoffman" "Carmen," "The 
Girl of the Golden West" and "Louise." A brilliant close to the series 
was the concert in which the entire chorus of the company, several of the 
principals, and the orchestra under Campanini participated. 

The Schubert Club 

The whole city is filled with admiring appreciation of the work done 
by the Schubert Club, composed entirely of women, in promoting the 
musical culture of the people. With a membership of four hundred, it 
aims not only to give fortnightly recitals, with occasional special concerts 
for the exploiting of outside and distinguished talent, but maintains a 
student section from which many gifted young women have been chosen 
and sent abroad for tuition. For a quarter of a century this club has held 
the city true to the musical compass. It has united musicians from every 
quarter in promoting the musical interests of the city, and it has united' 
them in that democratic sympathy which must always sustain music if 
any true significance is to pertain. It has never held other than the highest 
standards; if St. Paul is, as all musicians from abroad declare, one of 
the most musical communities in the country, it is largely because this 
club has established critical standards for itself, for the city, and has 
been discriminating at all times and appreciative at the right time. 

The officers of~the Schubert Club for 1911-12 are: President, Mrs. 
W. S. Briggs; vice president, Mrs. C. E. Furness ; recording secretary, 
Mrs. F. S. Blodgett ; assistant recording secretary, A. F. Goodrich ; cor- 
responding secretary, Miss Gertrude Hall; assistant corresponding sec- 
retary, Mrs. M. D. Munn ; treasurer, Miss Cornelia Lusk ; librarian, Mrs. 
J. W.' Thompson; assistant librarian, Miss Elsie M. Shawe ; federation, 
secretary, Mrs. D. S. Elliott: guest secretary. Mrs. Benjamin Gorham. 

Popular ^ Education 

.•\nother phase of St. Paul's musical situation is that of musical train- 
ing in the public .schools. For a number of years it has been in charge 
of Miss Elsie M. Shawe, who has becom? known throughout the country 
as a remarkablv able supervisor, a fact in testimony of which is her elec- 
tion as president of the music section of the National Educational Asso- 
ciation. . • J U 

Among the many smaller bodies of musicians may be mentioned the 


string quartet composed of members of the Symphony Orchestra, which 
gave a series of six fortnightly recitals last winter, and although their 
programs contained chamber music of the strictly classical sort, there 
never was any difficulty in filling the hall. St. Paul boasts at least four 
colleges and schools of music ; numerous vocal and instrumental quartets, 
and a long list of teachers, many of them with wide reputations. 

If the purposes of its chief promoters are fulfilled, the free student 
bureau just organized by the Schubert Club will be the entering wedge 
of a new musical era in this part of the country, and finally, in all Am- 
erica. The object of the bureau is to meet the demands for recitals and 
concerts throughout the state and secure for the musicians enrolled in 
the bureau, opportunities for semi-professional work. In a large sense 
it will be club work, to borrow a term from university extension. The 
scheme embodies a more intimate relationship between the musicians 
and the clubs. Without the sound of trumpets, rather with a steady organ 
point, does the Schubert Club continue its work, and all the community 
is effected by the overtones. 

The Sunday afternoon concerts, given by the Symphony Orchestra at 
the Auditorium are a highly appreciated feature. The library of the 
orchestra is rich with musical works which have endeared themselves to 
the public in the same way whereby a popular song becomes common prop- 
erty of the singing multitude. No one who attends these afternoon con- 
certs need suspect that he will be called upon to listen to music which, 
by its discordant notes, will widen the horizon of horror and add to the 
aggregate of despair. He will have an opportunity to listen to music 
which is familiar. Whether these concerts are attended for pleasure or 
for education, the program can be depended upon ; and musicians and 
the merely musical can be certain of that beloved popular music, which, 
like nonsense now and then, is relished by the best of men. St. Paul has 
an opportunity to gather in great numbers at an hour which is generally 
void of other engagement, and make these concerts a tribute to good 
music, and to the organization which is so capable of giving good music. 

The priceless value of the Auditorium, in affording opportunities for 
the musical culture of all the people, is less fully appreciated by our citi- 
zens, than by observing visitors. Speaking of this great institution, the 
president of the Southern California Music Teachers' Association, so- 
journing for a few days in St. Paul, said, to a reporter: "It might be 
the means of educating the great mass of the people along any lines you 
wish, but you don't take advantage of it any more than does any other 
American city. If you'd run it like any business, if you'd go to the peo- 
ple and say, 'Here, we want to make some money. We'll give you fine 
concerts at ten and fifteen cents admission, and we'll use the money to 
pay the interest on the investment and in spending it so we can give the 
city better music, better art, better pictures, little bits of statuary for the 
parks, and such things ; you'd be using it right. The common people of 
America are the ones who are going to make the art and the music of this 
nation, not the few wealthy people, and when a city can get this class of 
people spending a few cents each week in its auditorium, the art and 
musical education of the American people is assured." 

The opening of a music school at the Neighborhood House by the 
Schubert Club is an undertaking characteristic of the club. Probably in 
no part of the city has the opportunity for music study been so limited. 
Certainly in no part of the city is music better appreciated. It is largely 
a foreign population, and one of much energy and ambition which centers 


about the Neighborhood House. In the pubhc schools near that locality 
it is recognized that music is the iirst study the children delight in or 
comprehend; it is the language they can understand and speak before 
they have lost the accent of their mother tongue. Ainong the adult resi- 
dents a similar delight is felt in music, a similar consciousness that here 
is something which is the same in America as in the old country. As a 
means in "naturalization," music holds an important place. The Schubert 
Club has commanded the services of a number of excellent teachers for 
the school at the Neighborhood House. These teachers find that no other 
pupils reward them more abundantly. 

That a recognition of St. Paul's eminence in musical culture has pene- 
trated even into New England is shown by comments of the reliable and 
conservative Springfield, (Alass.,) Republican as follows: "Last year 
St. Paul spent for music over $130,000. Of this $65,000 went for the 
local orchestra; grand opera took $45,000. The larger concerts cost 
$16,500 and minor receipts account for the remaining $500. It is an ex- 
cellent showing. Is there an eastern town that can match it? In St. 
Paul, of course, as elsewhere, the burden falls upon a minority. The 
number of music lovers is estimated at 8,000, which would make the 
share of each $16.25. For this one may buy a number of tickets, though 
not so many as a music lover would like. But 8,000 is a large proportion. 
By the same ratio New York should have nearly 190,000, which is far 
in excess of the fact. The expenditures of New York for music, as for 
all other luxuries, is enormous; does it come to sixty cents per capita, or 
$3,000,000 a season? Whatever the total, it devolves upon a relatively 
small group — opera at prices far beyond the purse of the multitude ac- 
counts for a large part. In St. Paul, as in many western musical towns, 
patronage seems of a sane and widely diffused character, which speaks 
well for the state of culture." 

Soci.^L Clubs 

The oldest and most important of the social clubs of St. Paul is the 
Minnesota Club, organized in 1870 by the prominent citizens of that day, 
and maintaining a prosperous career from the beginning. Its first home 
was in the former Bartlett Presley mansion on Eighth street, near Sib- 
ley. In 1880, the building specially constructed for it, at the corner of 
Fourth and Cedar streets was occupied. It has since been enlarged, but 
has been outgrown. 

Late in 191 1 the Minnesota Club definitely decided to build, in 1913, 
a new club house on the old Metropolitan hotel site. The club further- 
more gave the governing board full power to act. The members of the 
board are Jule M. Hannaford, Theodore A. Schulze, John Townsend, 
Haldor Sneve. John J. Watson, .Arthur B. Driscoll. Robert I. Farrington. 
George L. Bunn, Jared How, Edward N. Saunders, Frank Schlick. Charles 
W. Ames, Charles W. Gordon. John N. Jackson. Charles W. Bunn, 
James T. Clark, James J. Hill. Christopher D. O'Brien, Pierce Butler, 
James H. Skinner an i Frederick R. Lynch. 

The Minnesota Club bought the Metropolitan hotel in 190Q for $54- 
000. Its frontages are 19S feet on Washington street, 76 on Third and 
100 feet on Fourth. The new club house will occupy this entire area and 
will cost approximately $150,000. The money will be raised by the sale 
of bonds to members of the club and the sale of the present site, which 
has a market value of about $75,000. The members of the club have re- 



alized for some years that their present quarters are too small for the 
constantly growing demands put upon them. The subject of removal has 
been carefully considered with the result that the old hotel site was finally 
chosen as the most available to be found. The Minnesota Club now num- 
bers 500 members. John J. Watson is president and John Townsend, sec- 
retary and treasurer. 

The Town and Country Club organized December 12, 1887, has about 
800 members. It occupies a tract beautifully located on the brow of the 
Mississippi bluffs, at the Marshall avenue bridge, and is thus of convenient 
access to members in both St. Paul and Minneapolis, while having all 
the charms of quiet and retirement. The river front is a primeval forest ; 
further back are many acres of lawn, with golf links, tennis courts etc. 
The officers are Sherman Finch, president; F. W. Bobbette, secretary 
and treasurer. 


The Minnesota Boat Club was organized March i^ 1870 and incor- 
porated December 18, 1873. Norman Wright was its first president. 
Its general objects is physical culture and practice of the art of rowing 
and sailing in boats. It obtained title to Raspberry island in the Missis- 
sippi river under the Wabasha street bridge. Club houses were erected, 
boats purchased, and all the paraphernalia of a well-equipped institution 
were provided. Annual regattas were long maintained and the club has 
won many handsome prizes in boat races, competing with picked crews 
in all parts of the country. Present officers are : James D. Denegre, 
president; Charles L. Sommers, vice president; George L. Reimbold, 
secretary; C. P. Davis, treasurer. 

The Automobile Club of St. Paul has a large membership and main- 
tains a sumptuous club house at White Bear lake, with ample facilities 
for entertainments, etc. 

The Norden Club maintains elegant quarters, with all club accessories, 
at the corner of Jackson and Fifth streets. It has a large membership of 
Scandinavian-Americans and has had a career of uninterrupted pros- 


perity. J. A. Lagerman is president; S. U. JMolander, secretary and 
Victor Engeman, treasurer. 

The University Club now located on Western avenue, corner of Ash- 
land avenue, is building new quarters on Summit avenue, at the head of 
Ramsey street. It is a vigorous organization of young men. President, 
E. A. Young, Jr.; secretary, E. K. Urennan. 

The Elks' Club has a fine, new building on Rice Park. 

The White Bear Yacht Club of St. Paul maintains a club house at 
Dellwood, and the large fleet of yachts and launches owned by its mem- 
bers engage in many spirited contests during the boating season. Com- 
modore, O. L. Taylor; vice commodore, J. G. Ordway ; secretary C. W. 

The West Side Club is located at the corner of State and Congress 
streets. G. F. Dix, president; W. S. Wright, secretary; Henry Martin, 

Musical clubs, literary clubs, church clubs and womens' clubs are 
enumerated in appropriate chapters of this work. The two leading per- 
manent political clubs, both Republican are the Roosevelt and the Lin- 

The Ramsey county Afro-American Club and the Colored Gopher 
Base Ball Club, represent the colored element. 

Other clubs, with more or less social activities, or devoted to athletics, 
sports and other diversions are: Ingleside Club; High School Teachers 
Club; Bookkeepers Club; West Publishing Company Employe's Club; 
Humor Bowling Club ; Island Pass Club ; Mohawk La Crosse Club ; Nor- 
wegian Club ; Nushka Curling Club ; St. Paul Chess and Whist Club ; St. 
Paul La Crosse Club; St. Paul Rod and Gun Club and the Transporta- 
tion Club. 

Social Fe.\tures of Commercial Clubs 

Early in 1912, the United Association of Commercial Travellers re- 
moved from the quarters in the Lowry building which it had occupied four 
years, to the Ryan Hotel. In this eligible position, the 1,000 members 
of this wide-awake and aggressive organization prosecuted its numerous 
activities, while maintaining some of the attributes of club life. This was 
preliminary to the purchase and fitting up of the perrnanent home in the 
Harris residence property, 117 College avenue, occupied as a lodge hall, 
offices and club rooms, in September 191 2. This new home is considered 
one of the most desirable pieces of club property in St. Paul. The house 
is well built and elaborately finished inside. On the first floor the ceil- 
ings are twelve feet high and eleven feet on the second floor. There are 
eight fire places. The house is so arranged on the first floor that double 
doors can be thrown open and the entire floor made into one room. The 
grounds surrounding the new home are surmounted with Lake Superior 
red sand stone and covered with trees and shrubbery. A cement drive- 
way leads to a side entrance to the house. The location is near the 
street railwav and only a few moments' walk from the downtown dis- 
trict. The .St. Paul lodge was organized December 2S, 1893, with twenty 
charter members. It now has a membership of 1.047 in good standing. 

The St. Paul Commercial Club, liy its closer affiliation with the .\sso- 
ciation of Commerce, will doubtless in the future devote even more atten- 
tion, than in the past, to its social and gastronomic features. With an 
increase of over 300 members late in 1911, and a removal to splendid 


quarters in the new building at Fourth and Wabasha streets, September 
1912, the Commercial Club enters upon an enlarged sphere of useful- 
ness as to those features which must increasingly emphasize its value to 
the city and the state. 

The headquarters of the Club, on the eleventh and twelfth floors of 
the latest of St. Paul's office buildings, are among the most complete 
in the West. The main banquet room is in the southwest section of the 
eleventh floor. It is finished in dull green and the scheme of illumination 
is beautiful with pedestal and inverted ceiling lights. 

A pretty tea room is prepared for the ladies. It is white and decorated 
in the Japanese effect. A room adjoining the banquet room on the north 
will be the main library and is finished in dull Spanish leather. 

The lobby is finished in what is known as ivory, trimmed with silver 
gray, with the inverted lights. North of the lobby on the eleventh floor 
is another pretty room finished in Louis XIV style to be used for a recep- 
tion room for visiting women. 

In the northeast section of the eleventh floor is the rest room for the 
members. This is a comfortable room for lounging. In the southeast 
section of this floor is the card room with paneled walls and subdued 

The twelfth floor is occupied by the main dining room, in the west 
end of the building. On the south side of the room are three smaller rooms 
divided by rolling doors, so that they may be used for private parties or 
may be thrown open to connect with the main room in case of necessity. 
On the north side of the room are five stalls which may be used for the 
same purpose. 

The billiard room occupies the east section of the floor on the north 
side and contains ten tables. The kitches is on the south side of the 
twelfth floor and is a model of its kind, both for equipment and for sani- 
tary arrangements. There are electric elevators, one of which will be 
used for express service during rush hours. 

A single incident m.ay be given as illustrating one measure of the 
usefulness of the club's social functions. Mr. Cal. S. Stone, chairman 
of the local committee on entertainment for the national convention of 
general passenger agents of railways, wrote the following, after receiv- 
ing more than fifty letters from the visitors all speaking in the highest 
terms of their entertainment, and praising St. Paul as an ideal place in 
which to hold conventions. This in itself is important as these men are 
very prominent in routing and directing tourists and convention travel : 

"St. Paul, Nov. 13, 191 1. 

W. L. Seeley, Secretary, 

"Dear Sir : — On behalf of the local committee in charge of the arrange- 
ments and entertainment of the General Passenger Agents Association, 
upon the occasion of their annual convention in this city in September, 
I wish to thank you and the officers of your club for the assistance ex- 
tended to the local committee. The convention was a grand success and 
I beg to submit to you some of the letters received from our guests. 
They certainly appreciate the efforts of the citizens of St. Paul to make 
their visit a pleasant memory. Again thanking the Commercial Club, 
its officers and members for their great assistance, I am, with profound 
gratitude and high appreciation. Yours sincerely. 

Cal E. Stone." 


Ben Johnson's definition of a club, given many generations since, as 
"a company of good fellows, meeting under certain conditions," accur- 
ately applies to several of the loyal and hospitable organizations of St. 
Paul, and to none more so than to the Commercial Club, which, in its 
social functions contributes to the best expressions of the city's aspira- 
tions and ideals. 



First Military Organization — Beginnings of the National Guard 
— The Permanent National Guard — The St. Paul Companies 
— The National Guard's War Service — Past Reputation Well 
Sustained — ^The National Guard Armory. 

Under the territorial government of Minnesota little attention was 
paid to the organized militia. This is somewhat remarkable considering 
the fact that the second territorial governor, Willis A. Gorman, had 
been before his appointment to that office, major of an Indiana regiment 
in the Mexican War, where he made so fine a record that he was sent to 
Congress from that state immediately on his return; he was afterwards 
colonel of the First Minnesota Infantry and a brigader general in the 
Union Army during the war of the Rebellion. His military instincts and 
tendencies were thereby fully demonstrated, but as territorial governor 
he probably found a sufficient field for his activities in civil administra- 
tion, with all the complicated interests therein involved. The Pioneer 
Guard, an independent company and the first in the territory, was organ- 
ized in April 1856. Alex Wilkin was captain, and it became Co. "A" of 
the First Minnesota Infantry in April 1861. 

First Militia Organization 

The first militia organization of the state was established by general 
orders from the adjutant general's office dated October i, 1858, which 
were based upon the statute passed at the session of the Legislature^ im- 
mediately preceding that date. Under this order, the state was divided 
into six divisions, twelve brigades and twenty-eight regiments, while the 
whole number of citizens at that time liable to be enrolled for military 
duty, as appears from a later return was 23,972. 

The theory of this statute, passed in 1858, was simply to allow such 
citizens as were capable of bearing arms the privilege of organizing into 
companies of volunteer militia, uniform themselves and drill at discre- 
tion, all without compensation or other public inducements. Those who 
could thus organize under the law were to comprise the active military 
force of the state, and be first liable to do military duty. 

At the time the law was passed, and until the outbreak of the war in 
1861, there was little or no military spirit among the people. Hence, 
when the war began it was found that the militia organization of the 
state, the same as that established by the general orders of 1858, com- 
prised 147 general staff and field officers, with about 200 privates en- 



rolled in the active companies. The number of men who would have 
responded to a call for any duty, was doubtless considerably less than 
the number of field and other commissioned officers. The organization 
was merely a form, without life, substance or capacity for anything 
beyond the withdrawal of arms and public property from the arsenal 
and placing it beyond the reach of the state officers. 

The early legislators of the country had learned from history and 
observation that standing armies had little sympathy with the mass of 
the people and easily became the instrument of oppression in the hands 
of unscrupulous public officials. The theory then adopted was to leave 
the military power with the people, so that the armies of the country, 
coming from them and being a part of them, would act in concert with 
them and not become the instruments of oppression. But this theory 
carried to an extreme, through negligence and inattention of state authori- 
ties found the people of ^Minnesota, on the occurrence of the great emer- 
gency of civil war, practically powerless to meet it with anv organized 
force. Through the energy of Governor Alexander Ramsey and his 
adjutant general, John B. Sanborn, the emergency was met, notwith- 
standing the defective laws, and the process of organizing volunteer com- 
panies and regiments ab initio went rapidly forward as narrated in the 
chapter devoted to that subject. Meantime, General Sanborn, an able 
and industrious St. Paul lawyer, prepared a new militia law and recom- 
mended that the Governor call the attention of the Legislature to the 
matter, submitting the draft thus prepared as the foundation for entirely 
new legislation on the subject. 

The Legislature emasculated General Sanborn's proposed enactment, 
and no really effective law for a militia organization was put on the 
statute books for more than twenty years. During the Sioux outbreak 
of 1862, various independent companies were formed for immediate 
service against the Indians, but their organization was crude and their 
tenure was never intended to be permanent. 

For some years after the close of the war for the Union, in 1865. the 
military spirit of Minnesota seemed to be in abeyance. The nation had 
seen and heard enough of drills and marches — somewhat too much of 
battles and slaughter. Only a few, even of the returned soldiers, cared 
to form companies : still fewer cared to go into training camps, or engage 
in target practice. The Adjutant General of the State was made ex- 
officio, bounty and pension attorney for gratuitous service to war claim- 
ants, also secretary of the board of trustees of soldiers' orphans, etc. 
These purely civil functions monopolized the attention of successive in- 
cumbents of that office, hence military affairs were left the operation of 
the law of natural selection and the survival of the fittest. Each Governor 
api)ointed a nominal "staff" of generals, colonels and majors, but prob- 
ably between 1866 and 1880, not one in twenty of these even procured a 
uniform. — howbeit manv of them clung tenaciouslv to their parchment 

Beginnings of the N.\tion.\l Gu.\rd 

During this period there were, however, almost continuously military 
companies in .St. Paul, and in other towns, and for a limited period, be- 
tween 1870 and 1873. there was a serious effort at effective organization. 
This effort was largely due to the zeal and energy of Col. A. P. Connolly 
of St. Paul, who still survives, an honored resident of Minneapolis, and 


the senior surviving officer on the "retired Hst" of the Minnesota National 

Col. Connolly, born in Sheffield N. B. Canada, 1836, came to Minne- 
sota in 1857, and became identified with its newspapers. He served three 
years during the Civil and Indian wars ; mustered out as Adjutant of the 
6th Minnesota Infantry August 22, 1865. In 1870 he began to study the 
possibilities of gathering the independent military companies of the city 
and state into regimental organizations. He found in St. Paul five 
companies, acting independently, and designated as follows : 

The Governor's Guards — Capt. Chas. S. Bunker. 

The Emmet Guards — Capt. John C. Deveraux. 

The Turner Rifles— Capt. Albert Schefifer. 

The Scandinavian Guards — Capt. J. A. Vanstrum. 

The High School Cadets— Capt. John A. Berkey. 

Horace Austin was Governor and Commander-in-chief, with Mark 
D. Flower as Adjutant General. They listened with interest to Con- 
nolly's suggestion that these companies, with the "Irish Rifles" at Minne- 
apolis, be made the nucleus of a regiment. Accordingly, on Dec. 9, 1870, 
the first regiment "^Minnesota Enrolled Militia" was formed, and A. P. 
Connolly was commissioned as lieutenant colonel. On May 28, 1871, a 
full list of ten companies having been secured, A. P. Connolly was com- 
missioned colonel. 

The term "militia" did not sound good either to the commander or the 
company officers, all of whom, with many of the enlisted men had seen 
actual war service. Accordingly, at Col. Connolly's suggestion, the desig- 
nation "national guard" was adopted — the first use of that term in ]\Iinne- 
sota, if not in the country. Capt. Vanstrum's company, for some reason, 
failed to muster, and the high school cadets were too young. But by 
"general orders No. 2," dated September nth, 1871, signed M. D. Flower 
Adjutant General, it was announced that "the first regiment Minnesota 
National Guards, commanded by Col. A. P. Connolly, is hereby reorgan- 

The St. Paul Companies were named as: Co. "A" Capt. C. S. Bunker; 
Co. "B" Capt. A. Schefifer; Co. "D" Capt. ]. C. Deveraux. The remain- 
ing seven companies were located respectively at Austin, Mantorville, 
Red Wing, Lake City, Stillwater, Kasson and Dodge Center. By the 
same order, a second regiment was constituted, with Lieut. Col. H. G. 
Hicks of Minneapolis in command, with eight companies named, three 
located at Minneapolis, and the others at Cambridge, New Ulm, (Jos. 
Bobleter, captain), St. Cloud (L. W. ColHns, captain), Anoka and Cor- 

The first regiment with its St. Paul colonel and its three St. Paul 
companies made the best showing of efficiency, but labored under great 
difficulties. Col. Connolly and his officers and men had to pay their own 
expenses — armory rent, uniforms, music etc. All they received from 
the constituted authorities was the guns and accoutrements thereunto 
pertaining. Neither state nor nation contributed a dollar in cash. There 
was no money to pay for mobilizing the regiment or going into camp. 
But for several years the companies in their respective towns kept up a, 
good state of discipline, maintained regular drills, and justified their 
existence. The three St. Paul companies worked together in harmony, 
and frequently appeared under command of Col. Connolly in reviews, 
in battalion drills, and in public processions on memorial day, etc. They 


were once reviewed by j\Iaj.-Gen. W. S. Hancock U. S. A. and staff, who 
highly coniphmented the colonel on their soldierly appearance. 

On the occasion of the threatened attack by Indians at Brainerd, in 
1871. the three companies were sent, by order of Gov. Austin, in com- 
mand of Col. Connolly to the scene of impending hostilities. They were 
ordered out at 8:30 P. M., and entrained at 8 o'clock the next morning, 
with only 6 men missing. They proceeded to Brainerd, sent the In- 
dians back to their reservation, restored confidence to the settlers and 
performed a real public service. This expedition was referred to as "the 
blueberry war" because the belligerent reds were engaged in berry pick- 
ing when they made the hostile demonstrations. The good accomplished 
was always gratefully acknowledged by the people benefited. 

This regiment constituted the real beginnings of the present splendid 
national guard system of ^Minnesota and will be so credited by impartial 
history. It could not be permanently maintained owing to the lack of 
funds, and the absence of other inducements afterward offered for state 
military service. But the officers and men deserve praise for their self- 
sacrificing efforts, and the patriotic spirit displayed. Col. Connolly sus- 
tained his rank until he resigned in 1881, and 30 years later he was 
awarded the ten-year service medal, by Adjutant General F. B. Wood, 
on being placed on the roll of retired officers of the ^Minnesota national 

The Permanent N.\tional Guard 

The National Guard of the State of Minnesota as organized under 
the present law, consists of three regiments of infantry and one battalion 
of artillery, a total of something over 2,000 officers and men. The Ad- 
jutant General is Brig. Gen. Fred. B. Wood appointed Jan. 2S. 1905. 
after more than twenty years service in the National Guard, including 
a captaincy in the 12th Minnesota Volunteers during the Spanish- 
American war. The term of enlistment is three years. Every company 
or battery is required by law to make at least thirty company drills or 
parades each year, exclusive of camp and actual service. Ten days is 
the time alloted for the annual encampment on the state grounds at 
Lake City. 

Every officer and enlisted man. during his term of service, is exempt 
from duty as juryman in any court of the state ; and every person who 
shall have received an honorable discharge after a continuous service 
of five years or more is thereafter exempt from such jury duty. The 
city of Lake City, in 1891. donated to the State of Minnesota ground on 
which to hold the annual encampment of the National Guard, upon con- 
dition that the same be used for thirty years for the purpose of such en- 

It is stated that in 1879, o"'.v o"s thoroughly equipped company re- 
mained in the service to represent the organized militia, of the State of 
Minnesota, — this company being located at New Ulm, and having been 
kept alive largely through the zeal of its captain, Joseph Bobleter. a reg- 
ular soldier during the Civil war, and afterwards Colonel and Brigadier 
General of the State Guard. In 1879 and 1880 several companies were 
organized and legislation was sought that would give proper encourage- 
ment to those who might be willing to devote their time and money to 
building up a force that would do credit to the commonwealth. Hence, 
in 18S1. the Legislature ajipropriated $5,000 to the support of the Na- 
tional Guard, and the governor was authorized to make a battalion forma- 


tion at his pleasure. The result of this legislation was the formation, 
in February 1882, under Governor L. F. Hubbard, (himself a disting- 
uished soldier of the Civil War, and destined later to become a Brigadier- 
General in the Spanish- American War,) of the first Battalion, consisting 
of four companies, previously known as the Minneapolis Light Infantry, 
Capt. J. P. Rea; the Minneapolis Zouaves, Capt. A. A. Ames; the St. 
Paul Guard, Capt. W. B. Bend, and the Allen Light Guard of St. Paul, 
Capt. E. S. Bean. These companies were designated respectively 
as "A"' "B," "C," "D." At an election for a battalion commander, 
to rank as major, Capt. W. B. Bend was unanimously elected and duly 
commissioned. Another company was raised in St. Paul by Capt. J. P. 
Moore, and was designated Company "E." Governor Hubbard then 
ordered the election of a Lieut. -Colonel of the battalion and Major Bend 
was elected, the office of Major being filled by the election of B. N. Gil- 
more, of Minneapolis. In July 1882, the battalion encamped at White 
Bear Lake, and the men received their first experience in field duties. 
Other companies were soon organized at Fergus Falls, Red Wing and 
Litchfield. This made eight companies and the Legislature of 1883 hav- 
ing passed a new military code and increased the appropriations for the 
National Guard, the first battalion became the First Regiment and elected 
William B. Bend, Colonel. In March, of that year, Company "I" was 
organized at Minneapolis and Company "K" at Stillwater, when, for 
the first time, the regiment had its full quota of ten companies. In July 
1883 the regiment encamped for a week at White Bear Lake and in 1884 
it encamped for the same period at Lake Calhoun. 

When the state prison at Stillwater was burned in 1884, a part of 
the regiment was ordered on duty to guard the convicts and to furnish 
detachments to take charge of prisoners temporarily transferred to county 
jails. This was its first active and useful public duty, which was per- 
formed to the entire satisfaction of the authorities. In October, 1892, 
the full regiment took part in the inauguration exercises connected with 
the Columbian Exposition at Chicago, where its splendid appearance won 
honorable mention from the Chicago press and it was given special prom- 
inence by General Miles in the building where the exercises were held. 

In 1895 the Roster of the field officers of the regiment was as fol- 

C. McReeve, Colonel ; W. G. Bronson, Lieut.-Colonel ; 

W. W. Price, and F. W. Ames, Majors. 

The St. Paul Companies 

We now come to the more detailed history of the St. Paul companies, 
connected with this regiment. In March 1880, a movement was inaugur- 
ated by Mr. E. S. Chittenden and Mr. Charles S. Bunker, who had been 
members of the National Guard in New York before their removal to 
Minnesota, for the organization of a company in St. Paul. The pre- 
liminary meeting was held at the Chamber of Commerce, March 18, 
1880. William B. Bend was elected chairman of this meeting and Mr. 
Chittenden, Secretary. A committee of six appointed to consider the 
proposed organization and report at a future meeting. This comrdittee 
consisted of Mr. Bunker, Mr. Chittenden, Mr. Thomas Cochran, Mr. 
Oxley, and Mr. Larkin. The result of subsequent meetings was the 
formation of a military company to be known as the "St. Paul Guards," 
of which C. S. Bunker was elected captain; W. B. Bend, first lieutenant 


and W. H. Oxley, second lieutenant; F. P. Wright, afterward captain of 
this company and colonel of the regiment, was appointed first sergeant, 
and the company began its drills early in April, 1880, in Pfeiffer Hall. 
The company adopted a full dress uniform in which it made its first 
parade in August, 1881. It also took part in the funeral obsequies of 
President Garfield. 

The St. Paul Guards originally designed to be an independent citi- 
zens' corps, and so maintained efficiently until the organization of the 
Minnesota National Guard, then took its place as Company "C" in the 
First Battalion and afterward in the First Regiment. The organization 
of the St. Paul Guard was speedily followed in this city by that of the 
Allen Guard (Company "D"), the Emmet Light Artillery (Company 
"E"), and by various other companies throughout tiie state, the military 
enthusiasm of our citizens having received a new impulse. 

From its first organization, special attention was paid by Company 
"C" to securing members of high character, with the result of maintain- 
ing the company as a first-class military organization, and making it suc- 
cessful in its undertakings, both of a military and social nature. The 
company took a leading part in procuring the erection of the armory in 
St. Paul and contributed its full share to the cost thereof. The company 
claims to have contributed from its membership more commissioned offi- 
cers and of higher rank, than all other companies in the State of Minne- 
sota. When called upon for active service, as it was on several occasions 
during the first ten years of its existence, Company "C" faithfully and 
promptly responded with full ranks and ready for any duty. In July, 
1890, when a hasty order from the Governor issued at 7 o'clock in the 
evening, called for the assembly of three companies in St. Paul to go 
to Mora, Minnesota, to protect settlers from a threatened raid by the 
Chippewa Indians, Company "C" had 73 men out of 76 at the Armory at 
II o'clock, all ready for duty. 

Changes in the command of the company were necessitated by pro- 
motions, etc. The successive captains up to 1890 were — C. S. Bunker, 
W. B. Bend, F. P. Wright, William Dawson. Jr.. Sheldon Blakely, A. E. 
Chantler, and H. C. Braden. 

At the last named date S. G. Iverson was first lieutenant and R. B. Ris- 
ing, second lieutenant. Among the non-commissioned officers of the orig- 
inal company in 1880 were Thomas Cochran, W. N. Becker, C. P. Marvin, 
Herman Scheffer, T. R. Forbes, and Walter Hewitt. Among the original 
privates enrolled were E. S. Chittenden, Sherman Finch, H. H. Horton. 
Crawford Livingston, Joseph ]\IcKee, S. B. Walsh. T. R. Walsh, and 
J. W. Willis. 

Company "D" of the First Regiment was organized as the Allen 
Light Guard of St. Paul, February 10, 188 1. It was mustered into the 
state service .^pril 24, 1881, and at that time numbered 47 men. Capt. 
Charles A. Bigler, was first chosen commander, but resigned July 12, 
1 88 1, and was succeeded by Capt. E. S. Bean, whose long and distin- 
guished service with this company gave him a state-wide and nation-wide 
rejnitation. The company was from the first zealous and conspicuous in 
the matter of discipline and drill. It jjarticipated in numerous competitive 
contests, among which the following may be enumerated: At Faribault, 
Minnesota, July 4, 1882, it defeated Company "B" of the Second Regi- 
ment and won the first prize, $200 in gold. At Minneapolis August 28, 
1883, Company "D" was awarded first prize of $400, defeating three 
companies of its own regiment. On June 14, 1884, the company met 


the National Rifles of Washington, D. C, at Hotel Lafayette, Lake Min- 
netonka, and was awarded the prize after a very close contest. At a 
great national tournament held in Dubuque, Iowa, one week later, Com- 
pany "D" was awarded fourth prize, defeating again the National Rifles 
and winning 1,663 out of a possible 2,000 points. In 1887 Company 
"D" participated in the international drill at Washington, D. C, com- 
peting with 134 companies of the National Guard from different states 
and coming out second best with but a few points between it and the first 
company. It secured $2,500 cash as the second prize, that sum being 
placed in the hands of Capt. Bean by Lieut. -Gen. Philip H. Sheridan, 
commanding the United States Army. The reception tendered Com- 
pany "D'' on its return to St. Paul was one of the memorable events 
in the history of the city. To Capt. Bean belongs the credit for having 
brought the company through their various contests so successfully. His 
activities extended beyond his own company and embraced the entire state 
organization within its scope. He held first place in the hearts of his 
fellow guardsmen and fellow citizens for many years. He served two 
terms as sherifi^ of Ramsey County and made for himself in the Philip- 
pines as major of his regiment, transformed into the 13th Minnesota 
Infantry Volunteers, a highly creditable record. 

In 1892 this company planned a trip to the Yellowstone Park. There 
being no annual encampment that year 50 men under the command of 
Capt. Bean left St. Paul August i6th, over the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road, disembarking at Cinnabar, where the march was taken up and dur- 
ing the following 1 1 days the company covered 200 miles on foot through 
the Park. Returning, the company reached St. Paul, August 29th, hav- 
ing traveled 2,000 miles during its trip. 

In 1895 the strength of the company was Tj men including officers. 
E. S. Bean was captain; Charles E. Metz, first lieutenant; and M. L. Mer- 
rill, second lieutenant. 

Company "E" was organized in St. Paul in the fall of 1881. It waited 
two months after its original formation before electing officers. J. P. 
Moore drilled the company from the outset and as a partial acknowledg- 
ment of his ability, he was elected the first captain. W. W. Price, after- 
wards colonel of the regiment, was chosen first lieutenant and John 
Blakeley, second lieutenant. Lieut. Price was then but 17 years old and 
his associates were generally about the same age. But, young as they 
were, they had in them the material for good soldiers, and the company 
was increasingly prosperous with the advancing years. In May, 1882, 
about one-half of the members withdrew and organized another independ- 
ent company. The remainder entered the service of the state as Company 
"E," First Battalion. 

In 1887 Lieut. Price was promoted to the captaincy, which position 
he filled with great credit until June 15, 1893, when he was elected major 
of the First Regiment, afterwards as stated, becoming its colonel. The 
company always attended the regimental encampments and had a part in 
all the regimental parades. It also did good service at the time of the 
burning of the State Prison at Stillwater, when men were called from 
their business on an hour's notice to face danger and endure the expo- 
sure of a rigid Minnesota winter, without prospect of reward. Its roster 
always bore the names of scions of some of the best known St. Paul 
houses and had a social as well as a military standing of which its mem- 
bers and its friends were justly proud. In 1895 Henry Bork was cap- 
tain, C. P. Stear, first lieutenant, and C. B. Trowbridge, second lieutenant. 


Company "H" of the First Regiment was mustered into the service 
of the state February 24, 1890, by Colonel W. li. Bend. The company 
was organized in St. Paul by Sergeant Winne, of Company C, who was 
elected first lieutenant. Joseph Magin was elected first captain. He was 
succeeded, a few months later, by Capt. M. L. Merrill, who was in turn 
succeeded by Capt. Frank VV. Atchison, who served in the command until 
October, 1891, when he removed from the city. George E. Roedler, was 
next elected captain and served until March, 1893, when Lieut. E. C. 
Montfort, succeeded him. Although one of the youngest companies in 
the regiment, both as to seniority and as to the age of its individual mem- 
bers. Company "H" soon ranked high for efficiency and good conduct. 
Their annual ball was a social function to which the young people of the 
early '90s always looked forward with eager anticipation. In 1895, E. C. 
Montfort was captain, John C. Hardy, first lieutenant, and G. T.' Daly^ 
second lieutenant. 

It would be interesting to give in detail the history of each of these 
companies and of those formed at later dates, down to the present day, 
but lack of space forbids. St. Paul's quota of the National Guard now 
consists of five companies of infantry, all attached to the first regiment, 
and two batteries, "A" and "C," of 'the First Regiment Field Artillery.' 
The Infantry companies are designated, respectively, as "C," "D," "E," 
"H" and "L." Each has its full complement of men, its corps of alert and 
competent officers, and each cherishes a commendable pride in its own 
individual history, as well as in that of the splendid regiment to which it 

The Nation.\l Gu.\rd's W.\r Service 

The response of the National Guard of Minnesota to the call of Presi- 
dent McKinley for volunteers at the beginning of the war with Spain, 
1898, was prompt and patriotic. At five o'clock in the afternoon of April 
25, 1898, Governor D. M. Clough received a telegram from the War 
Department at Washington, announcing that Minnesota's quota under 
the President's call would be three regiments of infantry, and stating 
the president's request "that the regiments of the National or State, 
Militia, be used so far as their number will permit, for the reason that 
they are armed, equipped and drilled." In reply to that telegram, the Gov- 
ernor at once wired the Secretary of War, giving full information as to 
arms and equipments on hand, and closing with the words, "Troops 
ready for muster at once." The call by the President was for troops to 
serve for two years, or during the war, and the First. Second and Third 
regiments, N. G. S. M., readily responded, the ranks filled by volunteers. 

By an official order, the militia regiments lost their identity as such 
upon being mustered into the national service and received new numbers 
following that of the last volunteer infantry regiment of the War of the 
Rebellion. The Second Regiment, because of the seniority of its colonel, 
Joseph Bobleter, became the Twelfth Minnesota; the First, Colonel C. 
McC. Reeve, the Thirteenth; the Third, Colonel C. A. Van Duzee, the 
Fourteenth. Later in the war the Fifteenth Minnesota was also mus- 
tered into the service. April 29, 1898, the troops went into camp at the 
State Fair Grounds, St. Paul, temiwrarily designated as Camp Ramsey. 

On May 12, (jovernor Clough received orders to the efi'ect that two 
of the Minnesota regiments should go to Chickamauga Park, near Chat- 
tanooga, Tennessee, for ultimate prospective service in Culia and one to 


San Francisco for service in the Philippines. Great was the rejoicing of 
the men of the First Regiment, now become the 13th, in the cattle barns 
at Camp Ramsey, when they were informed that their regiment had 
been designated for the Philippine expedition. On Monday, May i6th, 
they broke camp and began a trip across the western plains and moun- 
tains which was one grand ovation for the wearers of the blue. Their 
term of preparatory drill, etc., at San Francisco, their voyage across the 
Pacific to Manilla, and their gallant war service in that region are a part 
of the history of the great campaign with reflected infinite credit on the 
citizen soldiery, vindicating the previous years of arduous preparation 
which had so eminently qualified them for this trying ordeal. 

The other Minnesota regiments rendezvoused in Tennessee and Ken- 
tucky, preparatory to proposed service in Cuba, but the war with Spain 
was concluded with victory and peace before they were called upon to 
embark. Their experiences in Southern camps were of great interest to 
the young Minnesota troops, and were an excellent training for future 
increased efficiency, as national guardsmen. 

The complications and perplexities experienced by the War Depart- 
ment at Washington in mobilizing the citizen soldiery at the beginning 
of the Spanish-American war, demonstrated serious defects in the then 
existing system. This led to subsequent Congressional legislation, look- 
ing to a closer affiliation of the National Guard with the Regular Army, 
which has already produced highly beneficial results. 

P.\ST Reputation Well Sustained 

The Minnesota Volunteer regiments of 1898-9, having returned from 
their campaigns and camps, resumed their status as National Guard or- 
ganizations, and the St. Paul companies have maintained and augmented 
their previous high reputation for discipline, drill, soldierly conduct and 
social prestige. A newspaper item appearing in July, 1912, says: "Com- 
pany 'D,' First Regiment, M. N. G., which Captain E. S. Bean made fa- 
mous years ago in competitive drills with crack companies of other states, 
was inspected last night in the Armory by Major Arthur Johnson, U. S. A., 
who was enthusiastic over the result of his inspection. 'One of the best 
companies I have seen,' the major said. Out of a total of seventy-one 
men on the roll only three were absent. The average age of the men in 
line is greater than in some of the companies, a fact which Major John- 
son spoke of with satisfaction. Following the inspection there was com- 
pany drill in close order. Many visitors were present for the dance 
which followed the drill." 

The five St. Paul companies of the First Infantry Regiment returned 
from the annual encampment at Cape Lakeview, Lake City, in July, 1912, 
with their usual enviable record in the cup-winning line. Company "C," 
Captain Tiffany, captured the McGill- Warner cup for excellence in shoot- 
ing, and won third place in the regimental shooting. It also won the 
trophy for guard duty. Companies "C," "D" and "E" of St. Paul were 
in the first four places in this competition. In addition to these triumphs. 
Captain Tiffany's men won a cup for general efficiency. Company "D" 
Captain Barnacle, was tied with Company "M" of Minneapolis for first 
place in attendance, both companies having a full attendance. In the 
flip of a coin to decide whether "D" or "M" should get the first cup. the 
Minneapolis company won. 


The National Guard Armory 

The St. Paul Armory, Exchange and West Si.xth streets, is one of 
the finest in the West. It was erected in 1903-4 and cost nearly $150,000. 
It is four stories high and is constructed of brown sandstone and con- 
crete. Besides being the headquarters for the St. Paul organizations of 
the national guard, it has frequently been used for conventions, auto 
shows and other large gatherings. 

The armory is arranged for the every-day work of the guard and 
while it includes everything needful in the training of soldiers it has 
very little space that is devoted to play. The building is divided between 
five infantry companies and two batteries of artillery. All of these or- 
ganizations use the big drill hall on the main floor. This hall is one of 
the best constructed for the purpose to be found in the country. It is 130 

THE armory 

by 150 feet and is well lighted. The height to the roof insures plenty of 
fresh air. 

In the basement are the indoor galleries for target practice during 
cold or wet weather. There the men may learn the use of the rifle as 
well as they do on the ranges. In the basement, also, are the artillery 
storerooms, gun parks and harness rooms. The field guns are of the 
modern make. The gunners are protected from rifle fire by steel shields. 
The artillery equipment furnished by the federal government alone is 
valued at $100,000. 

A wide concrete driveway leads from the artillery parks to the sally- 
port opening on the street above. There is also an elevator for hoisting 
the giuis to the drill hall on the main floor. 

On the top floor the large dance and assembly hall 90 by 30 feet, 
equipped with a stage, is located. This hall is used for many social and 
professional purposes. There arc held meetings of the Minnesota Na- 
tional Guard Association, at which matters of the service are discussed; 
lectures on military subjects; and company dances, when the gathering 


is not large enough to warrant using the drill hall on the main floor. 

The drill hall is used by one company or battery each night for drill. 
Along its sides are glass cases in which are kept the guns belonging to 
the infantry organizations. These rifles are of the latest pattern. The 
armory is also supplied with a fine gymnasium and plenty of shower 



Settlement of Reserve Towxship — Process of City Absorptigx — 
Early Midway Events — The Minnesota Tr.'vnsfer — Great In- 
dustries — Residential and Educational Center — Proposed Grand 
Union Depot — New Water Power Corporation — New Era of 
City Building Required 

A noteworthy distinction and perhaps unparalleled feature of St. 
Paul in future, and of the Twin City in ultimo, is the "Midway" or 
mterurban district. Once a wide stretch of groves and prairies, of 
farms and orchards, lying between two struggling little towns ten miles 
apart, it is now a populous city in itself, with thousands of beautiful 
homes : with miles of paved and lighted streets ; with churches and schools 
and colleges ; with elevators and abattoirs, and big factories ; with parks 
and boulevards and bustling marts of trade ; traversed by four interurban 
electric lines ; with post office, fire and police stations, newspapers and 
banks; with the second largest freight transfer in the world. 

The rapid, uninterrupted, irresistible development of this section is 
a phenomenon, even in this country of constructive marvels and miracles. 

The Midway district in St. Paul lies between Snelling avenue, on the 
east and the city limits on the west, and runs from the ^lississippi river 
on the south, to the city boundary on the north. The area of its present 
intense activity extends from the Grand avenue electric line to the Como- 
Harriet line. But, in fact, all the territory of St. Paul lying west of 
Snelling avenue is a part of her IMidway district. 

Settlement of Reserve Township 

The fractional township of "Reserve," taken into the city and thus 
transformed into the southern segment of this circuit, was so named 
because a major portion of it was formerly included within the military 
reservation of Fort Snelling. The first settlers in Reserve, were the 
Swiss from Lord Selkirk's Red River colony who settled on the east bank 
of the Mississippi river on the military reservation, and after a few 
years residence were driven from their homes by order of the war de- 
partment, as narrated in an early chapter. William Finn made the first 
permanent settlement in Reserve, in 1842, on section 4, bordering on the 
line of the reservation. Samuel J. Findley, R. Knapheide and \\'. E. 
Brimhall were early settlers. Adam and Peter Bohland, after living in 
St. Paul, and after the former had served in the L'nion army, came 
to Reserve in 1866 and 1868. They have since been prominent in county 



The southern half of the area west of SnelHng avenue that was for- 
merly a part of Reserve, is still partly devoted to farms and gardens, 
although penetrated from the city by west Seventh street, and further 
west, along the bluffs by the river boulevard, both dotted with city homes. 
But the northern portion, impinging on Summit boulevard, is platted into 
additions and is being rapidly covered with fine residences. Rose town 
furnished the sections of land now embraced in the northern part of the 
Midway district. 

Process of City Absorption 

When this district was incorporated with the city in 1890, there were 
in the process, absorbed by St. Paul the distinct village governments, 
and post-offices of Merriam Park, St. Anthony Park, Macalester and 
Hamline, with the promising suburban hamlets of Ridgewood Park, 
Union Park, Groveland, etc. The civic garment was stretched over them 
with little or no objection on their part, some special provisions as to ex- 
isting municipal indebtedness, restrictions of the liquor traffic, and the 
Hke, being made. After a little friction, matters became adjusted; the 
sections became wards of St. Paul, and the city machinery has for years 
worked as smoothly here as at other points. 

Thus we have the Midway district, the attractive educational and resi- 
dential region of the present; the great transportation, industrial and 
commercial center of the future, with residential areas so broad and eligi- 
ble that home sites will be available at low prices, for an indefinite period. 
University avenue, an extremely broad street, the great highway, the 
street of the shortest interurban line, passes directly through it. It is 
equally accessible to either city at a single car-fare, with all transfer privi- 
leges, and commands the resources of both. On the other hand, it is far 
enough from both to have somewhat delayed its improvement ; it is the 
point just short of which city growth for some years stopped ; it was long 
nourished on a balanced ration of patience and hope, and the wide expanse 
of its territory, combined with the reasonable price of land, now present 
a tempting bait to the projectors of new enterprises. 

Early Midw.^y Events 

The following are some of the early events in the development of the 
Midway district in St. Paul, stated in their chronological order. 

August, 1888: The Midway News established in Merriam Park by 
Ed. A. Paradis. 

November 1888: A committee composed of D. M. Sullivan, J. W. 
Shepard and W. B. Martin was appointed, at the meeting of the Merriam 
Park Improvement Association, to urge the extension of the Selby avenue 
cable line to Merriam Park. The matter of sewers was referred to a 

March 28, 1889 : The first Odd Fellows lodge in the Midway district 
was instituted in Brainerd Hall. 

May I, 1889: Free delivery was established in Merriam Park. 

May II, 1889: The Marshall avenue bridge had been thrown open. 

June 12, 1889: Macalester College held its first commencement. 

June 22, 1889: Father J. J. Kean purchased the northeast corner of 
Dayton and Moore avenues upon which to erect a $10,000 Catholic 


July, 1889: The Merriam Park Cornet Band was organized with 
F. W. Root president, F. A. McFarland secretary, and J. L. Williamson 

December, 1889: The Minnesota Transfer Board of Trade was or- 
ganized — D. F. Brooks, president, and Ed. A. Paradis, secretary and 

January, 1890: The new Presbyterian church at Alacalester was dedi- 

February 22, 1890: The first electric line to the Midway district was 
formally opened. Alderman D. M. Sullivan, in his opening address, pre- 
dicted that "such a grand opening, on such a grand occasion, of so grand 
an enterprise as the Grand avenue electric line," was of itself as assur- 
ance of the grand future of the Midway district. 

April 20, 1890: Construction work on the Selby avenue cable exten- 
sion was progressing rapidly. Work had commenced on the new bridge 
on the Short line tracks east of Snelling avenue. 

May 24, 1890: .About 100 men were employed in laying track on the 
new University electric line. 

September 13, 1890: James J. Hill had subscribed half a million dol- 
lars for the new St. Paul Seminary, to be erected by Archbishop Ireland 
on the river front at Summit avenue. 

June, 1891 : .An elaborate dinner was served by the Transfer Board 
of Trade at the Woodrufif House, corner of St. Anthony and Cleveland 
avenues. About seventy-five guests sat at table, among whom were Arch- 
bishop Ireland, ex-Governor William R. Marshall, Rev. Dr. John Woods, 
Senator Hiram F. Stevens, Judge D. A. J. Baker and many prominent 
residents of the Alidway district. All were enthusiastic friends of the 
future center of the Twin Metropolis. 

August, 1 891 : .A large force of men at work on the Prior avenue 
electric line, penetrating the very center of Merriam Park. 

October, 1891 : The extension of the Langford avenue electric line 
through St. Anthony Park being surveyed. 

August 27, 1892: Norman Perkins of Prior avenue, assisted by John 
Fishel. both United States railway mail officials, made one continuous 
run from San Francisco to New York city, during the week, with a special 
train carrying twenty million dollars in gold. 

March, 1894: The joint press clubs .of St. Paul and Minneapolis, 
about fifty strong from each city, twenty-five or thirty editors from dif- 
ferent parts of the state, and nearly one hundred prominent men of Mer- 
riam Park and both cities, were served a full course dinner at Brooks 
Hall, on University avenue. 

The Minnesota Tr.ansfer 

A leading business feature of the Midway district in St. Paul is the 
Minnesota Transfer. This unique organization, owing two hundred 
acres which are literally covered with tracks and switches, is the great 
clearing house for all the west and east bound freight that passes. Every 
freight train that rolls into either city, unless its consignment is for local 
consumption, no matter on what road, whence it came or whither it is 
bound, must go into this terminal, be examined, broken up if necessary 
and have the contents of its dififerent cars reloaded, before it can pro- 
ceed to its destination. There is but one transfer system in the world 
which exceeds it in point of tonnage — Pittsburg; and none which equals it 


in the number of railroad systems converging in it. The railroads center- 
ing here represent 55,000 miles of direct trackage. Projected originally 
by James J. Hill, it is now the joint property of the nine roads meeting at 
this point, and is maintained by contributions from each road in propor- 
tion to the amount of freight handled. The company owns eighty-two 
miles of trackage ; four hundred switches, and nineteen locomotives. In 
1910, 566,745 cars were received and sent out again, making an average 
of about 1,500 a day, of which about 200 were unloaded, their contents 
sorted, repacked, and distributed. It has about a thousand employes and 
an average pay roll of $60,000 a month. 

Thus, the manufacturer or jobber who has built his house in the 
Midway district finds at his very door a railroad which will take his out- 
put and deliver it to practically any point on the continent to which it is 
billed, thereby eliminating one of the most troublesome and expensive de- 
tails with which a shipper has to deal. This explains why many acres of 
this territory are being covered with enormous industrial plants, some of 
them models of their kind. It was no part of the purpose of the found- 
ers of the Minnesota Transfer to handle local freight ; but one hundred 
and twenty-three home concerns are now its regular customers ; and of the 
19,857,443,069 pounds of freight which it handled last year it is estimated 
that twenty per cent, represented shipments from local firms and corpora- 

Great Industries 

An enumeration of the industries represented in this district makes 
a very long list. Probably the largest single item is furniture, including 
mattresses, beds and bedding. In one building alone, consisting a sort 
of furniture exchange, the Northwestern Furniture and Stove Exposi- 
tion building, a business amounting to $2,000,000 is done annually. Sec- 
ond in rank is linseed oil with its products. Two of the largest refrigera- 
tor manufactories in the country are here, and the second largest concern 
manufacturing lithographed labels and folding boxes, with a plant show- 
ing the most perfect development of factory construction. Closely allied 
with it is a large box-board mill, rated at $500,000, the two concerns in- 
volving an investment of approximately $1,000,000. The repair and 
manufacturing shops and power station of the Twin City Rapid Transit 
Company occupy one of the largest tracts, sixty acres, the whole represent- 
ing an investment of over $2,000,000. There are storage warehouses, one 
of the largest of its kind, receiving consignments from all over the coun- 
try in bulk and reshipping in smaller quantities as needed. Furnaces, stoves, 
radiators and heating apparatus of all kinds are made or dealt in; and 
all manner of farm equipment, from the smallest tool to the most com- 
plicated threshing machine. Paint and varnish, linoleum, lime, brick 
and tiles ; lubricating oil ; iron wire, grill work and well screens are among 
the industries represented ; there are lumber and fuel dealers, contractors 
and real estate brokers ; manufacturers of printers' ink and commercial 
printing concerns; manufacturers and jobbers of gravity carriers, eleva- 
tors and automobile trucks ; soap, candy, groceries, pharmaceutical house- 
hold remedies, smoking and chewing tobacco; a plant of the American 
Can Company, and a manufacturer of fruit package cases, a piano factory, 
an abattoir and two horse markets, one of them the largest in the west. 

A late addition to the Midway manufacturing facilities under con- 
struction at this writing is on University avenue, the factory of Griggs 
Cooper & Company, jobbers of groceries in St. Paul. It is to have a 


capacity of six tons of candy and 3,600,000 crackers daily. The building 
is 200 by 300 feet, three stories, and will be in many ways the only factory 
of its kind in the United States. There is a large area of glass which 
will make the work rooms as light as outdoors. In the cracker de- 
partment, in place of having the operations move from one floor to the 
next in the process of turning the flour into boxed crackers the product 
will move horizontally on the same floor. The building with machinery, 
which will all be new, will cost about $300,000. There will be a 100 foot 
parkway in front of the building along the street car tracks. The factory 
is directly opposite the little park on the other side of University avenue, 
so that the surroundings of the work rooms will be of the best. Special 
attention has been paid in the new factory to toilet and rest rooms for 
the employes. The large area of north windows will give uniform light 
and plenty of air. The factory will be kept in as sanitary manner as 
modern appliances and care will permit. 

The Midway Commercial Club, with rooms in the Furniture Exposi- 
tion building, is an active organization whose functions are both commer- 
cial and social. It is composed of about a hundred members, all of whom 
are ambitious for the welfare and progress of their part of the city, and 
are actively pushing its interests in every possible way. Of the great 
future which awaits this portion of St. Paul there can be no possible 
question. As time goes on and the city grows in activity and diversity 
of interest, this will become one of the great manufacturing and jobbing 
centers of the country. If the dual cities are indeed the pillars of the 
"Gateway of the Northwest," the Midway district may well be regarded 
as the keystone of the arch which connects them. 

Residential .\nd Education.^l Center 

North and south of the central belt in which are located the transfer, 
industrial and commercial enterprises of the district, are the sections 
devoted to residences. Each has the unequalled advantages of ready 
access to two large cities, an admirable scenic environment and excep- 
tional educational facilities. It is literally surrounded with parks. Lake 
Park, the State Fair Grounds, Como, Hamline, Union, Merriam, Macales- 
ter, Groveland, Prospect, Hiawatha, Riverside Drive, Town and Country 
Club Golf Links, Capital Park, and St. Anthony South, are all included 
within its east and west boundaries and between the university grounds 
and the river. It is a great center of education and culture, for within 
its limits or in its immediate neighborhood are many of the largest and 
most important schools, seminaries and colleges of the state, including 
in the number the State Agricultural College and Experiment Station and 
Farm — part of the University of Minnesota. Other notable institutions 
of learning, several of which are of far more than local fame, are Ham- 
line University, Macalester College, Norwegian Lutheran Seminary, the 
Baptist Swedish Academy, Lutheran Seminary. Luther College, St. Cath- 
erine's Seminary, St. Thomas College and St. Paul Seminat'y. And the 
State University itself lies only a mile beyond its western boundary. A 
number of car lines touch or cross it, and either St. Paul or Minneapolis 
can be reached by a single fare of five cents. An expert city promoter 
from the east, visiting our Midway in the summer of 191 1, said to a 
newspaper representative: "Midway and the Hill district of St. Paul, 
I think, will become the great residential district of the Twin City. The 
residential district of St. Paul is moving toward Midway and the trend 


in Minneapolis is the same, therefore, it is logical that the Midway dis- 
trict should become the great retail center." 

The enormous business interests of the Minnesota Transfer do not 
detract in any degree from Midway as a residence district, but have 
materially assisted in the rapid upbuilding of the place by necessitating 
homes for the various officers of the company, and of the establish- 
ments, manufacturing and commercial, it has created. By the manage- 
ment of the original plat owners of Merriam and Union parks, a very 
select community was established; not only was the building of at least 
a $2,500 residence required of the purchaser of every building site, but 
sales were refused to persons who were considered in any way objection- 
able to a first class community. The result is beautiful homes in dwell- 
ings that range from $2,500 to $15,000 in cost, and a society that is not 
surpassed in either St. Paul or Minneapolis. In other, and highly desir- 
able sections are sites for comfortable homes at less cost. 

Minnehaha Park, Minneapolis, lies just across the narrow gorge of 
the Mississippi, which its buffalo and elk park, deer park, picnic grove, 
flower garden, Longfellow garden, Longfellow glen, Minnehaha creek 
with its cliffs and islets, and gem of the whole assemblage of attractions, 
Minnehaha Falls. The Minnesota Soldiers' Home, with well kept grounds 
and splendid buildings, supplements these attractions. 

Proposed Grand Union Depot 

The proposition for one grand union railway passenger station in 
the Midway district, to serve all the needs of the two cities of today and 
the one Twin City of the future, is a favorite topic with the people of 
this favored region. That the views of their spokesman on this proposi- 
tion may have fair and emphatic record here, we quote utterances thereon 
from the Midzvay Neivs, published for more than twenty years past at 
Merriam Park by E. A. Paradis, always a faithful champion of their 
interests : "That the concentrated interests of either St. Paul or Min- 
neapolis will ever take the initiative in pushing the erection of the new 
Union depot in the Midway district is absolutely out of the question. 
That the railway companies themselves are not in a position to crowd 
such a location upon the concentrated interests of the two cities without 
serious loss to themselves is also apparent. That the new Union depot 
enterprise may thus be indefinitely delayed, to the great detriment of 
both cities, as well as to the railroads themselves, is therefore self-evi- 
dent. That practically such a delay is certain to ensue if the work of 
changing the bed of the Mississippi river across the West St. Paul flats 
is now undertaken is absolutely unmistakable. Upon whom, then, does 
it devolve to sound the morning call, arouse our dormant neighbors out 
of their nightmare of two union depots for Twin City, and thus save 
Twin City from an interminable delay in the much needed re-opening of 
The Gateway of the Northwest, if not to the people of the Midway dis- 
trict themselves? 

"That St. Paul and Minneapolis are geographically united — you will 
find that on the map. That the two cities are socially united — you may 
discover that at Woodruff Hall, in the elegance of its Twin City dancing 
parties and other gatherings. That they are fraternally united — that will 
be demonstrated to you in Midway district lodges — Masonic, Odd Fel- 
lows, Royal Arcanum, United Workmen, Foresters, etc., etc. ; that they 
are united educationally and religiously — that is attested by the grand 


circle of colleges, universities and seminaries that encompass the Minne- 
sota Transfer and the frequency of joint gatherings of clergymen and 
church organizations of all the principal denominations in the Twin City, 
for the sake of convenience, in Midway district churches. 

"One union deport for both cities not only means that every person 
who owns a home anywhere about the center of the Midway district will 
see its value so increased that it can be exchanged for two or three equally 
desirable homes in equally desirable localities, but it means that every foot 
of property in both cities will be greatly advanced, whereas the issuance 
of half-million dollars of certificates of indebtedness upon the city, which 
is but the feathered edge of the wedge, means a blanket mortgage upon 
your home which will grow and spread worse than a bed of dandelions. 
The acquirement of more ground for depot purposes is a mere subterfuge. 
It has been an open secret for years among commercial men that the 
union depot, whenever it is erected, will be located at the Alinnesota 
Transfer and nowhere else. All the leading jobbers have already pur- 
chased their future sites in the Midway district, and such an argument 
as that of Chief Engineer Harrold is practically conclusive. 

■'When the eleven great trunk lines whose joint freight yards are 
now located in the Midway district conclude to erect a joint passenger 
station alongside of their joint freight yard ; and they never will erect 
two 'union depots' any more than they will ever put in two ^Minnesota 
Transfers ; then they will need no more advice from the ]\lidway district 
than from the dailies of either city. Economy and convenience for all 
time to come, and not the cost of the real estate, nor the pipe dreams 
of ghost dancers, will determine the choice. The history and growth of 
these two municipalities are not within the scope of this article, but a 
steamboat landing at the head of navigation on the Mississippi river was 
the beginning of St. Paul's great wholesale and shipping interests, and a 
flour mill on St. Anthony falls, Mississippi river, the nucleus around 
which Minneapolis' mammoth milling interests have been built up. 

"To construct two union stations at this northwest gateway, within 
ten miles of each other, costing approximately $4,000,000 each, would 
be an economic error. It would also tend, in no small measure to con- 
tinue the individuality of these two cities, which is not to be desired, and 
it would not afiford the traveling public the simplicity of service which 
one union station with individual borough and suburban stations would 

"Everything that tends to lead the public mind to think of this dual 
municipality as one city tends to set the public mind right on a very im- 
portant subject; not only important to the Alidway district itself, nor 
yet to the two municipalities themselves, but to the entire northwest. 
What can be more detrimental to the northwest than this choking, stifling, 
strangling of the very Gateway of the Northwest itself? Had all the 
new residents of the Midway district, since the consolidation of the cor- 
porations stood as loyally by the Midway Nezvs as do the older residents 
of Merriam Park, the Twin City Union Depot would have been erected 
long ago ; Twin City would have one or two hundred thousand more 
population, and the entire northwest would be relatively better off. It 
all dei'ends upon the Midway district people themselves." 

Wc may not be able to accept all these premises, adopt all the conclu- 
sions or join in all the prophecies, but we must admire the superb loyalty 
to constituency displayed in this presentation, and the intelligent devotion 
of its writer to what, in his opinion, the general interest demands. 


New Water Power Corporation 

Another project of more immediate importance because promising 
earlier results, relates to the Midway district, but has interested all the 
people of both cities. This is the new corporation, including representa- 
tives of the city of St. Paul, the city of Minneapolis and the University of 
Minnesota. The corporation is formed for the purpose of controlling the 
power to be developed by the high dam. Its corporators are Mayor Kel- 
ler of St. Paul, Mayor Haynes of Minneapolis and John Lind, president 
of the Board of Regents of the State University. This is in accordance 
with the special act of the legislature enabling St. Paul to unite with 
Minneapolis and the University of Minnesota in obtaining whatever bene- 
fits may be derived from power to be developed by the high dam across the 
Mississippi, now in the course of construction near the Soldiers' Home. It 
is believed electricity can be generated so cheaply by this method that 
there will be a material saving in the cost of street lighting and lighting 
of municipal and state buildings in the two cities. Under the act of con- 
gress the corporation, authorized by the legislature and sanctioned by the 
legislative branches of the two cities, will deal with the government for 
the control of the power, paying four per cent interest on the additional 
cost of the dam necessitated to develop this power. The corporation will 
be required to furnish the power equipment, but with the power at hand 
it is thought there will be no difficulty in negotiating a bond issue to cover 
this cost. 

New Era of City Building Required 

That a new era of city building has dawned upon the world is ap- 
parent to thinking men, and that each city must improve all its advantages 
is a truism. St. Paul has advantages in the Midway district which can- 
not be ignored. Cities have been handicapped by starting on their civic 
career before all the modern improvements which distinguish a modern 
city from a berg of old should have been discovered. There has never 
been a moment like the present for a town to start itself in ; taking ad- 
vantage of all the lessons learned by man since the days of Babylon, the 
promoters of a new town site can build better than any other promoters 
have ever known. There is always the possibility that the year 211 1 will 
find the city of 1911 improved. And yet, such have been the inventions 
of the past decade that it would seem the city is pretty fully revealed. 
What the future shall add cannot be much more than by way of ornament. 

St. Paul is not getting into this game any too soon. Every business 
man knows what over-confidence, easy satisfaction, let well enough alone, 
will do to his business. Competitors, rivalry, the existence of a competi- 
tor who is pushing ahead, threatens the business which rests on its laurels. 
Rivalry between cities is just as keen and active as between enterprises and 
industries. The successful business man studies all phases of his in- 
dividual problem. The city which does the same thing, and does it in- 
telligently, persistently, and with a keen eye to the future, gains relatively 
just as much as the business man who employs the same methods. The 
only trouble is expressed in the old axiom, "What is everybody's business 
is nobody's business." This is the notion which must be corrected. 
What is everybody's interest is everybody's business. We shall have 
leaders, of course, as the very word organization implies, but we must 
have team work. And nowhere will leadership and team work, and civic 
enthusiasm yield richer rewards than a due attention to the problems in- 
volved in the best possible use of our exclusive and inalienable asset, the 
Midway district in St. Paul. 



City and Suburbs Closely Related — Directly Tributary to St. Paul 
— South St. Paul and Other Dakota County Suburbs — North 
St. Paul — Electricity a Distributor — Other New Canada Sub- 
urbs — White Bear Lake Region — Mound's View Township — Rose 
Township as Suburban Territory — Ramsey County's Fine Roads 

The problems and possibilities of the Twin City are discussed in an- 
other chapter. Whatever the future may have in store relative to the 
organic union of St. Paul and Alinneapolis, that event will probably be 
preceded by the absorption into a "Greater St. Paul" of all the suburban 
towns now lying within the boundaries of Ramsey county, and later by 
the absorption into a still greater St. Paul of certain other suburbs, which, 
lying in other counties, involve different and more difficult questions of 
policy and procedure. 

City and Suburbs Closely Related 

That a city should control its environs, and that the latter are on the 
whole benefited by such control, is one of the discoveries of recent years. 
This control might seem to imply only a supervision of the physical de- 
velopment, but it is believed that the political corporation should embrace 
a territory so large as to include all of the suburban population which is 
immediately identified with the central organization. This is in sym- 
pathy with the true democracy of community life, and constitutes a bal- 
ance wheel between the various elements of society. The suburbs are, 
in interest and in sympathy, as much a part of the central corporation 
as though embraced in its political organization, and to achieve the highest 
state of perfection of community life there should be the most intimate 
relations, both physical and political, between them. 

There has been an extraordinary change of thought in city jilanning 
during recent years. Density of population, scientific sanitation, the tele- 
phone, rapid transit, the automobile, used both for passengers and freight, 
have created conditions not thought of forty years ago, which, while send- 
ing many of the people beyond the corporate limits, have brought the resi- 
dents of the city and suburbs into closer relations ; so that the problems 
of government functions of the two, while identical, are separated by an 
imaginary line. There was a time when the city had but to regard the 
prolilems and dangers that lurked in the dense population within its 
limits. The time has now come when its attention must embrace a con- 
siderable area without. The thought and energy of the citv of tomorrow 
must be focused on a proper development of its suburbs, that thev may 
supplement the needs of the central city. 



In enumerating the advantages to a city in the control of its outlying 
districts we may emphasize briefly the following as of greatest immediate 
importance : 

1. A continuous and harmonious plan of physical continuity, with 
its economic extension of highways of intimate connection with the cen- 
tral city, embracing a comprehensive system of parks and connecting 
boulevards that will provide for a constantly growing population the 
opportunity to live and seek recreation in the most delightful and health- 
ful surroundings. 

2. Closely related to the physical plan of the city, and dependent on 
the character of the physical subdivision, is the control of housing con- 
ditions by proper building laws and the correlated problems of sanitation. 

3. The economical control of public utilities by one central power 
that has in mind a service which supplies the best commodity for the 
price paid ; that realizes in the economic transportation needs of the com- 
munity the industrial welfare of the individual and the opportunity for 
a progressive enjoyment of existence; that is inspired with the thought 
that every minute saved in going to and from the shop and office adds so 
many more to the indulgence of recreation and of a sane life. 

4. Mutual benefits would flow from a uniform system of public 
work, fire, police and excise regulations, both from economical considera- 
tion as well as in the removal of friction between conflicting organiza- 
tions, where the only real difference that now exists is the source of 
authority. There was a time when community life was left to chance or 
caprice. ' Today the progressive city is the one that leads in building ac- 
cording to a carefully drawn plan inspired by the thought of the com- 
munity's present and' future needs ; that recognizes an obligation dis- 
charged only by an existence of equal opportunity to enjoy health and 
rational life. 

These are questions that will be seriously demanding a wise answer 
from the people of St. Paul. Meantime our immediate suburbs, vigorous 
and attractive daughters of the parent city, have their distinct organiza- 
tions, aspirations and traditions, each worthy of far more extended con- 
sideration than the space at our disposal will permit us to give it. And 
the more distant towns that are being rapidly drawn into a quasi subur- 
ban relationship by the extension of electric railway transit in every direc- 
tion, while having fewer incentives to a close organic union, will steadily 
grow in a recognition of that community of interest which commercial 
and social intercourse must ultimately ensure. 

Directly Tributary to St. Paul 

Ramsey county, the smallest in the state, contained six townships — • 
White Bear, Alou'nd's View, Rose, New Canada, McLean and Reserve. 
The four last named had a common corner in St. Paul at a point near 
the Soldier's Monument on Summit avenue. The expansion of the city, 
reaching in all directions from this point has taken in all of Reserve; 
practically all of McLean, since the few remaining sections have been 
attached to New Canada, and about one-half each of Rose and New 
Canada. This leaves only White Bear and Mound's View townships ter- 
ritorially intact, but directly in line of the onward march of the all- 
absorbing metropolis. 

Reserve and Rose, before their incorporation into the city, held several 
prosperous suburban towns — Merriam Park, Macalester, St. Anthony 


Park, Union Park, Hamline, Warrendale, etc., all now parts of the Mid- 
way district, and treated of in the chapter devoted to that region. The 
other suburbs, directly tributary to St. Paul, but lying beyond its limits 
in Ramsey, Washingjton and Dakota counties, are the objects of our 
present inquiry. 

South St. Paul and Other Dakota County Suburhs 

. The City of South St. Paul is the largest of these suburbs. It is 
located on the west bank of the Mississippi river five miles below St. Paul, 
with which it is also connected by the Great Western and the- Rock Island 
railroads and by the Twin City electric line. It has an area of about 20 
square miles ; a population of more than 7,000, and does a large live-stock 
business, being the seventh largest market of its kind in the United States. 
There are 250 acres in the yards and 2,400 employees. In 191 1 the yards 
received 32,123 carloads, aggregating 2,169,000 head of stock, worth 
nearly $40,000,000. The fifth largest packing industry in the country 
is here. 

All of the stockyards buildings are fitted up with every modern con- 
venience for conducting an extensive business. Large silos have been 
constructed for the preparation and handling of winter feed ; an admir- 
able sewerage system drains the land ; an abundant supply of pure water 
has been obtained from artesian wells, convenient to all the buildings ; 
ice is harvested in the vicinity of the yards at a comparatively low cost. 
The situation of the stockyards is all that can be desired, and the estab- 
lishment of this industry has been of incalculable value to the agricul- 
tural interests of the Northwest. Much of the material that is needed 
for sustaining the live stock is obtained in Minnesota, and thousands of 
farmers find it to their profit to engage in growing corn and other fodder, 
and in raising cattle needed for the market which the stockyards create. 
The fact that there is at South St. Paul a market for all the live stock 
which the Northwest can raise, means that the farmers can get money 
any time they want it. It has been pointed out by agricultural experts 
that it is less trouble to raise a 210 pound hog from spring to fall than 
it is to plow, harrow, seed and harvest an acre of grain, yet the returns 
are about the same in dollars, to say nothing of the value added to the 
soil by giving it a rest while the attention is devoted to live stock. Com- 
parison of the receipts at the South St. Paul market and the markets of 
other Western packing centers will show that the local receipts are well 
to the front, considering the shorter length of time which the local estab- 
lishment has been in operation. At times when other markets show a 
falling ofif compared with previous years, the cars are rolling into this 
center with largely increased receipts. The people of the Northwest are 
appreciating a market near to them and are sending more and more of 
their live stock here. 

The yearly totals of money paid out for live stock locally are now 
near the $50,000,000 mark, and are constantly growing as better methods 
of farming are becoming extended, and animal husbandry is given an 
increasingly large place on the average farm. If the city has grown 
rich with the passing years it cannot be said, in the face of such figures, 
that it has been at the expense of the country. The selling value of the 
produce of the farms of the north^vest has been increased many times 
over by the broad and certain outlet here provided. Established less than 
twenty-five years ago, the St. Paul Union Stock Yards, and the various 


packing establishments at South St. Paul, have developed into one of the 
greatest live stock centers on the continent, and continue to show growth 
fully in keeping with the development within the territory which the 
market serves. It has been a solid growth, the kind upon which the 
future rests secure and which bears promise of continuing indefinitely. 

Every provision is made for the handling of stock in a rapid manner, 
the stock yards having a daily capacity of 20,000 cattle, 15,000 hogs and 
45,000 sheep. This amount of stock would require upwards of 1,000 
railroad cars to haul ; hence it will be readily seen that there is nothing 
dimunitive about the market. 

Modern packing ideas have been carried out in every detail of the ar- 
rangements. Four packing establishments contribute to the outlet for 
the stock locally, and the market attracts buyers from eastern and western 
cities, so that there is always demand to insure a market for everything 
that is sent in for sale. The great variety of the by-products of the insti- 
tutions and the great diversity in geographical location of the place of 
consumption interest all visitors. The jaws and skulls of cattle, for ex- 
ample, are chipped into small pieces and sold for chicken feed in Iowa. 
The blood is ground for stock feed. The various fertilizers not otherwise 
used, go to the south to aid in raising cotton, and to Japan to coax the 
mulberry tree to grow stronger. The hog hair is worth five cents a pound 
in Philadelphia, where it is sent to make hair mattresses. The blood of a 
hog is worth $55 a ton, while the white hoofs demand $80 to $200 a ton. 
The shin bones of cows are carefully washed and cleansed and sawed into 
meat lengths. These are sold in Connecticut and other places in the east 
where firms make ornaments from them. The white hoofs of cattle 
and hogs are sent to Japan, where they find a ready market for the prepa- 
ration of some sort of medicine. Other hoofs and horns go east, where 
ornaments of various sorts are made. 

The hides of cattle and sheep bring large prices. The sheep which 
are in proper condition have their hides made into sheep-skin coats, while 
the hides of cattle and hogs are converted into leather at the large new 
tannery adjacent to the packing plants. Over 2,000,000 pounds of but- 
terine a year constitute another by-product. There is an enormous hen 
house unusually clean, where 10,000 chickens are kept to be fed for two 
weeks on a mixture of milk and cereal before being killed for the market. 

South St. Paul is not wholly dependent on its stock market and pack- 
ing industrv. Sixteen manufacturing establishments of various kinds, as 
well as a full quota of stores and other business establishments, go to 
make up the list of enterprises which provide a living for the people of 
the thriving city. The municipality is full awake to its opportunities and 
is making rapid strides in the matter of local improvements, taking time 
to groom itself well in accordance with the standards set by public opinion 
lor a community enjoying much of worldly prosperity and aspiring for 
more. A bank, a newspaper, schools, churches and other public insti- 
tutions attest the thrift and enterprise of the people. 

South St. Paul stands, today, a monument to the sagacity and public 
spirit of A. B. Stickney, president and builder of the railroad on which 
it was located, who devised the plan in 1886. Backed by such associates 
as Ansel Oppenheim, William Dawson, James B. Power, and Arnold 
Kalman. encouraged by the Chamber of Commerce and business men of 
St. Paul, ^Ir. Stickney boldly took the initiative at an opportune time, 
and secured results for the city which no efiforts of rivals have even been 
able to neutralize. 


South of the city of South St. Paul lies its residence suburb, Inver 
Grove, the site of the old Indian town, Kaposia, on a sightly and salu- 
brious bluff, a station on two railroads, the terminus of the electric line 
and the proposed starting point for new electric roads reaching into the 
rich agricultural counties to the southward. 

North of South St. Paul and lying between it and the city proper, is 
West St. Paul, a residence suburb of St. Paul, with an increasing popula- 
tion that constitutes the overflow of the city in that direction. 

Inver Grove, South St. Paul and West St. Paul, together with the 
historic village of ]\Iendota, still further west, all lie in Dakota county. 
Mendota was once the only town in Minnesota — a town decades before 
St. Paul was dreamed of. It lost out in the race for precedence and has 
long been somnolent. But with the quickening historic interest, Men- 
dota is coming into its own, a permanent position as center and custodian 
for the historic memories of the state and the Northwest. The Sibley 
house has proved a desired Mecca, and not only do people journey 
thither to inspect this ancient dwelling but from every part of the state 
subjects of historic interest are coming to a final and secure resting place. 
Mendota is to become beneficiary of much improvement. A new station 
is to be built by the St. Paul road, and a general air of happy preservation 
will settle down over the place. Mendota may never lend its fortunate 
name of "Meeting Place of the Waters" to the united cities, but it may 
become the admired relic of their ancestry. 

North St. Paul 

The second in importance of the towns adjacent and directly tribu- 
tary to St. Paul is North St. Paul, located in Ramsey county, only a mile 
beyond the northeastern limits of the city, on the Chicago division of the 
"Soo" railroad and the Stillwater electric line. The distance from the 
business center of the city to that of the village is seven miles ; the elec- 
tric cars run half-hourly (on special days quarter-hourly) ; the time con- 
sumed in transit is twenty-five minutes. 

North St. Paul is a very busy place — one of the busiest and most 
prosperous of its size in the northwest. Every able-bodied man there is 
a worker, drones and adventurers finding neither affiliation nor encour- 
agement. It is a well organized community, having an efficient and in- 
expensive municipal government ; excellent graded schools and high 
school ; electric street lights ; a complete system of water works ; an ef- 
fective fire department ; fine parks and drives ; thirty-five miles of graded 
streets ; three miles of stone sidewalks ; telephone and telegraph service ; 
a beautiful like resort ; five churches ; a bank, newspaper and commercial 
club ; stores in all lines ; cheap homes for business and working men ; 
every comfort, convenience and lu.xury of modern city life. This cievelop- 
ment and activity is based on the existence and daily successful operation 
of half a dozen manufacturing establishments, as well as on its position 
as a residence suburb. 

The village jurisdiction extends over an area of four scjuare miles, in 
the northeast corner of New Canada township. Of this area, 750 acres, 
embracing the town site proper, constituted from 1872 to 1887. the farm 
and summer home of Henry A. Castle. In the latter year the North 
St. Paul Land Company purchased the tract and established a manufac- 
turing suburl). In spite of the usual vicissitudes which have attended such 
enterprises, the town has achieved a final degree of prosperity which vin- 


dicates the foresight of its founders. A leading factor in building up the 
town was the sagacity, enterprise and perseverance of John Luger Senior, 
who came to North St. Paul from Wabasha in 1887 and during the re- 
mainder of his life was the industrial and financial primate of the com- 
munity. At his death, after twenty years' successful management of his 
extensive manufacturing institutions, he left them in the hands of his 
capable sons whom he had carefully trained in their respective depart- 

North St. Paul occupies some of the highest ground in Ramsey county. 
Its lowest levels are 250 feet above the Mississippi at St. Paul, and Silver 
lake, its beautiful attraction, lies 50 feet higher still, being on the 
apex of the ridge separating the Mississippi and St. Croix rivers and 
sixty feet higher than the level of White Bear lake, three miles north. 
The shores of Silver lake are finely wooded, and are occupied mostly 
by the summer residences of St. Paul citizens, among whom are Messrs. 
Price, McCree, Jennings, Joy, Drummond, Hunt, Fitzgerald, Parker, 
Johnston, Morton and Castle. Other handsome and permanent residences 
fronting Silver lake are those of Messrs. Lains, Walters, Neuman, Reif, 
Dr. Alquist, Mrs. Morgan and Mrs. Tibbs. A smooth macadam road, 
connecting North St. Paul and Silver lake with the city, furnishes a fa- 
vorite drive for automobile parties in summer. A beautiful park on the 
south shore of Silver lake preserves free access to the water-side for the 
people of the village. 

On July 4th, 5th and 6th, 1912, the people of North St. Paul cele- 
brated, with an elaborate programme of processions, speeches, amuse- 
ments, banquets, fire-works, etc., the quarter-centennial of the establish- 
ment of their flourishing town. It was made the occasion of the "home 
coming" of many former residents. Its unqualified success was a gratify- 
ing demonstration of local public spirit. 

Electricity a Distributor 

The development of suburban towns with their resources of sun- 
shine and fresh air; their attractions for family life; their facilities for 
gardening and other semi-rural pursuits, is a distinctively recent pheno- 
menon. The steam age began about 1830; its great achievement was to 
concentrate population around power. About 1890, Prof. Orton, then 
our greatest authority in matters pertaining to coal beds and geological 
formations, said in a monograph : "The steam age is rapidly approaching 
its close ; all anthracite coal deposits in America will be exhausted by 
1930, the Pittsburgh seam alone excepted. We must look for a new 
power, and a new and quieter age." Mr. Orton thought that there would 
be a great development of country life, and that a good deal of old- 
fashioned living would be restored. About that time electricity began 
to get its grip on commerce and manufacture. Electricity, unlike steam, 
is a distributive force. It has already shown its power to break up con- 
gestion, and create a much more even distribution. 

North St. Paul, and the encircling cottage clusters around White Bear 
lake are modern instances of the exercise of this power. 

Life at a quiet suburban resort is one grand, sweet waltz song — at 
least in the previous anticipations of the worn-out city dwellers, some- 
times measurably realized in actual experience. There are no doorbells 
to answer in the little lakeside cottage or bungalow ; no beggars to send 
away to the charity bureau ; no gas bills to pay ; no garbage pails to put 


out ; no lawns to mow ; no cats on the back fence at night ; no phone calls 
for other parties ; no dust clouds from dirty pavement ; no autos snorting 
out in front at 2 o'clock in the morning ; no houses going up next door ; 
no ice-men tracking up the kitchen; no plumbing out of order, and no 
book agents. Marvel not that the advance notices of such enjoyment 
have their insistent charm. 

Other New Can.\da Suburbs 

Other suburban towns in New Canada township are Gladstone and 
Little Canada, or St. John's City. Gladstone is at the junction of the 
"Soo" railroad with the Duluth division of the Northern Pacific, a mile 
beyond Lake Phalen. It has the repair shops of the latter railway, the 
nucleus of a thriving settlement. Little Canada has a history almost 
antedating St. Paul. It was settled by Pierre and Benjamin Gervais. in 
1844, who were soon followed by other French Canadians, mostly farmers 
in the neighborhood. A mill was built, also a school house and a Catholic 
church ; a store and post office were established, and although the village 
has never achieved a large growth, it has always remained a social center 
and a rallying point for the numerous descendants of the original settlers. 
The first Catholic church was dedicated in 1852, and on August 18, 1912, 
the sixtieth anniversary of that_ event was celebrated with imposing 
ceremonies. Hazel Park founded in 1887, by William L. Ames, is within 
the city limits, at the junction of the Northwestern Railroad with the 
Stillwater electric line ; besides being a fine residence suburi) it is the loca- 
tion of a large industrial plant, that of the International Flax Twine 

White Bear Lake Region 

White Bear is one of the two townships of Ramsey county which still 
remain organically exempt from the effects of St. Paul's resistless ex- 
pansion ; howbeit, by no means exempt from the thronging but doubtless 
welcome invasions of St. Paul citizens, seeking temporary or permanent 
places of abode. It is the northeastern township of Ramsey county and 
derives its name from its splendid lake, the largest in the county and one 
of the popular summer resorts of the great northwest. The first settlers 
in the township were French Canadians, the overflow from the adjacent 
hamlet of Little Canada. They were John \'adnais and David Garceau 
who came in 1846, and located near \'adnais La:ke. 

The first settler at White Bear lake, was V. B. Barnum. who came 
to Minnesota in 183Q, and located at Stillwater until i84<j, when he re- 
moved to St. Paul, where he remained until 1852, when he came to tlie 
lake and made a purchase and on that wild spot, where long stood the 
Leip House surrounded with cottages and beautiful groves, he erected 
his first log cabin. He covered it with elm bark, as he could not obtain 
the shingles at that time. In 1854 he opened his house as a hotel for 
tourists, and was often crowded by those who sought the lake to hunt and 
fish. In 1857 he sold the house to John Lamb, who made additions and 
repairs and run it for about a year ; then the house was partially de- 
stroyed by fire. In i860 the ])roperty reverted to Mr. Barnum, and he 
kept it until 1866, when he sold his entire interest to William Lei]). 

The first store opened at White Bear lake was by Daniel Getty in 
1870 in a small building near the depot, in which he kei)t a general stock 
of merchandise. In 1S75 he erected his store corner of Clark avenue 



and Third street, two stories high, the upper story being fitted up for a 
pubHc hall. The postoffice was opened by J. C. Murray who was ap- 
pointed in 1858; he received for his pay the revenue of the office, which 
amounted, for the first year, to $2.35. Daniel Getty received the ap- 
pointment January i, 1871. His first year's returns from the office were 
$29. The village of White Bear was incorporated in April, 188 1, with 
the following board of officers : Daniel Getty, chairman ; J. C. Murray, 
L. L. Bacon, F. W. Benson, and P. H. Long, aldermen. 

For many years Daniel Getty, a veteran of the War for the Union, an 
energetic and useful citizen, was a leader in movements for the good of 
the town in all its material, moral and religious interests. Along differ- 
ent lines, William Leip was also active and efficient. These two perhaps 
the best known to outsiders, of all the men at White Bear, passed away 
some years ago, but left many worthy successors. 

The village proper, of White Bear, as distinguished from the numer- 
ous cottage settlements around the lake, has about 2,000 inhabitants, with 


a municipal organization, stores, factories, schools, churches, and all the 
elements of a permanent progressive town. It has direct connection with 
St. Paul, Stillwater and Minneapolis by branches of the Duluth railroad 
which unite here. It also has connection by electric line, via Wildwood, 
with an hourly service. 

White Bear lake is about six miles in diameter and has forty miles 
of shore line, all bluffs and slopes, beautifully wooded. Several steam- 
boats and innumerable yachts and launches ply its waters, which are clear 
and cold and deep. Fishing, rowing and sailing are favorite summer 
recreations. It lies only ten miles from the business center of St. Paul, 
and is thus easily accessible by rail, electric car or automobile. There 
were formerly several large hotels on the lake, but these have mostly 
given place to clubs, "Blue Flower Inn," pavilion etc. Manitou island, 
connected with the main land by a bridge, is covered with natural forests, 
trees of large growth and of varieties distinct from those found in the 


surrounding country. It is laid out with park-ways and walks, hand- 
some lawns and lovely summer homes. 

The lake is almost encircled by the branches of the St. Paul and Still- 
water electric line, which diverge at Wildwood, at the southeastern ex- 
tremity of the lake. These branches give access not only to the perma- 
nent village of White Bear, but to all the clusters of cottages and homes 
established at the frequent stations or stopping points. Wildwood is 
one of the show-places of the northwest, with all the features of a park, 
lake and summer resort, and ottering everything in the way of clean, 
wholesome entertainment. As a place of pleasant recreation, Wild- 
wood's popularity is testified to by the thousands who avail themselves of 
its advantages every year. The handsome new brick Casino contains a 
splendid dance-hall, a restaurant and a broad observation porch over- 
looking the lake, affording a fine resting place. Mahtomedi, founded 
thirty years ago as a Methodist summer colony, with a spacious amphi- 
theater, Chautauqua circles, etc., has gradually become a very charming 
and unique home settlement for the hot months, with scores of congenial 
families rusticating on its rolling hills, under the grateful shade of its 
thick forests. Other groups of mansions and cottages are found at 
Stations on the steam or electric lines among which are the following: 
Lakewood, Bellaire, Grove Park, Caledonia, Lake View, Dellwood, Cot- 
tagewood. White Bear Beach, Birchwood. Cottage Park, Lake Shore, 
Romaley Park and East Shore. Each of these groups or settlements 
constitutes, in a sense, a suburban town for the summer season. As a 
rule the residents are acquaintances in the city and maintain at the lake- 
side, the social amenities to which they are accustomed. 

The "Island" and the "Peninsula," both isolated from electric and 
rail transportation, have many fine residences, reached by carriage or 

Poetry and rhapsody have celebrated the delights of a summer at the 
lakeside, but neither has been able to exaggerate them. Bradner Mathews 
writes : 

"Yes, it is beautiful ; this peaceful scene 
Of shimmering lake, deep in the woodland green. 
With happy, brown-kneed children, youth and maid, 
And elder folk in summer white arrayed. 
At tennis, golf, and boating — all at play. 
Wherewith they while these golden hours away." 

And White Bear has its legend. The Indians supposed it to be pos- 
sessed with the spirit of a white bear, which was about to spring on to the 
wife of one of their young braves but was shot by him ; and its spirit 
had haunted the island and lake since and had mysteriously disposed of 
several of their braves. 

One of the attractions of the village of White Bear is the Episcopalian 
church, St. John in the Wilderness, organized in 1861. The church was 
erected the same year on a lot situated near the east shore of Goose lake. 
The church was consecrated by Rev. Dr. Patterson of St. Paul, in August, 
1861. It remained on that spot until the winter of 1874, when it was 
decided to remove it to its present location. 

In addition to White Bear, there are seven lakes in this township that 
are mapped and meandered, some of them quite extensive. Northwest 
one mile lies Bald Eagle lake, which occupies one and one-half sections 


of land in this town and one-half section in Anoka county. A small is- 
land near the center was the home of several bald eagles at the time 
of the government survey, and from this arose its name. A number of 
St. Paul families have quiet homes here. To the west of this we found 
Otter lake which took its name from the otters which were formerly 
found on its shores. A short distance to the west of this lies Wilkinson's 
lake, which occupies about one-half section of land, and was named in 
honor of Ross Wilkinson, who first took up a claim on its shores. A 
little more than one mile to the southwest of this is Pleasant lake, a large 
and beautiful sheet. More than thirty years ago Hon. C. D. Gilfillan 
of St. Paul acquired about three thousand acres of land around and ad- 
jacent to this lake, as a means of preserving the purity of the city's 
water supply, of which it was then the ultimate source. He built a fine 
summer residence on its western shore. The entire property was after- 
wards sold to James J. Hill, who has built up here his magnificent country 
estate. Here are great areas of park and pasture and meadow and field ; 
preserves for deer and buffalo ; flocks and herds of high pedigreed domes- 
tic animals. Here, within a gallon of gasoline from his city terminals, 
when wearied by the cares of empire, Mr. Hill can retire for rest and 
meditation, as far from the madding crowd as at his other favorite 
resort on the coast of Labrador. 

Still other lakes in this township worthy of mention and sometime to 
be stellar attractions of greater St. Paul are Lambert, Vadnais, and Bass- 
wood, with Kohlman's, Owasso and Johanna in Rose township near by. 

Mound's View Township 

Aside from White Bear, the only township in Ramsey county not 
wholly or partially absorbed by St. Paul, is Mound's View. This also 
remains, as yet, intact. It lies in the northwest corner of the county, ad- 
joining Anoka and Hennepin. There are within its boundaries twenty 
lakes, large enough to bear names, some of them very beautiful, and 
destined, like scores of others scattered over the map of Ramsey county, to 
become popular resorts, when electrically connected with the Twin City, so 
near at hand. The lakes, streams and natural meadows of the town adapt 
it especially to stock growing and dairy business, to which branches the 
people of the town are turning their attention. On sections 9, 10, 16 and 
17 a range of mounds extend, from which a fine view of the surrounding 
country may be obtained. From this fact the town derived its name. 

The names of the pioneers of this town should be handed down to 
posterity. It was their hard province to negotiate a rosy future from a 
thorny past. The country was covered with timber and brush, and 
dotted here and there by lakes and sloughs. The Sioux inhabited one 
side and the Chippewas the other, and as they were continually at war 
with each other, settlers were exposed to their depredations on both sides. 
Samuel Eaton was probably the first to settle in the town. In March, 
1850, he, in company with William Fargo, made a claim on section 13; 
Eaton of the northeast quarter and Fargo of thf southeast quarter. A 
few days later S. A. Thompson came out and found these men occupying 
a claim shanty and the three busied themselves in getting out logs to build 
dwellings. Mr. Thompson lived there many years, and was prominent 
in the politics of the county. 

The village of New Brighton is located on the western border of 
Mound's View township, on a line of the "Soo" Railroad and within 


easy distance of electric connection with Minneapolis. It has a thrifty 
and enterprising population, with several flourishing industrial establish- 
ments and a larger prospective development of its stock-handling and 
packing interests. 

It is thus seen that, outside the city limits of St. Paul, there are, in 
Ramsey county, three village organizations — North St. Paul, White Bear 
and New Brighton — and four township organizations. Mound's View, 
Rose, New Canada and White Bear. 

Rose Township .\s Suburban Territory 

Rose township, like New Canada, has lost half its territory to the city, 
but still retains its administrative autonomy, so to speak. The first set- 
tlement made in the town of Rose was by Stephen Denoyer, in the spring 
of 1843, on the bank of the river, in section 32. The year following he 
located on the site where his old Half-Way house long stood. In the 
fall of 1843 Isaac Rose located on the same section, where he remained 
until 1846. In 1843 L. S. Furnell located on a small lake a little south 
of Lake Como. Other early settlers were Lewis Bryan, S. P. Folsom, 
Lorenzo Hoyt, W. B. Quinn, W. G. Hendrickson, A. G. Ford and D. A. 
J. Baker. The first roads opened in the town were the old Military road, 
St. Paul and St. Anthony, the St. Anthony and Como, the St. Paul and 
Lake Johannah, and the St. Paul and Lake Superior roads. 

The mania for town-site and out-lot speculations struck the land 
owners of Rose town as it did everybody else in the lively years of 1855-6, 
and many "additions," "parks," etc., were platted at long distances 
from the city. These lands reverted to farm and garden purposes, years 
before the city reached them. But the prescience of their enthusiastic, 
but too precipitate promoters is vindicated by the fact that Como Park, 
Hamline, the State Fair grounds, the agricultural college, the Minnesota 
Transfer, St. Anthony Park and many other interurban enterprises, are 
now located on ground then belonging in the resourceful township of 
Rose. It is a notable fact that from the three adjoining farms of W. G. 
Hendrickson, Lorenzo Hoyt and W. B. Quinn, near the present State 
Fair grounds, went forth their six or eight stalwart, capable sons, to 
achieve positions of honor in the professional and political life of the 

Reserve township, having all been incorporated in the Midway dis- 
trict of St. Paul, is referred to in that connection. 

Suburban towns, directly tributary to St. Paul, situated in Washington 
county, on lines of existing railways and on prospective electric systems, 
are St Paul Park, Newport, South Park. Cottage Grove, Lake Elmo, 
Red Rock (the Methodist camp-meeting site), Burlington Heights and 

Some of these suburban towns sufifered for several years from the 
collapse of the boom which created them. But most of them have em- 
erged from that depression and now constitute valuable adjuncts to the 

It seems that active promoters and great corporations are not the only 
bodies that can make cities spring suddenly out of the wilderness. The 
United States consul general at Hongkong writes that a little over a year 
ago Chinese capitalists began the construction of a modern Chinese city on 
the shore of Yehli bay, ten miles from Macao inner harbor. It will be 


called Huengehow, and will differ from other Chinese cities in many 
modern ways thought to be peculiarly significant. These differences lead 
the Chinese imperial maritime customs commissioner at Lappa to predict 
in his last annual report, as quoted by Mr. Anderson, that this new 
Chinese city, with all foreign comforts, will prove a great attraction to 
wealthy Chinese immigrants who are averse to going back to their old life 
in China, after having acquired foreign habits, liking and tastes, in Europe 
and America. Thus slow old China, the last word in inertia, caught the 
progressive spirit that overthrows dynasties, adopts "Get there Eli" as 
her motto, and begins a new career. 

Ramsey County's Fine Roads 

One element in the rapid development of St. Paul's suburban towns 
and lakeside resorts, is the increasing excellence of the county roads 
leading in every direction from the city. To the motor car tourist, who 
is, in the touring season, omnipresent and exacting, this is a crowning 
advantage. These roads are said to be the best in the state. Ramsey 
county now has a network of main thoroughfares macadamized or im- 
proved with clay and gravel. It will not be long until all important 
county roads will be improved in a like manner. Much of the progress 
toward good roads in Ramsey county has been due to the work of J. H. 
Armstrong, county surveyor. A vital help, however, has been the way 
in which the city of St. Paul has supplied the funds. Ninety-five per 
cent of the money used for county road building have been donated by 
St. Paul taxpayers. Mr. Armstrong's part was in seeing that these funds 
were not wasted. For many years the county had been patching roads. 
The roads never got better. There was enough money dissipated upon 
patching each year to build a long stretch of permanent roadway. The 
next year the same process was repeated with the result that there was 
no progress. Mr. Armstrong made a definite plan of improvements in- 
volving a definite amount of construction work each year. His idea was 
to make permanent roadways upon main thoroughfares. He made his 
grades and his lines right, and then put in a macadam that lasts. In 
the meantime he keeps up the repairs upon permanent roadways. That 
is the secret of Ramsey county's progress in road-making in the past few 
years, and that is one important contributory element in the upbuilding 
of her splendid suburbs. 

Suburban towns tributary to St. Paul were formerly regarded by busi- 
ness men of the city as, to some extent, sapping its vitality, diffusing its 
energies and confusing its resources. But long and favorable experience 
has changed that feeling among the more thoughtful and discerning. It 
is found that they are real and generous feeders to our retail trade ; that 
a very large percentage of money paid out for wages by suburban manu- 
facturers is spent in the city stores ; that the citizens of the tributary 
towns are as loyal to the traditions and the interests of the city, as the 
average of her own people, and that all look forward to an organic 
union, with the greater St. Paul or with the Twin City of the future, 
as a mandate of imperious destiny. 






Only Divided "Municipally" — The Two Cities Betrothed — Com- 
mercial Union — Hand of the St. Paul Chamber of Commerce — 
Minneapolis Declines — Reply of St. Paul Chamber of Commerce 
— Comparison with Other Great Cities — The Future Twin City 
— One Grand Union Depot — Development of Minneapolis 

When President Taft visited St. Paul in 1909, he found the senti- 
ment of the people of this city and Minneapolis toward each other so 
much more friendly than that which he had observed when, in 1890, as 
solicitor general of the department of justice at Washington he became 
officially involved in the "census war," that he strongly advised an early 
consolidation into one municipality and suggested the name "Twin City" 
therefor. This suggestion for a name has since been followed to some 
extent by the newspapers, the singular form implying oneness, haying 
partially superseded the plural terms "twin cities," "dual cities," "twins," 
etc., which have for thirty years been frequently employed to designate 
the two neighboring towns. A general adoption of the singular form 
of speech would merely signify a more universal recognition of the pre- 
ordained fact, that the two towns, in real interest, in irrisistible tendency 
and in manifest destiny, are one. 

Only Divided "Municipally" 

St. Paul enjoys the unique distinction of being located immediately 
adjacent to another city of like proportions. The corporate limits of 
Minneapolis join those of St. Paul — only an imaginary line divides 
them. The business centers are ten miles apart, but the intermediate 
distance is well built up and the connecting streets are practically con- 
tinuous. In fact, they are one city, geographically, commercially, socially 
and numerically. They are only divided so to speak "municipally." 
They have become famous as one business center, with everything in 
common except political boundaries. With an aggregate population of 
500,000, this community now ranks as seventh in size and importance 
among the trade centers' of the United States, New York, Chicago, Phil- 
adelphia, Boston, Baltimore and St. Louis, being the only cities on the 
North American continent that exceed the Twin City in trade, population 
and wealth. 

Prophesies of this merger or consolidation have long been ventured. 
In July, 1866, the editor of this volume, then an unprejudiced visitor, 
noting the keen rivalry, wrote to his home paper at Ouincy, Illinpis : _ "If 
either city grows half as rapidly as both expect to grow, they will within 



a generation become one magnificent metropolis, with Minnehaha Falls 
the sparkling ornament of a central park." Nearly twenty-five years 
ago serious movements towards a "union" were inaugurated. These 
proved premature, but now that the consummation is seen to be in- 
evitable, and is admittedly a quarter of a century nearer its accomplish- 
ment, that movement and later ones, deserve permanent record. 

On February i6, 1888, a meeting of representatives from the com- 
mercial bodies of both cities was held at the St. Paul Chamber of Com- 
merce. The Minneapolis delegation consisted of Judge Isaac Atwater, 
H. G. O. Morrison, T. B. Walker, D. D. McMillan, Nelson Williams, 
B. F. Nelson, O. C. Merriman, Leander Gorton, W. E. Steele, Clay Mc- 
Cauley, John S. Pillsbury and J. Newton Nind. St. Paul was repre- 
sented by Dr. David Day, Thomas Cochran, Hon. H. M. Rice, ex-Gov. 
Alex Ramsey, W. P. Murray, J. W. McClung, E. V. Smallev, Bishop 
John Ireland, W. C. Wiley, A. S. Tallmadge, D. R. Noyes, Gen. [. T. 
Averill, Peter Berkey, W. .M. ]3ushnell. Gen. J. W. Bishop, D. A. Robert- 
son, M. N. Kellogg, D. D. Merrill, E. S. Norton and Capt. H. A. Castle. 

The Two Cities Betrothed 

Air. McClung called the meeting to order. He said : "We have met 
to confer together upon the common interests and the common dangers 
of these two cities. We have not met to unite the cities under one name 
or one government. The union of the cities is a matter of the future, to 
come naturally by the logic of events and by evolution. What we need 
now is to recognize this fact, and by wise and united counsel and actions 
to shape that future and make the most of it. Twenty-five years of 
strife and rivalry have simply served to harden our muscles and develop 
our energies. We only desire by this conference to telegraph to the 
world that these two cities are to be one — not married now, but betrothed, 
and waiting the consent of all our relatives most interested. We wish 
simply to forecast the future and prepare for it. What those common 
interests and common dangers of both cities are, is for us to find in this 
conference and to provide for. I desire to nominate a gentleman whose 
heart has been large enough to take in both cities, and who has always 
received the most liberal evidences of respect and affection from both 
cities. I nominate Hon. Isaac Atwater as president of this conference. 
He is one of the oldest citizens of the ancient city of St Anthony, and 
has had experience in uniting the cities of St. Anthony and Minneapolis." 

CoMMERci.VL Union 

On assuming the chair. Judge Atwater said : "The growth of the 
Twin Cities has been remarkable. Thirty years ago that gentleman (point- 
ing to H. AI. Rice) predicted that St. Paul and St. .Xnthony would form 
one great municipality. But if we have accomplished a great deal as 
separate cities, what may we not become working for common interests? 
I'ut great and strong as we arc, a great danger is looming u]) before us, 
and we will be wise men to foresee and prevent this danger. I do rrot 
believe there is a man in either city that is not heart and soul in favor ,of 
a commercial luiion. What the feeling is upon the question of one mu- 
nicipality, I cannot say, although I am heartily in favor of it. United we 
need not fear; without it we have good ground for apprehension." 

The secretary read an interesting letter from Rev. E. D. Neill, in 


which he said: "For many years I have endeavored to impress on you 
and many other old friends that there is a better land than this, but this 
does not conflict with a strong conviction that there is no better land on 
this side of the dark valley than that upon which the Twin Cities stand." 

Bishop Ireland was urgently called for. The substance of his re- 
marks was: "I am much gratified to see this effort toward the union of 
the two cities. I am charmed by the prospects of a union at some time. 
You gentlemen know I am not a business man, but I speak as a general 
observer. The old rivalry I always looked upon as a pleasant family joke. 
No railroad could come into St. Paul, without going to Minneapolis. No 
factory in one, but benefits the other. I am certainly gratified to see men 
come together today, representing the best interests of both cities. The 
union will come about some time or other. If we protest, the next genera- 
tion will take it up and consummate it; but I don't want to wait until 
then. I am a man of the present day, and I want to enjoy some of the 
good things of life as I go along. It is very right and proper that the 
men of both cities, who have laid foundations and builded the state of 
Minnesota, should one day unite, cement and bless the union of both 

Captain ]\Ierriman said : "This is not a new question. I have heard 
of it and talked of it for thirty years. We should act as one individual 
in protecting our railroad and navigation interests." 

Ex-Governor Ramsey said he thought a union of the two cities very 
desirable, and he would like to see it before he went hence. 

Ex-Governor Pillsbury spoke briefly, favoring cooperation on all 
subjects of mutual interest. 

Dr. Day said: "Philadelphia was formerly five different cities. Lon- 
don, England, includes at present five different counties. Our object is to 
have this question so agitated that every man in both cities shall be 
anxious for the consummation of this union. I believe that we should 
every one of us, do as Bishop Ireland does — say we represent a city of 
400,000 population. The time will come when either of the two cities will 
say like Ruth : 'Yes, I will go ; thy people shall be my people, and thy 
God be my God.' " 

This meeting resulted in the appointment of committees from the pub- 
lic associations of the two cities, which arranged for joint action in many 
matters affecting the common business interests. These arrangements, 
have been, from time to time amplified, and have continuously worked for 
the advantage of all concerned. In all questions of railroad development, 
freight charges, improvements of water ways, outside competition, etc., the 
cooperation among business men has been close and friendly. 

In 1890 certain citizens of St. Paul saw fit to call the attention of the 
United States authorities to alleged violations of law in taking the census 
of Minneapolis. This interrupted, for a time, the era of good feeling, 
but the final result, the conviction and punishment of the lawbreakers, 
seemed to fully justify the intervention. 

Hand of the St. Paul Chamber of Commerce 

The subject of the union of the cities was again brought before the 
St. Paul Chamber of Commerce in May, 1891, by a communication from 
a citizen of Minneapolis urging attention to it. This communication 
was referred to the committee of statistics and correspondence, which on 
May 15, 1 89 1, through Henry A. Castle, chairman, submitted a report 


which was received and placed on file. The following are extracts: 
"Up to this time it is probable that the competition and rivalry between 
the two cities has been beneficial to both, however seemingly excessive 
its occasional manifestations. Sharp collisions have been and are a 
standing menace of the situation, but no collisions can long paralyze the 
forces of mutual interest and reciprocal intercourse, which inexorably 
draw these communities together. The alleged animosities between our 
people, so notable to the outside world, have been to a great extent im- 
aginary, based on a misinterpretation of our journalistic amenities. And 
even the period which seemed to develop moral or sentimental impedi- 
ments to union, has brought transcendent physical elements in its favor. 
The interurban electric line, with its liberal transfer systems at the termini 
and its conclusive guarantees of prosperity to the Midway district, has 
done infinitely more to unite these cities than all combined adverse in- 
fluences have done to separate them. 

"Your committee believes that the union of St. Paul and Minne- 
apolis is practicable ; that it would be mutually advantageous ; that the 
time has come to seriously consider the means and methods of bringing 
about this result, and that the people of both cities are better prepared 
for their proper consideration than at an}' epoch in the past. Your com- 
mittee has devised no scheme, nor has it tried to do so. We can only 
express our opinion as to the general proposition — the union of the two 
cities — which is referred to us. We recommend that this chamber place 
on record a decided expression in favor of that proposition. As to how 
and when the movement is to be inaugurated, the collective wisdom of 
this chamber must decide." 

On July 13, 1891, the St. Paul Chamber of Commerce adopted the 
following: "Resolved, That the president of this chamber appoint a com- 
mittee of seven, of which number the president shall be one; to be known 
as the committee on the union of the Twin Cities, which committee shall 
have power to take such steps as appear to its members to be most ex- 
pedient and proper to inaugurate a movement for the speedy union of St. 
Paul and Minneapolis. 

"Resolved further. That the chamber, through its president and sec- 
retary, urgently request the Board of Trade of the city of Minneapolis 
to appoint a committee with similar powers to confer and act with the 
committee of this body." 

The president appointed, as the Twin Cities committee, M. D. Munn, 
chairman ; H. F. Stevens, H. A. Castle, George R. Finch, E. V. Smalley 
and W. H. Sanborn. A copy of the above was duly forwarded to the 
Board of Trade, Minneapolis. 

Minneapolis Declines 

On September oth the following was received from the Minneapolis 
Board of Trade : "I herewith inclose copy of report of special committee 
appointed to consider your communication to our board relative to ap- 
pointing a committee to take into consideration the union of the cities 
of Minneapolis and St. Paul, which report was duly considered and 
adopted at our meeting of this date. 

Yours truly, 

B. F. Nelson. President." 

The report thus transmitted expressed the opinion that the appoint- 
ment of the committee requested would result in no advantage to Minne- 


apolis for these reasons : "The agitation of the question comes ahnost en- 
tirely from parties engaged in land speculations between the two cities, 
and whose special object is to increase values on such property and can- 
not be taken other than as the most biased view of the question. And 
several times in the past few years, twice at least by the Chamber of 
Commerce of St. Paul, committees of this kind have been asked for and 
appointed by this board. Such committees have accomplished nothing 
whatever toward the solution of the question, the representatives from 
that city having avoided as far as possible all consideration of the es- 
sential point at issue, and used the time in general and incidental discus- 
sion. The same course was pursued in all Twin City club meetings. 
From this, it became apparent that all of the talk of union meant only 
for our citizens to return to building up the interurban territory as they 
had been doing prior to the time that these anxious unionists coolly took 
the whole district into their city limits. This territory which separates 
the two cities proper by a space of some five miles makes it practically 
impossible to merge the two city governments into one over this extended 
area, consisting largely of farms and unsettled districts. In our judg- 
ment the people of Minneapolis cannot afford to neglect our great op- 
portunities and waste time in impracticable efforts to unite the two cities. 
We would therefore recommend that the request for a committee be 
respectfully declined. 

, "Signed: O. J. Evans, 

T. B. Walker, 

J. T. Wyman, Committee." 

Reply of St. Paul Chamber of Commerce 

This document was on its receipt by the St. Paul Chamber of Com- 
merce referred to its committee, consisting of Messrs. Munn, Stevens, 
Castle, Finch, Smalley and Sanborn, which on September i8, 1891, pre- 
sented the following report which was adopted, thus closing the records 
for the time being: "Your committee appointed to confer with a com- 
mittee from the Minneapolis Board of Trade on the union of the two cities, 
beg leave to report that the said Board of Trade declines the conference. 
This decision is announced in a report signed by a committee of the Board 
of Trade, which contains certain misstatements of fact and misinterpreta- 
tions of motive requiring attention at our hands. 

"It is alleged by the Board of Trade committee that this agitation comes 
almost entirely from parties engaged in land speculation between the two 
cities. This statement is untrue. The fact is, the first suggestions of 
the matter were made to the St. Paul Chamber of Commerce by prom- 
inent citizens of Minneapolis, which were referred to the proper com- 
mittee of this chamber, whose chairman does not own and never has 
owned a foot of interurban land. That committee afterwards submitted 
a report containing a general indorsement of the ultimate union of the 
two cities. Later, another director of this chamber, who has no property 
in the Midway district, introduced a resolution under which was ap- 
pointed this committee. That resolution proposed no scheme of union; 
it did not even commit this city or this chamber in favor of the union. 
It proposed simply a discussion of the subject with a view of ascertaining 
whether or not any practicable plan for such union could be devised. It 
was a friendly reception and indorsement by this chamber of those sug- 
gestions and was inspired by no local or personal motive. The people 


of St. Paul have for twenty-five years looked to this chamber for a cham- 
pionship of all the larger interests of this city and this state, unbiased by 
factional or individual policies, and their trust has never been betrayed. 

"The Minneapolis committee charges that previous committees ap- 
pointed by this chamber to confer on matters of cooperation have avoided 
as far as possible all consideration of the essential point at issue. By 
the term, 'essential point at issue,' is evidently meant the frequently reiter- 
ated demands on the part of Minneapolis that St. Paul should surrender 
to that city certain square miles of its territory as a preliminary to 
the consideration of any measures of cooperation or reciprocity. As to 
this essential point your committee respectfully submit that while the St. 
Paul gentlemen who declined to yield to it loyally represent a unanimous 
sentiment of their fellow citizens, it is evident that by the union of the 
two cities all future development of the Midway district would equally 
benefit both Minneapolis and St. Paul. 

"The Board of Trade committee vaunts the superiority of Minne- 
apolis, yet in the same breath it plaintively chides St. Paul for declining 
to surrender certain conceded advantages, and thereby reduce itself to a 
fair equality with Minneapolis, so as to negotiate on a level. The ob- 
liquity of vision which fails to detect this inconsistency is but one of the 
unique features of that report. The statement of the committee that a 
space of some five miles, consisting largely of farms and unsettled dis- 
tricts, separates the cities proper, would even if it were true, be no prac- 
ticable bar to a united municipality, since all of that territory is now 
under the laws and ordinances of one or the other city. But it is not 
true. There is no ground in the interurban district proper that is used 
for farming. In this district are the flourishing suburban villages of 
Union Park, IMerriam Park, St. Anthony Park. Minnesota Transfer, 
Hamline, Macalester and Groveland, and it is nearly all platted into city 
lots and traversed by steam and electric lines. 

"The spirit of resentment which permeates said document is seem- 
ingly based on the alleged unprovoked hostility of St. Paul toward Min- 
neapolis, developed w^ithin the past year. We'refer to the records of the 
federal court as justifying the action of the St. Paul men who exposed the 
flagrant conspiracy to violate the national law, to which we presume refer- 
ence is made, and this city has no mor'e reason to apologize for that action 
than the law abiding people of :\Iinneapolis have for cherishing a pro- 
longed resentment. But we do not hold the whole people of Minneapolis 
responsible for the inconsistencies of this report of their Board of Trade 
committee. It may be true, as the committee alleges, that public opinion 
in Minneapolis is overwhelmingly unfavorable to municipal union under 
existing circumstances, although we have positive assurance to the con- 
trary from some of the leading citizens of that city. \\'e leave this ques- 
tion to be settled between the Board of Trade and the people it professes 
to represent, satisfied that a subsidence of unworthy prejudices and un- 
provoked resentments will at no distant day restore both the board and its 
constituents to an alert appreciation of their own interests. 

"St. Paul accepted these suggestions in good faith and willingly places 
that fact on record. The near future w-ill fully vindicate our course. 
St. Paul and Minneapolis, in spite of prejudice and resentment and P.oard 
of Trade committees, are each day drawn nearer in interest, in feeling and 
in destiny. Opposition may delay, but cannot prevent their ultimate con- 
solidation in one magnificent metropolis. 

"Your committee beg leave to recommend that the acceptance of the 



overtures of certain citizens of Minneapolis for a discussion of the proposi- 
tion for a union of the two cities and the request contained in the resoKi- 
tion adopted by this chamber be reaffirmed. We recommend that all of 
the reports and resolutions on this subject, both of this chamber and of 
the Minneapolis Board of Trade, be spread upon our records and published 
in our next annual report." 

The report was unanimously adopted by the chamber, and there the 
matter rests to this day, on the face of the records. But the thoughts of 
the people, and their conversations and the suggestions of visitors, from 
President Taft to the transient magazine writer, constantly turn to the sub- 
ject of consolidation, with accelerated impetus — save where occasionally 
uninterrupted by some new cause of friction, like that of the proposed 
packing plant in 1909. The movement toward union is inexorable. The 
legal problems involved would, no doubt, be novel and intricate. Prece- 
dents may be sought in vain for a similar case. But where destiny points 
the way, human acumen will find a commodious thoroughfare. Even Lon- 
don, long the pseudonym of an inchoate aggregation of incongruous parish 


and municipal governments or no governments, surrounding the real city 
of only 30,000 inhabitants, ruled by an absurd and obsolete trades union 
system inherited from the cross-bow and quarter-staff era — even London 
has been reduced to a semblance of systematic oversight. 

Comparison with Other Great Cities 

Many elements have fixed this locality as the site of a splendid commer- 
cial and industrial metropolis, for the magnitude of which the united areas 
of the two existing cities, extensive as they are, will within a few years, be 
inadequate. They stand, four hundred miles advanced beyond any possible 
rivalry, at the natural focus of a tributary empire, millions of square miles 
in extent, of unsurpassed agricultural and mineral resources and only in 
the' infancy of its development. They easily dominate the golden heart of 
the North American continent. Their growth in the past has been phe- 
nomenal. Their present condition is sound and promising. It will only 
be necessary to maintain the rate of progress established during the past 
few decades to place the Twin City among the three or four leaders in the 
nation. A financial expert and writer on business topics, who spent a 


month here in 191 1 working on an article entitled The Twin City, the 
Future Metropolis of North America, said : "The Twin City shows 
greater improvement than any other city 1 have visited and I have been 
in practically all of the important cities of the world. The last time 
I was in St. Paul was in 1904, and I am amazed at the wonderful growth 
since that time. I am sure that shortly the Twin City will rank next 
to Chicago and New York in size and importance." 

The representative of a great New York life insurance company, 
visiting here about the same time, said: "I predict that in twenty-live 
years from now, the Twin City will be the political center of the United 
States. Also I believe it will be the financial center. I am greatly 
impressed with the development of this section of the country and the 
west, and have reason to believe that prosperity will continue." 

Some statistics relating to the area and population of the ten largest 
cities in the world, were recently compiled by a Yale College professor 
and furnish the basis for an interesting comparison with the Twin City, 
as follows : 


City in Acres Population 

London 441 ,600 7,252,963 

New York 209,218 4,766,883 

Paris 19,280 2,763,393 

Tokio 27,989 2,186,070 

Chicago 117,447 2,185,203 

Vienna 39.686 2,085,888 

Berlin 16,608 2,070,665 

St. Petersburg 22.901 i ,678,000 

Philadelphia 81,828 1,549,008 

Moscow 17,654 1,359,254 

Twin City 68,640 532.000 

Paris, according to these figures, has a population of 143 per acre; 
Berlin 131 ; Philadelphia 18, and the Twin City less than 8 per acre. 
When we realize that practically all the great social troubles which the 
world has ever gone through are measurable in intensity by the ratio of 
the density of urban population as compared with rural population, as 
well as by the magnitude and density of metropolitan population itself, 
it is at once apparent that the Twin City, the gateway of the northwest, 
presents to the world unique, and let us hope, encouraging, phenomena. 

The Future Twin City 

The Twin City is the only metropolis in the history of the world that 
ever developed to half a million population with the great commercial 
center of its municipal area yet practically unoccupied. As the man at 
the foot of the ladder has the best of climbing possibilities, so the vacant 
spaces between two compact areas have the best assurances of develop- 
ment. The immense significance of this situation, not only to the United 
States but to the entire North American continent, and to the world, is 
certainly one which deserves some consideration. ]\Tidway, in time, will 
become the great retail district of the Twin City, and the present busi- 
ness center of St. Paul proper will become the great jobbing center, be- 
cause St. Paul has both land and river transportation. As operating 


expenses of railroads increase and government makes the projected im- 
provements in the Mississippi river, transportation will certainly be one 
of the great factors in the jobbing world here. In a few years St. Paul 
will be shipping direct to the old country and through the Panama canal 
to our Pacific coast and western South America. 

That the movement towards organic union, inaugurated twentv-five 
years ago, as herein stated, is still going on, irresistibly, if silently, is 
occasionally demonstrated. At a dinner given the retail merchants of 
Minneapolis by the retail merchants division of the St. Paul Association 
of Commerce, on the roof garden of the St. Paul, in the summer of 191 1, 
the gentlemen present found themselves instinctively impelled by the 
Twin City spirit, for the simple reason that it is in the air and every- 
body has it. "Sentiment for union is growing," said W. L. Harris of 
Minneapolis, "and some day we shall wake up and find that the only 
thing needed to make the cities one is a little paragraph on the statute 
books." "We ought to have one giant organization combining the busi- 
ness interests of the two cities," said Mr. C. W. Gordon, of St. Paul, 
after explaining the organization of the Association of Commerce, and 
predicting that Minneapolis would soon have a similar unification of all 
commercial bodies. 

The "Pageant of the Twin City," as presented by ladies of Merriam 
Park, at an entertainment, November 16 and 17, 191 1, was significant of 
popular interest in the proposition. It was a semi-historic and semi- 
idealistic series of tableaux, demonstrating that it is possible to nego- 
tiate a rosy future from a rugged but honorable past. The past was 
comprised in six living tableaux representing prominent events and 
people in early Merriam Park life. The present particularly appealed 
to every man, woman and child, who now has the honor of holding mem- 
bership in that splendid community, and better than all, we were ushered 
into some of the conservatories and galleries of the imagination, and 
through prophetic eyes were given at least a glimpse of the industrial 
and civic grandeurs with which the Near Future, overburdened with 
waiting, is impatiently rapping at our door, eager to heap upon us her 
bounteous treasures. 

It would be instructive, and somewhat germane to our immediate 
purpose, to present in this chapter a table of statistics, showing the ag- 
gregate business done this year in the Twin City, covering the jobbing 
trade, manufactures, bank clearings, receipts and shipments of freights, 
etc. But in all these particulars, the increase is so rapid and constant, 
that the figures of any given date become obsolete in a month or two, 
and are thenceforward misleading. A recapitulation of some of the 
pronounced advantages and trade and industry will serve to show the 
impregnable foundation on which their prosperity rests. All of the 
advantages enumerated are enjoyed by each city and are common to 
both ; they would pertain to either, if the other did not exist ; applied to 
the combination, their significance is incontestible. 

The Twin City stands at the great natural gateway of a commercial 
empire. It commands the resources of a million square miles of the 
most productive land in America, rich in fertility, water power, and tim- 
ber; of inexhaustible mineral wealth, and with a network of steam rail- 
roads centering here which reach out over 40,000 miles. It has water 
connections with the south through the R'lississippi river and with the 
east through the Great Lakes. It is surrounded by the greatest stock- 
raising and dairying districts of the country. All points northwest of a 


line drawn through Sault Sainte Marie and Des Aloines, Iowa, are 
nearer to the Twin City than to Chicago, and in this mighty territory 
there is no location as favorably situated for a great metropolis. It is a 
trade mart, fixed by the law of supply and demand, with conditions that 
readily admit of favorable comparison with those of the most prosper- 
ous American cities, whose hmitations confine them to a local territory 
about five hundred miles in extent, as instance the following : Class Phil- 
adelphia, Baltimore and Boston with New York, we have New York to 
Buffalo and Pittsburgh ; Pittsburgh and Buffalo to Chicago ; Chicago to 
Kansas City, Omaha, St. Paul and Minneapolis; Kansas City and Omaha 
to Denver; Denver to Ogden; Ogden to Helena, each equidistant about 
five hundred miles. The single exception is St. Paul and Minneapolis 
to Helena. It will be observed that the Twin City is without a rival in 
all that vast extent of country covered by the Northern Pacific, the "St. 
Paul" and Great Northern railroads, comprising in extent, a stretch of 
territory four hundred miles in width and in length equal to the distance 
from New York City to the Mississippi river. In addition to this ter- 
ritory we have central and southern Alinnesota ; South Dakota ; northern, 
central and western Iowa ; Nebraska, Kansas and Colorado. In outlin- 
ing the territory west of Sioux City and Omaha, as being tributary to the 
Twin City, we are not speculating. Our distance to Sioux City is 270 
miles, the distance from Chicago is 525. Our distance to Omaha is 
370 miles ; the distance from Chicago to Omaha is 500 miles. The dis- 
tance from Chicago and the Twin City to Kansas City is practically the 
same, or 500 miles. 

One Grand Union Depot 

One proposition, looking toward a more rapid development and an 
earlier realization of the Twin City idea, is that of building a grand 
union depot at a point near University avenue, equidistant between the 
two business centers. This scheme, at the present writing, does not seem 
to be near realization, but the arguments urged in its favor are interest- 
ing and suggestive. They may be summarized thus: In cities of less 
than 100,000 inhabitants it is desirable that trains shall deposit their 
passengers close to the business center of the city. But in larger cities 
this is no longer possible, and by some is held to be undesirable. The 
reason for the conclusion is that the railroad terminals of a large city, 
if adequate to the needs, take up directly and indirectly an immense 
amount of space, require the closing of streets ancf this interferes with 
the development and growth of a city. Up to the present time an effort 
has been directed toward enlarging the present facilities in already con- 
gested districts. In fact St. Paul had its lesson in the subject, for in 
1901 and 1902 extensive enlargements were made to its Union station 
by doubling the size of its train shed and adding several new tracks, the 
ground being procured by narrowing the river channel at great expense. 
These enlarged facilities were practically inadequate at the time of their 
completion. Taking into consideration the relative location of these two 
cities, their unity of business relations, the simplicity of the railroad 
trackage connecting them and the iiossibilities of selecting ample sites 
in either city for the construction of union depots, removed from their 
present congested sites, it would appear that a location might readily be 
selected for one union station to serve both communities, or, at least that 


the plan will receive very serious consideration, with a view to the require- 
ments of future years. 

A disinterested outside expert in railroad operation says : "To con- 
struct two union stations at this northwest gateway, within ten miles of 
each other, costing approximately $4,000,000 each, would be an economic 
error. It would also tend, in no small measure, to continue the indi- 
viduality of these two cities, which is not to be desired, and it would 
not afford the traveling people the simplicity of service which one union 
station with individual borough and suburban stations would afford." 

Development of Minneapolis 

All the time the two segments of the future Twin City continue to 
develop and expand, growing in every direction, but especially growing 
toward each other, growing together, growing into one. Minneapolis, 
by the census of 1910, had a population of 304,000, and aside from any 
present or prospective community of interest and destiny is manifestly 
entitled to honorable mention, in any description of St. Paul and vicinity. 

In 1838 the Indian title to this locality was extinguished and the first 
settlement was made at the Falls of St. Anthony. The attraction was 
the immense water power afforded by the falls. This is now said to have 
been the origin of Minneapolis, but it was in truth the beginning of St. 
Anthony, for the original Minneapolis was confined to the west side of 
the river, and its settlement did not begin until 1850. Two years later 
the little village of Avon was platted, the name being subsequently 
changed to Minneapolis. Such was the beginning of what has in the 
space of sixty years grown to be one of the great cities of the country, 
the "twin cities" of Minneapolis and St. Anthony, once the bitterest of 
rivals, having long since been merged into one. 

The special facility which developed the struggling frontier settle- 
ment to a metropolis is the power furnished by St. Anthony Falls, which 
is equivalent to 35,000 horse power. This alone would have been suffi- 
cient to draw population and capital. Added to this, however, was the 
heavily timbered pine region near the upper river, and convenient to float 
the logs down to the mills. Still another element of prosperity was the 
nearness to one of the greatest wheat-growing regions in the world, where 
the hard variety of fife wheat was a certain crop. This could also be 
brought to Minneapolis mills with facility and ground into the best 
quality of flour. 

These gave Minneapolis its start, and, having once become famous for 
its lumber and flour, and being withal situated in the midst of a country 
eminently suitable for general agriculture and with various materials for 
manufacturing within easy reach, it is not strange that it grew speedily 
into prominence. As a jobbing center, Minneapolis has been developing 
rapidly. The principal lines dealt in are agricultural implements, flour, 
lumber, sash and doors, wheat, furniture, men's furnishing goods, fruit, 
garden seeds, rubber goods, structural iron, furs, shoes, confectionery, 
groceries and dry goods. The aggregate jobbing trade is estimated at 
$300,000,000 annually. 

The largest flour mills in the world are located in Minneapolis and 
they produce a daily average of 70,000 barrels of flour, of the finest 
grade, that is shipped to every country, and the quality and quantity of 
this flour have made the city famous. This is flour enough to feed 
15,000,000 people or one-sixth of the entire population of the United 


States. Alinneapolis is also a great lumber market and one of the lead- 
ing manufacturing centers for that industry. 

There are national banks ; 9 state banks ; 4 savings banks and 2 
trust companies, with an aggregate capital of $8,773,000. The assessed 
valuation of real and personal projierty is $190,000,000. The same 25 
railroad lines, 5 of them transcontinental, that radiate from St. Paul, 
naturally and necessarily reach Minneapolis, with equal facilities. There 
are nearly 200 churches in the city. Its public school system is unsur- 
passed. There are several colleges, besides the great Alinnesota Uni- 
versity, with its 5,000 students and its numerous departments, described 
in another chapter. 

There are 18 beautiful parks, besides a comprehensive boulevard sys- 
tem. The public library occupies its own handsome building, and the new 
auditorium furnishes conveniences for large assemblages. The court 
house and city hall occupies a full block, 600 feet square, and is of 
massive and magnificent architecture. There are many splendid business 
blocks and office buildings. The hotels are widely renowned for their 
sumptuous appointments. The electric street car service, under one cor- 
porate management in the two cities, is equal to any in America. 

From this it will be seen that ^Minneapolis, which has not been in the 
past an unworthy competitor with St. Paul for popular favor, would not 
be, in the future, an unworthy life-partner. That, in approaching the 
inevitable consummation, neither city will surrender any of its self-re- 
spect, or its supposed advantages, or its pride of past achievement, may 
be confidently assumed. The competition will go on, the rivalry will con- 
tinue, but with an increasing friendliness, born of mutual interest and 
reciprocal regard, until the Twin City becomes an accomplished fact. 
The name to be adopted for the consolidated metropolis is, for the pres- 
ent, a minor consideration. We shall not lack for names. The whole 
nation stands ready to help us choose. A New York paper, with writers 
who swing freely on linguistic gates set rigid to all others, has proposed 
"Didemopolis," but fails to extort any favorable response. From the 
ever faithful Midway district comes the suggestion "Minnesota City." 
which has elements of pertinence. When we have the will we will find 
the way and we will find the name. Meantime the vision of the Twin 
City looms large and larger on the horizon with some of its features 
growing in attractiveness and distinctness every year. 



The Men of 1848 and Earlier — Geographical and Natural Ad- 
vantages — National Civic, Military and Railway Center — 
Municipal, Social. Commercial, Artistic and Charitable — What 
Census Firures Show — Climatic Advantages — Tributary Acres 
Easily Cultivated — Statistical Information — Jobbing and 
Manufacturing — Wholesalers and Farmers Backed by Capital 
— Produce Commission Business — Telegraph and Telephone 
Service — New York No Longer Western Standard — The Greater 
St. Paul to Come 

Cities, states and nations, like all things of enduring worth, have 
their existence not only in what they are at the present time, but also 
in which they were in the past and in what they will be in the future. 
That which they are, is the result of their past; and their future is the 
justification of their present state. A city is the result of the wisdom 
of its founders, as well as of the thousand and one elements and inci- 
dents which have pushed it from a wilderness to a village, and from a 
village to a city — a metropolis. 

The Men of 1848 and Earlier 

St. Paul has always cherished its past and honored its worthy citi- 
zens of preceding epochs. As early as June 14, 1849, two weeks after 
the territory of Minnesota was organized in this city, the Pioneer paid 
this tribute to the men of 1848 and earlier: "It is proper for those who 
are flocking into our territory, to know who those men are who_ were 
here, struggling with privations before Minnesota had a name in the 
world. They are the men who, by their voluntary exertion, sustained 
our delegate on his mission to Washington, for the accomplishment of 
what, few believed, could then be accomplished — the recognition of our 
rights as a territory, distinct from Wisconsin. Every territory, in its 
earlier days, has its times that try men's souls. The inception of a 
state, whether settled by the peaceful pioneer, or baptized by the blood 
of a border warfare, has its trials and troubles. How darkly hung the 
cloud of doubt over this region of the northwest, one year ago. How 
like the glorious sunlight, did the first intelligence from our delegate to 
Washington last spring, burst through that cloud of doubt. There were 
men here, who, from the beginning, saw the end. We respect, we 
reverence those men. Let the men and the women of those days be 

These pre-territorial men were fearless, energetic and enterprising. 





All I^oads Lead To Saint-B\ul~ 

or r H E IS O H'll IW KST. 


They could have said, as Andrew Johnson said in the senate at the be- 
ginning of the RebelHon when threatened with the vengeance of his 
fellow southerners: "I want to say, not boastingly, with no anger in 
my bosom, that these two eyes of mine have never looked upon any- 
thing in the shape of mortal man that this heart has feared." Such 
were the men who founded St. Paul and Minnesota. This was the 
early St. Paul spirit, as shown in deeds of splendid daring and undying 

Its present speaks for itself, and its future prosperity is, in a larger 
measure, dependent upon the foresight, enterprise and practical common 
sense of its present inhabitants. Such is St. Paul. Its past is not in 
the dim and musty distance of tradition; its glorious present reveals 
itself in unmistakable terms, and its future is in the hands of the people 
of today. Thus all its epochs are correlated and interdependent, each 
one on its predecessor. 

St. Paul is fortunate beyond most American cities, in natural fea- 
tures; in advantageous location; in a youth that has not been misspent; 
in the character of its founders and its citizens; in the plans that are 
being developed along many lines, physical, industrial, educational, artis- 
tic, humanitarian, for a great future, and unlimited expansion. Seventy 
years ago even the rudiments of a city did not exist. Sixty years ago it had 
not yet earned a place upon the map. Fifty years ago, with a few 
thousand inhabitants, it was just beginning its conscious civic existence. 
Today, with a population of nearly a quarter of a million, it yet stands 
upon the threshold of life and may well look forward to centuries of 
growth and attainment. The methods and processes by which its de- 
velopment has been achieved, together with brief references to the men 
who achieved it, and mention of some of their characteristics, have been 
set forth in the preceding chapters. This chapter will be substantially 
a recapitulation of the conditions and events which have produced the 
splendid results we see today, with special emphasis on the more impor- 
tant elements that contribute to the city's present greatness. 

Geographical and Natural Advantages 

Its location and the almost limitless resources of its tributary re- 
gions, its scenic attractions and its salubrious climate are only the rnore 
obvious of its claims to supremacy. It is situated at the head of naviga- 
tion of one of the great rivers of the world, whose importance as a com- 
mercial waterway is likely to be vastly enhanced during the next few 
years by the completion of the Panama canal, and possibly by the con- 
struction of a canal to the head of Lake Superior, making a continuous 
water route to the Gulf of Mexico on the south and thence to the Pacific 
ocean, and to the Atlantic ocean on the east. It stands on the border 
of one of the richest territories in the world, abounding in farm products, 
mines and forests ; it forms the connecting link between this great region 
and its eastern markets, and constitutes the distributing center for all 
forms of manufactured articles destined to supply the northwestern 

At the lowest point St. Paul is 700 feet above sea level and at the 
highest 1,016. Owing to this, to its exceptionally fine and bracing cli- 
mate, to its abundant supply of pure water and admirable sewerage sys- 
tem, it is one of the most healthful cities in the world. Lying along the 
banks of the Mississippi and in part on the high blufls overlooking the 


river and surrounding country, it commands beautiful views, of which 
advantage has been taken by many who have built homes here. Its 
area is 54.44 square miles and has Soo miles of streets and boulevards. 
Fifteen hundred acres have been reserved or condemned for parks, and 
this territory is constantly being improved and added to. St. Paul has 
in Como Park one of the finest bits of wild woodland and water in the 
United States. The views along its parked and artistically planned river 
drives are beautiful and remind one of the palisades of the Hudson and 
other well-known bits of American scenery. The city is richly pro- 
vided with churches, with hospitals, with schools and colleges. There 
are many excellent hotels, restaurants and places of amusement. 

National Civic, Military and Railway Center 

St. Paul is the capital of Minnesota; it is also the port of entry for 
the state, and the office for the collection of internal revenue for the 
district of Minnesota is situated here. Here also is located one of the 
six most important military stations of the United States, Fort Snell- 
ing, with a reservation of 2,381 acres, which the war department plans 
to garrison soon as a brigade post. The postoffice, with its five branches, 
contributes nearly $1,500,000 annually to the United States postal reve- 
nues ; branch departmental headquarters for several divisions of the mail 
service are located here. The largest State Fair in America is held here 
every fall, on grounds covering 200 acres, with an annual attendance 
of 600,000. 

Ten great railroad systems, controlling twenty-five lines, radiate from 
St. Paul, reaching every part of the continent, and their enormous vol- 
ume of in and out freight is indicated by the utilization of the second 
largest freight transfer trackage in the world. One of the largest loans 
in the history of finance, which may well be characterized as epoch 
making, was recently consummated here in connection with one of these 
roads. Immense establishments have been built up. so congesting the 
business district that a vast project is on foot so to change the course of 
the Mississippi as to throw many hundreds of acres of reclaimed land 
into the heart of the city's business area, in order to provide for the 
inevitable commercial expansion. 

Municipal, Social, Commercial, Artistic and Charitable 

St. Paul has excellent fire and police departments and a P>oard of 
Control, which has charge of the public charities. Its water supply is 
the purest of any large city and the most abundant. It has eight na- 
tional banks, three state banks, several private banks, three sa- 
vings banks and two trust companies. There are numerous clubs, 
both social and commercial, and a number of large trade organiza- 
tions. Many noteworthy buildings have been recently erected or 
are in course of construction. Among them the State Capitol, the 
new Cathedral and the Municipal Auditorium, are of national reputation. 
Others well worthy of mention are the St. Paul Hotel ; the Y. M. C. A. 
and Y. W. C. A. buildings ; the Lowry Arcade ; the Commercial build- 
ing; the new wing of the City Hospital, and the new Central High 
School, as well as a large number of handsome and modern factories and 
jobbing houses. In art and architecture, in music and in progressive 


methods of education, in civic improvement, and in important works of 
charitable intent, St. Paul is pushing upward and onward, to the end 
that it may keep pace in these essential matters with the marvelous ma- 
terial development it has enjoyed in the past, and which seems opening 
out in the future in ever widening vistas. For what shall it profit a 
city to be rich and powerful if it have not the disposition and the under- 
standing to make the wisest use of its golden opportunities. 

St. Paul, in a business way, is increasing about 30 per cent a year. 
Its retail trade in 1910 was over $100,000,000.00. On June 5, 191 1, one 
store made a retail record by selling nearly $36,000 worth of goods in 
one day. On the same day a jobbing house started a great sale to mer- 
chants only and disposed of goods amounting to over a quarter of a 
million dollars in one day. As the result of the contemplated enlarge- 
ment of its Union Depot yards, by changing the channel of the Missis- 
sippi river, it will have the best depot facilities in the country — room 
for thirty-two parallel tracks, which is enough to accommodate a city 
of a million inhabitants. 

St. Paul has 250 steam passenger trains in and out daily. A new 
electric trolley line is being surveyed down the river to Lake City. 
Stillwater, North St. Paul, South St. Paul, West St. Paul, Inver Grove, 
White Bear, Minneapolis and other nearby towns are already connected 
with this city by ten interurban and suburban lines. St. Paul has a 
population of a full quarter of a million, including the population of its 
immediate suburbs that for all practical purposes are parts of it. 

At South St. Paul is located the largest packing plant in the north- 
west. Figures for 191 1 are not available at this writing, but those of 
1910 for the stock yards and packing houses broke all previous records. 
34,280 car-loads of live stock were received in 1910, an increase of 
6,158 cars over 1909. Our shipments in 1910 amounted to 16,796 cars, 
as against 13,325 cars shipped out in 1909, an increase of 3,471 cars 
521,820 head were sold in 1910, as against 400,699 head in 1909, an in- 
crease of 30 per cent. Outshipments are made from South St. Paul to 
points in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois and the far East. Illi- 
nois consumed in 1910, 72,075 head of South St. Paul slaughtered stock. 
Iowa consumed 49,619 head; Minnesota, 36,849: Wisconsin, 16,268. The 
"far east" (points beyond Illinois) consumed 38,082 head. 

What Census Figures Show 

A loyal, local magazine, the Razoo, makes an effective appeal to of- 
ficial records in demonstrating some of the city's elements of supremacy, 
thus : "Census figures show that St. Paul is the healthiest city in the coun- 
try. Census figures show that St. Paul led every large city in the coun- 
try in the percentage of increase in number of industrial wage earners 
during the last five years, its increase being 35 per cent. Census figures 
show that St. Paul led every large city in the country in the percentage of 
increase in wages paid by manufacturers during the last five years, the 
increase being 59 per cent. Census figures show that St. Paul led every 
large city in the country in the percentage of increase in the value of 
materials used in manufacturing establishments, the increase being 55 
per cent. Census figures show that St. Paul led every large city in the 
country in the percentage of increase of capital invested in manufactur- 
ing, the increase being 66 per cent." 


Climatic Advantages 

The climatic advantages found here are a substantial asset. The at- 
mosphere of Minnesota is dry, clear, and pure. It is seldom that a re- 
freshing breeze is not felt, even on the stillest summer day. The nights 
of summer, almost without exception, are cool. The winters are enjoy- 
able on account of the bracing dry air, stimulating activity and out-door 
exercise. The dryness of the air diminishes its capability of conducting 
heat from the body, and men and animals suffer much less here from 
cold than in a climate of even a slightly greater proportion of dampness. 
The coldest periods are always of brief duration — seldom exceeding from 
three to live days. In this state of 400 miles between the north and 
south border lines there is often a great difference in temperature. In 
St. Paul, during the winters, it is frecjuently twenty-five or thirty degrees 
milder than on the Canadian border. The clear dry cold of the winter 
combined with the crystal lakes, the swiftly flowing streams and the fresh 
breezes of summer; the entire absence of humid air and stagnant water; 
account for the fact that malaria and its diseases are unknown. Hence 
the healthy vigor of the average citizen, and the health-restoring boon to 
thotisands of visitors. 

Tributary Acres Easily Cultivated 

Another controlling element of St. Paul's rapid growth has been the 
comparative ease with which its tributary acres have been brought under 
cultivation. Compared, for instance, with the counties of northern Ohio, 
now among the richest in the nation, the process of subjection has been 
facile indeed. That country was covered with growth of hickories, oaks, 
elms, and maples, the like of which could not be found anywhere else, 
and millions of feet of this timber were shipped every year to England 
and Europe for ship-building purposes and other uses. The towns were 
little islands cut out in this sea of verdure, with the roads like tunnels 
under the high, overarching trees. Before the land could be utilized for 
farming purposes, great ditches had to be dug for drainage and the 
trees cut oft'. The pioneers wore themselves out in the hard struggle 
with the conditions, in felling trees, removing stumps, building fences, 
digging great drainage ditches and struggling with the malaria of the 
rich soil newly turned up to the sunshine. 

Now the great Pennsylvania railroad runs through this region on a 
high, firm embankment as solid against the rains and moisture as any in 
the nation, with an open country on either side as far as the eye can 
see. The towns are high and dry, with good pavements ; good street 
railroads ; fine public and private buildings, and every evidence of the 
thrift of the rich agricultural country surrounding them. The level fields 
of black muck laugh with abundant crops of clover, on which sleek cattle 
stand knee deep and fine thoroughbred sheep lay on a wealth of flesh and 
wool. Not only the great trees are gone, but the stumps also. But it 
required over a hundred years of time and exhausted three generations 
of pioneers to get the results that a single generation of Minnesotans 

Jop.niNG AND Manufacturing 

It is only fifty-five years since Bruno Beaupre established the first 
wholesale house in St. Paul; today there are six hundred jobbing houses, 


some of them the largest of their kind in the country; employing more 
than twenty-five thousand people; representing at least three hundred 
different lines; and. with an anfiual trade of a half billion dollars. More 
than seven hundred manufacturing plants, with 20,000 employes, have a 
yearly output of $59,000,000. No more accurate test of growth and 
prosperity can be found than that indicated by the volume of in and out 
freight. In 1910, 220,832 carloads of freight entered the city, and 
165,808 carloads were carried out. 

St. Paul is the great fur center of America, both for manufacturing 
and trading. It is not exceeded by any city, in amount of capital in- 
vested or extent of business handled, in the allied lines of drugs and 
chemicals, or in the wholesale dry goods trade. It ranks high among 
the largest jobbing and manufacturing centers in the output of groceries 
and foodstuffs ; harness and saddlery and other leather goods ; boots and 
shoes ; hats, caps and gloves ; men's furnishings ; hardware, both light 
and heavy; millinery; confectionery; rubber shoes and garments; tobacco, 
cigars and beer. St. Paul possesses the largest manufactory of grass 
twine and its derivative products in the country ; the largest law publish- 
ing house in America, and perhaps in the world. The stockyards are 
competing even with those of Chicago. It is celebrated as a commercial 
art center, and its pictured calendars find their way all over the country. 
Its great printing establishments do an enormous business outside as 
well as in the city. Banks and newspaper offices send here for their 
equipment and outfits. Among the more important manufactures are 
sash and door products and every form of interior woodwork; refriger- 
ators, of which there are two of the largest manufactories in the country ; 
wheels for heavy machinery and farm equipment ; malleable iron work ; 
steam fire engines; auto trucks; derricks, hoisting apparatus and gun 
carriages. It has large concerns dealing in paint, varnish and the various 
forms of linseed oil ; in cement and brick made from its own sand ; in 
stone taken from its own quarries. 

The fact that so large a market has been built up in St. Paul, is one 
of the elements of its strength, and the ability of our jobbers to favor their 
customers, in emergencies is another strong point. The trend of trade is 
towards the house which is located where other big concerns in the same 
business are established, for the retailer naturally looks to this group as 
his market, and when he goes forth to buy he seeks the city where he can 
plant himself in the center of the things he wants and see them circle 
around him in lively competition ; where he can see the largest stocks and 
most complete array of the season's offerings. The house which is out of 
the favored zone and which is located in a community not regarded as 
the principal market, is handicaped by this situation, even though it 
may be as worthy of patronage as the concerns in a town that has syndi- 
cated its offerings. These facts are true from an economic standpoint, 
and no argumerit can make them otherwise. The merchant who most 
fully realizes the advantages of trading in a large market and trading in 
one which has a line of goods carefully selected for the northwest de- 
mand, is the merchant who will do best by himself and his customers. 
St. Paul wholesalers many times in the past have acted like a father with 
a long pocket book in relation to their dealers and have carried them 
through many a small crisis. These acts have not been forgotten, nor 
has the advice along business lines which was freely extended in times 
of need. These are the things our jobbers are known for. They are 


the things which arc "thrown in," as it were, when a retailer deals here. 
They are, also, things well worth striving to get. 

Wholesalers .\xd Farmers Backed bv Capital 

In carrying out this policy of financial assistance, the banks of St. 
Paul have been of infinite service. This is specially true in times of 
poor crops or in seasons when the farmers of a particular locality have 
been unable to get the prices for their grain which will enable them to 
pay their bills. When a country is being develojjed there is a good deal 
of credit extended to the country merchants. It is in this emergency 
that strong and stable financial backing for. the jobber is of assistance 
to his customers. If the banks of the city in which the wholesale house 
is located have sufficient capital to extend the jobber the credit he needs 
to buy goods and pass it on to the retailer with the privilege of future 
payment, then the jobber can serve the retailer to the maxinunn. (Jver 
the country the banks of St. Paul have the reputation of being stable 
institutions, which in times when the banks in other cities are hedging in 
order to weather some financial crisis, have stood by their friends and 
have helped to pull the whole country in their vicinity through its 
troubles. The banking business of the city has been built up by conser- 
vative management, and although the bankers do not shy at a thing 
merely because it is new, they are men who know the value of money. 
In dealing with the jobbers whose business is established on a firm basis, 
they are ever ready to extend as much credit as they can in order that 
the wholesalers may be as liberal as possible with the retailers of the 

The banks, capitalists and loan agencies of St. Paul perform another 
highly important function to the tributary country — that of furnishing 
funds to the farmers for the development and extension of their hold- 
ings. It is not uncommon for the product of one year's work to half pay 
for the farm on which it is raised. Then the farmer wants better build- 
ings and more land. The value of land is constantly increasing and the 
farmers have little difficulty in negotiating loans on their farms. But 
much of this money comes from St. Paul, or is brought from the east 
by men here who are familiar with farm conditions. Although the 
cities, with their aggregations of wealth, are often condemned by un- 
thinking people, the fact remains that the money which has been piled up 
by the captains of industry has helped those with smaller surplus to get 
ahead in the world. Bankers and business men keep a close eye on the 
northwest. As the country develops can St. Paul develop, and no faster. 
The city cannot grow more rapidly than the country behind it, without 
flanger to economic stability. For this reason men in St. Paul are giving 
their time and their money to bring additional settlers to the farms of 
the northwest. They are also spending their money in stimulating the 
farmers to raise larger crops and increase the profit of their operations. 

Produce Commission Business 

On May 31, 1880, twenty-seven of .St. Paul's foremost citizens ap- 
peared before Frederick G. Ingersoll, notary pulilic. and ])laced their sig- 
natures to a document which was later filed under the title, "The St. 
Paul Board of Trade," and from that small beginning has since de- 
veloped one of the most important produce markets in the country, with 


sales aggregating more than $3,000,000 a year. These men included 
P. Van Auken, J. T. McMillan, William R. Merriam, Charles Mcllrath, 
James I. Jellett, John J. Watson, P. H. Kelly, L. A. Gilbert, Maurice 
Auerbach, George L. Becker, D. Schutte, H. M. Butler, J. O. Adams, 
Michael Doran, Crawford Livingston, Charles A. Wall, C. H. Bigelow, 
William Constans, R. Barden, William A. Van Slyke, John McAuley, 
L. H. Maxfield, Julius Austrian, Charles W. Chase, John J. Penner, 
A. H. Wilder, and Charles N. Bell. 

Third street, above Jackson, was then the city's fashionable prome- 
nade. All the banks, the fine retail stores, the newspaper offices, the 
lawyers, doctors, dentists and milliners, were located there. Now it is 
"Commission Row" and there anything in the line of fruits or vege- 
tables raised in the United States, or in any part of Europe, can be 
purchased. Nuts and fruits, with delicacies from sunny Italy, from 
figs to filberts, can be bought at wholesale. Hops and malt are also on 
the market. From these one can go down the line with cream, eggs, 
butter, cheese, ice cream, vegetables, veal and poultry. In former years 
game was a staple on the Row, and more than one of the successful firms 
doing business today got its start at the time that game was not hedged 
about with so much protection as at present. Minnesota butter iS 
handled extensively out of St. Paul and there are now stored in New York 
warehouses thousands of tubs of butter which were negotiated for on 
Third street. Growth of the produce business has been rapid the past 
few years, but is still only in its infancy. 

As a fruit market Third street deals in consignments from Florida, 
Georgia, New York, Michigan, Illinois, Oregon, California, Arizona — 
everywhere, including Minnesota. Until within a few years there has 
been skepticism as to the adaptation of Minnesota soil and climate to 
fruit raising. This doubt is rapidly disappearing. The valuation placed 
on the fruit crop of Minnesota for 1909 was $25,000,000. Many kinds 
of fruit are grown in the state, although the small fruits do better as a 
rule. From Fillmore county alone eighty carloads of apples were 

Manufacturing enterprises, as stated in the chapter devoted to that 
subject, are expanding with strides that astonish our own people. In 
October, 191 1, a party of St. Paul business men, on the second "See 
St. Paul First" trip visited the works of the American Hoist and Derrick 
Company at the south end of the Robert street bridge. They there 
learned for the first time that locomotives are made in St. Paul. They 
saw a locomotive crane, of which fourteen made in this city are now 
at work on the big ditch at Panama. They saw machinery in various 
processes of completion, destined for Argentina, for Java, for Cuba, 
Mexico and Porto Rico. They learned that frequently orders come to 
this concern to be sent to Japan and Hawaii. There are 700 men em- 
ployed in the various departments, and annually about 500 engines of 
various shapes and sizes are made, as well as 400 or more derricks. The 
engines constitute, however, about one-fourth of the output of the plant. 
In the foundry the concern uses about fifteen tons of iron each day in 
casting forms which make up all the various portions of machines 
manufactured. All the parts used in the engines and derricks are made 
in the plant, including the various smaller brass parts of the engines. 

This is merely a sample of the surprises which greet our best in- 
formed people, when they take time to inspect the industries which have 
grown up in this city so quickly as to have escaped their notice. 


Telegraph axd Telephone Service 

The rank which St. Paul has attained in its superior telegraph and 
telephone service, is one of its claims to metropolitan eminence. These 
indispensible adjuncts of modern life, luxuries half a generation ago, 
domestic necessities today, have nowhere reached a higher degree of 
usefulness, or more general patronage. The Western Union and tiie 
Postal Telegraph companies have headquarters offices here ; the Tri- 
State and the Northwestern Telephone com])anies serve an enormous 
local clientage and supply long-distance facilities reaching every corner 
of the nation. The last named exchange now has, in round figures, a 
(juarter of a million subscribers. Like a great nervous system, it spreads 
over the whole surface of the states of Minnesota, North and South 
Dakota, penetrating into remote districts and bringing more than three 
million people into possible communication with each other over its own 
lines. The new building here occupies a lot eighty-five feet on Fifth 
street and one hundred feet on Cedar. For the present four stories and 
the basement of the structure will be completed, with provision for the 
other stories to be added as the growth of the business demands. The 
switchboard will have a capacity of 9,600 lines, and will be at once con- 
nected with 8,800 lines, operating about 18,000 pairs of wires through 
the underground cables. The trunk line switchboard is used to make 
the connection with other exchanges. Both telephone companies have 
branch exchanges in the residence districts and in suburban towns. 

New York No Longer Western Standard 

An important element to be reckoned with in estimating the solidity 
of St. Paul's present position, as well as its future prospects, is the 
moderation, firmness and certainty of advance, of realty values here. A 
New York paper, not long ago published the history of a few selected 
pieces of property in that city, showing the successive prices at which 
they had changed hands, beginning with the earliest obtainable records. 
It was a Jack-and-the-P)ean-Stalk story of values mounting faster and 
higher than the eye could follow. It explains without need of further 
commentary the fabulous fortunes of such estates, for example, as the 
Astors, Goelets, Gerrys, Dyckmans, Hoflfmans, and others, or of such 
corporations as Trinity Church and Sailors' Snug Harbor, whose foun- 
ders had bought early and retained their holdings. Judicious invest- 
ments in all prosperous cities bring sure returns, and fortunes have been 
made here in that way. But prices of our best property are still so 
reasonable as to encourage purchases for improvement — such improve- 
ments yielding the double profit of fair rentals and steady increase in 

One remarkable index of the proportions to which St. Paul has at- 
tained, and of the aggressive spirit which now animates its citizens, is 
the phenomenal success which attended a vigorous campaign for new 
members of the commercial organizations, in November, igii. In five 
days relays of workers secured 1.114 new members of the Association 
of Commerce, each jiledged to pay S50 a year for three years, into its 
treasury. The week following, similar committees, including manv of 
the same individuals, added 368 names to the membership of the Com- 
mercial Club. This shows what lousiness men of St. Paul can do when 
they try. It shows how strong and aggressive is the St. Paul spirit 


when once it is aroused. We have had other exhibitions of this activity 
before; we have had none which promised more for the future. This 
means that there is at the gateway to the northwest a united body of 
business men who are looking all the time to see how their relations with 
the northwest can be improved. It means that the people of the north- 
west will get a benefit in large measure. This is a conservative city, but 
no one who has seen the way the business men responded to the call 
for volunteers and has seen the way in which they went into their work 
could say that St. Paul is behind the cities of the country in commer- 
cial organization. Only in Cincinnati and St. Paul, so far as the in- 
formation of men in touch with the situation extends, have the business 
men signed up for membership for three years. It means that a re- 
newed spirit of accomplishment is written large over the map of. the 
capital of Minnesota. 

The west is fast establishing standards of its own, high and endur- 
ing standards in matters relating to progressive civilization. St. Paul 
has reached a position where it helps to fix these standards. For many 
decades because of the power and splendor of New York, and because 
the wealth of the country was centered there on a certain street, we 
looked upon New York as the metropolis. Indeed, were we not taught 
that a metropolis is the city having the largest number of inhabitants? 
We accepted this; we accepted New York with her 3,000,000 souls, her 
30,000 soul mates, her barnstormers, and her brainstorms. Today, when 
we are beginning to question the standards of New York, we are be- 
ginning to question to etymology of "metropolis." The west has refused 
to walk the ways of Wall street; this was evident in the panic of 1907 
and in later slight tremors, when the west kept its head and hardly knew 
there was a panic. The west refused long ago to walk Fifth avenue 
from the old Fifth Avenue hotel to the Hoftman house and settle all 
important political affairs there. It now begins to refuse to walk the 
Great White way, to accept the verdicts of Broadway as to the drama, 
literature, art, architecture and morals. St. Paul now has standards of 
culture that command respect and elements of progress that extort 
admiration. It is a leader in the march — no longer an imitator or a 
servile follower. 

The Greater St. Paul to Come 

This is the St. Paul of today, and these are some of the elements of 
its attained greatness. On these are to be based assurances of the 
Greater St. Paul that is yet to come. Every important incident in its 
past history and every potent instrumentality mentioned in preceding 
pages, has helped lead up to these auspicious conditions. The physical 
location and configuration of the site; the establishment of the military 
post; the accidents of early settlement and the characteristics of early 
settlers, contributed to them. Father Galtier, Bishop Cretin, Sibley, 
Rice, Bazille, Guerin, Ramsey, Neill. Goodhue, Larpenteur, Hoyt, Mur- 
ray and Bass, played their distinctive, but honorable parts. The sol- 
diers of the War for the Union and the defenders against Indian mas- 
sacre endured perils and made sacrifices that count in the grand climac- 
teric. Steamboats, stages, railroads and electric lines; the postal serv- 
ice and the federal departments; the state capital with its outreaches 
and ingatherings ; the commercial bodies with their solicitude for mer- 
cantile, industrial and financial interests ; the woman's clubs ; the learned 


professions; the public journals; the civic operations; the building and 
adornment of comfortable homes ; the schools, colleges, churches, chari- 
ties, libraries, societies for the promotion of art and learning; the environ- 
ment of flourishing suburbs, and the proximity of an alert and restless 
rival city; the sleepless activity of public-spirited citizens, organized in- 
telligent and aggressive — all these, and more, have ministered to the 
steady advancement which has culminated in St. Paul's splendid present, 
and its confidence in a splendid future. The city of Ramsey and Rice 
and Prince; of Driscoll and Averill and Stewart; of GilfiUan and Drake 
and Merriam ; of Dawson and Strong and IngersoU ; of Flandrau and 
Horace Thompson and C. K. Davis; of Day and Noyes and Marshall; 
of Hill and Ireland and Kellogg and Stickney, has arrived, but does not 
cease to advance. It is great, but is only on the threshold of its great- 



St. Paul's Start in the Race — Three Large Enterprises — Proposed 
Improvements — New Lines of Communication — Tributary Agri- 
cultural Resources — Minnesota's Timber Wealth — Incalcu- 
lably Valuable Mineral Deposits — Water Power and Electrical 
Development — National Considerations— A Dream of the 

To the elements which have combined, in the past, to make the splendid 
St. Paul of the present, others, heretofore inoperative, some of them, in- 
deed, non-existent and as yet unthought-of, will be added to produce the 
magnificent St. Paul of the future. Only sixty years ago the "north- 
west" was an undefined territory lying "beyond" the Allegheny moun- 
tains. The states of Iowa, Wisconsin and Michigan stood at the out- 
posts of civilization, marking the limit of advance of the hardy pioneer 
in the opening and settlement of the great West. 

The New Northwest is a vast region which has developed within the 
last thirty years and today comprises a mighty empire, lying north, west 
and southwest of St. Paul, with its western edge slipping into the Pacific 
ocean. No part of the habitable globe compares with this vast region in 
climate, natural resources, production and opportunities. America to- 
day depends upon this new northwest for the larger portion of its food 
products, its minerals and lumber. All flora reach their highest state of 
perfection in food quality when grown near to the northern limit of cul- 
tivation. Following this law, the grains and vegetables grown in Min- 
nesota are superior to those of any other region in the world. The 
famous "No. i" hard wheat of this state has sent its fame to all parts of 
the earth and failure of crops is unknown. Minnesota occupies a com- 
manding position in the heart of the new northwest. No state in the 
Union has increased in population and developed so rapidly in wealth, 
production and education. Its broad prairies and virgin woodlands have 
been steadily filling up with a class of sturdy, industrious settlers. Thriv- 
ing, bustling, prosperous cities and villages are to be found in every di- 
rection. But great as the growth and progress which has been made, 
a large portion of the state is as yet but in the morning of its develop- 
ment. The state of Minnesota contains an area of 83,000 square miles, 
being one-eighth larger than Ohio and Indiana combined. Her resources 
include fertile soil, navigable waters, power-producing streams, virgin 
forest timber, limitless deposits of unsurpassed iron ores and vast quar- 
ries of the best building stones. Add to these, her healthful climate ; her 
attractions for the tourist and the sportsmen, and her other manifold ad- 
vantages — then we catch a glimpse of her manifest destiny as an im- 
perial commonwealth. 



But Minnesota, as has been demonstrated in these pages, is only one 
of the sisterhood of states constituting the vast tributary region of 
which St. Paul is the gateway, which finds its commercial and financial 
focus here. 

And all this mighty empire is the home of an intelligent, energetic 
and prosperous population. lieredity unites with environment in build- 
ing up, throughout this New Northwest, what must inevitably become 
the dominant American race. Our ancestors belonged to the Aryan 
race. They came, a swarming, hungry horde, out of the uplands of In- 
dia, in six great migrations. The first migration stopped on the fertile 
banks of the Nile, and there civilization was born. The wealth of Egypt 
came from the raising of wheat. The overflow of the Nile supplied mois- 
ture and nutrition, and the soil laughed a harvest. The next migration 
was that of the Assyrians, who settled on the banks of the Euphrates and 
the Tiber. And there they built two great cities, Babylon and Nineveh. 
From Assyria the tide of migration moved on to Greece and from Greece 
to Rome. Each of these great world-powers — ^Egypt, Assyria, Greece 
and Rome — had its basis in agriculture. Out of the surplus that the 
farmers produced, the cities were built. All great municipalities had 
their rise in a herdsmen's camp; then came the fort; next the trading- 
post ; then a city. 

Other Aryan tribes peopled Northern Europe, and from these, the 
most virile scions of the world-conquering stock, descended the original 
Anglo- Americans, with the later infusions of kindred Celtic, Teutonic 
and Scandinavian blood. Saxon and Norman and Dane are we — also 
German and Irish and Swedish, with sprinklings of French and other 
Latins, but all of us English in tradition and tendency. The Puritan and 
the Cavalier, in this latitude mostly the former, stamped their language, 
laws, customs and prejudices indelibly upon us. 

In England from the time of the Stuart kings a constitutional struggle 
began which is not yet ended. Under King James the historic parties 
began to line up, the Puritans against the Sacerdotalists. \\'ith King 
Charles it was autocracy against constitutional government. The Eng- 
lish Independents were the real artificers of constitutional freedom. Mars- 
ton Moor was the end of the personal government of King Charles. 
Cromwell narrowly escaped becoming an American citizen. If he had 
been |)ermitted to abandon his country for America, George Washington 
might not have been the Father of His Country. From Marston Moor 
England anticipated America in the founding of a republic under Crom- 
well, but the Independents in the hour of their triumphs were not too 
magnanimous. The foundation of the American Constitution was Crom- 
well's system of government which the English would not accept. 

The Northwest has received and is assimilating the most robust, ven- 
turesome and strong-willed people of Europe. Seventy-one and a half 
per cent of the population of Minnesota is composed of foreign-born 
white persons and native whites of foreign parentage, according to the 
census bureau. In this respect Minnesota leads all the states of the 
Union. Other states in which more than half the jiopulation consists of 
foreign whites and whites born of foreign parentage are : North Dakota. 
70.6; Wisconsin, 66.8; Michigan, 55.5; South Dakota. 54.4; Montana. 
52.8. The significant and gratifying fact is that the foreign elements 
coming to these states of the Northwest represent the most valuable of 
all the immigrants — the most thrifty, intelligent and assimilable.-r-A very 
recent census bulletin shows that the foreign-born farmers of Minne- 


sota, whose name is legion, own 85 per cent of the farms they occupy — 
the largest percentage of any state, 'f^ 

With all this territory, these wonderful resources and this phenomen- 
ally vigorous, enterprising and prosperous population to build on and 
draw from, the city's future is secure. St. Paul is not full grown, or 
over grown ; it has only begun to grow. It is infinitely a greater city than 
its population would indicate as clearly shown by the class of its institu- 
tions and its prominent citizens. It is one of the most important centers 
of distribution in the United States and the most important in trade and 
wealth. It is a great educational center and a great railway center, and 
therefore necessarily a jobbing and manufacturing community. 

The City of the Future is like the Music of the Future. No one be- 
lieved in Wagner's assertions in notes, as he first set them forth. And 
yet that future has become present, in music, and the criticisms have be- 
come as worthless as a row of cypher's with their rims rubbed ofif. The 
beauty of a city which is still in the making, as all our American cities 
are, is half dream and half realization. The dream must move slowly 
toward the awakening. And yet, he would be traitor citizen who did not 
see his city as it shall be and labor to make it that vision. There is an 
unfinish about our streets. But what would you have after fifty scanty 
years? Think of the thousands of years any European city has been in 
the making. 

Louis W. Hill's apostrophe to the overcoat contained a pregnant hint 
as to the physical advantages our vigorous climate brings to our enegetic 
people. In this favored clime we have to wear overcoats and expect to. 
Life here, the air about us, makes it possible to earn the money with 
which to buy overcoats and having to fend against the cold, we are ani- 
mated to go on to greater successes. The overcoat is evidently the be- 
ginning of success. It puts a new aspect on life. 

Minnesota, the two Dakotas, and Montana, long before they have 
reached anywhere near their maxium of population capacity will easily 
be able to support as many people to the square mile as Iowa today. 
When Minnesota has 40 people to the section, it will have a population 
of 3,360,000. When the two Dakotas are equally densely populated they 
will have 4,800,000 people, and Montana will then have 6,800.000, mak- 
ing a total population of over 14,000,000 for the four states of Minne- 
sota, North and South Dakota and Montana. This district is what we 
might call the immediate Northwest. It by no means comprehends the 
entire trade era tributary to St. Paul. Half of Wisconsin, Northern 
Iowa, and a certain portion of the whole Northwest through to the Pacific 
ocean are tributary to St. Paul. 

The seven states that are working together in the Northwest Develop- 
ment League comprise 21 per cent of the area of the United States. The 
population of the United States is more than 90,000,000. This 21 per 
cent of the area has only 6,000,000. In the last ten years 2,000,000 new 
comers settled in these seven states. This was an increase in ten years 
of fifty per cent; the increase for the whole United States was 29.9 per 
cent. The Northwest Development League means to keep adding to 
this population at an increased rate, and bringing in the business that 
added millions will support. 

To say that there were 13,000 wage earners employed in St. Paul in 
igoo, and 14,000 five years later, and 19,000 in 1910, does not convey a 
very definite idea to the minds of people not used to handling figures. If, 
however, we reduce the figures to per cent of growth and say that the 


increase in St. Paul in the last five years in wage earners in manufacturing 
establishments was 35 per cent and that the highest increase in New 
York, Chicago, Cleveland, Pittsburg. Boston, or Philadelphia during the 
preceding five years was less than that, some idea of the growth of St. 
Paul is realized. 

And the impetus is accelerated every year. A casual review of the 
past year will show that there has been more progress in commercial or- 
ganization circles than in any one other year or several years. The Asso- 
ciation of Commerce has been launched, combining the efiforts of men 
formerly scattered through five organizations. The association acquired 
1,200 members for three years in five days. The Commercial Club grew 
from 1,200 to 1,500 members in the short space of three days. 

A magnificent public library building has been assured by ample 
financial resources provided. The work of securing a new and adequate 
Union railway station has been well advanced. The movement for a 
changed river channel, adding thousands of acres to the heart of the 
City's business district is auspiciously inaugurated. 

Our business men had a large part in organizing the Northwest 
Development League "the largest commercial club in the world" and se- 
cured its headquarters for St. Paul. The first land show of the develop- 
ment league has been organized and held, all in five months. A train 
load of live governors of the West left St. Paul and astonished the East 
in a number of ways. There has been established a weekly meeting for 
men of the city open for discussion of any subject under the Association 
of Commerce. Within the year, the West Side Club has dedicated a 
big clubhouse and the \\'est End and North Central organizations have 
similar homes ready to start. Worth more than all else, a spirit of 
civic unity and civic consciousness has been aroused in the city. Few 
cities of the country can present such an imposing list of achievements in 
the space of twelve months. Few other cities of the country have made 
such progress in developing a deep sense of civic unity and united efl^ort 
for the upbuilding of the municipality. 

St. Paul's St.\rt in the R.\ce 

But St. Paul has not reached its zenith of aspiration and efi'ort ; it 
has not stopped growing; it has scarcely begun to grow. It recognizes 
that it has competitors, and it is prepared to meet them. Other cities 
see the golden opportunities ofifered by our marvelous tributary territory 
and are pushing their advantage of propinquity. Kansas City and Omaha 
are crowding in on the south and southwest, Spokane on the West and 
Winnipeg on the north. But St. Paul has a long start in the race. Its 
merchants have achieved their triumphs by fair dealing, upright methods, 
courage, foresight and conservatism. St. Paul is 1,900 miles from the 
Pacific Ocean and the trade legitimately tributary comes from a terri- 
tory 400 miles wide through this whole distance. This is greater than 
any European country, save Russia. 

The savages and the animals have been slowly supplanted from Assin- 
iboine to the Athabasca by men, political peers of those citizens of the 
eastern provinces, but not of the same kind. If we remember a book 
which was much read some years ago. Draper's "Intellectual Develop- 
ment of Europe," we will recall how he foresaw, historically, the develop- 
ment of Europe, according to its mountains and plains and rivers. The 
old thesis is true today. The American continent has been developing 
according to its mountains and lakes and rivers and plains. Commercial 


development follows the lines of human advancement and St. Paul is at 
an important, permanent, preordained focus of some of the most signifi- 
cant of those lines. 

On the day when St. Paul's new postoffice was opened, visitors went 
to the State Historical Society rooms to look at a litttle square soap box 
partitioned off into nine apartments. • That soap box was our first post- 
office. Between that box and the splendid granite building of today 
were years of pioneer toil and triumph, during which the foundations 
of St. Paul were established broad and perpetual for the glory and the 
achievement of posterity. And the physical contrast between the soap 
bo.x and the granite structure, was no greater than that between the 
postal service of the two periods — the one a crude, local, inefficient neigh- 
borhood convenience; the other a vast, ramifying, radiating, educational 
and commercial institute, a vehicle of trade, of enlightenment and of 
civilization, centering its innumerable divergent channels in this un- 
changeable gateway of communication. 

The development of the states of the Northwest and the influx of 
settlers means an increase in the business of the merchants in the smaller 
towns. This in turn means that the merchants of St. Paul will reap 
added sales. Our local merchants have always shown a spirit of co- 
operation with the various commercial organizations of the Northwest 
working for the upbuilding of the country and have done much to further 
this growth. The limits of the territory to be served by St. Paul have 
not been reached. Some day the restrictions of tarilT will be removed 
from Canada and a vast field in that country will be opened to the job- 
bers of this city. The incoming of settlers into the West also extends 
the field. And even the new movement in China, opening unlimited op- 
portunities for American enterprise, will have a stimulating influence on 
the trade of St. Paul. 

The commerce of this city has its vigorous army of aggressive mis- 
sionaries constantly in the field. Counting St. Paul as their home, 
whether for themselves or their house, 4.000 traveling men have this 
place as their headquarters. Most of these men are always on the road 
proclaiming the merits of our goods. Many of them can tell the coun- 
try merchants of the West and Northwest that the articles are made here, 
for St. Paul is growing rapidly in respect to its factories. Planting their 
commercial banner on the ramparts of the "enemy"' from Omaha, Chi- 
cago and St. Louis, these men are showing the merchants of the North- 
west that goods handled and made here are the best possible for them. 
Goods bought in another market cannot be selected with the same care 
for their selling possibilities among the residents of the Northwest, as 
can the goods picked by the jobber of St. Paul. 

The thoughts of our business men have never been devoted solely to 
their own city. The business men of few large cities of the country 
have done as much to get next to the men who are raising things, as have 
the business men of St. Paul. They have offered cups by the dozen for 
the best products along various lines of agricultural endeavor. They 
have made trips into the country to visit exhibits. They have lent their 
support in many efforts to inspire the farmers to do their best. The 
whole Northwest has been included in the scope of the activities of the 
jobbers and manufacturers who have not stinted their money in helping 
the farmers and merchants of the entire Northwest to reap a larger 
harvest from their soil. Surely the prospective prize justifies the effort. 
The territory tributary to St. Paul's financial and commercial institutions 
comprises in area about 1,000,000 square miles with a population of 


nearly 10,500,000. What the potential development of this is, finite mind 
can hardly measure. Some one has said that under intensified develop- 
ment such as must come not many years distant, this country west of 
the Gateway will support a population of 250,000.000. There is nothing 
speculative now in the growth of such diversified country as lies to the 
west of St. Paul. 

But local interests are not neglected, howbeit the old-style hurrah 
campaign is less in evidence and more thought and study is given to 
making the city a comfortable place in which to carry on business and an 
attractive place in which to live. This does not mean that new industries 
are not sought nor the extension of trade territory considered. On the 
contrary, we are doing the very thing that will help promote trade ex- 
pansion and bring in the most desirable class of home-builders, by mak- 
ing the best possible city in which to live. We find commercial organi- 
zations and publicity clubs giving more of their time and energy to the 
improvement of conditions of city life. Mere business is not the de- 
sideratum. Healthy growth involves much more than increased popu- 
lation. The percentage of people living in large cities has increased 
enormously during the last decade, and now more than 47 per cent of 
the population is urban. This is not a healthy condition, and when we 
get 1,000 people in a city for whom there is no work, we must divide 
with them what we earn in order that they may live. We need civic 
Patriotism, and that St. Paul is assiduously cultivating it, is one of the 
bright auguries of her future. 

Three L.xrge Enterprises 

There are now three large enterprises "on the fire" and all the 
people are vitally concerned in carrying them with reasonable dispatch 
to completion. They are the widening of Robert street, the construction 
of the new library and the harbor and depot plans. The outlook is fairly 
satisfactory in all three afl'airs. All obstacles have been removed as 
far as the library and Robert street improvement are concerned and no 
further time need be lost in pushing along the actual work. The library 
plans not only involve a magnificent new building, but through the gener- 
osity of J. J. Hill, assure a great, new reference department, unexcelled 
in the country. 

So much is involved in the comprehensive plan of changing the river 
channel, constructing harbor facilities and railroad terminals, that it 
must needs move slowly, but that its pace is less than necessity warrants 
is the general opinion. Harbor plans seem to be shaping 'themselves 
out gradually, but the depot scheme is vague as far as the public is con- 
cerned, however much knowledge may be locked in the bosoms of the 
commission members and railway officials. 

Results once secured on this important trio of city forward move- 
ments, will put us in position to advance other plans now in abevance. 
The plan of the city beautiful, with the Capitol approach features, is 
marking time, unless the widening of Robert street may be taken as a part. 
The start once made on the adequate library and a beginning had 0!i a 
Union Station, modern and sufficient, will give a wonderful impetus to 
the other steps toward making St. Paul a finer city and a better one in 
which to live and do business. 

Above all, a new force has been created for the upbuilding of the 
city. Every citizen has a larger confidence in its industrial and commer- 
cial progress, as well as in its advance along all lines that make for a 
better citv in which to live. 


Proposed Improvements 

Other important betterments, to be realized at an early date, and cer- 
tain to have beneficent results affecting even the distant future are : 

A new charter, inaugurating '"the commission plan." 

An improved lighting system. 

Much sewer construction. 

New playgrounds and the commencing of work on the Capitol ap- 

Several new club houses and other large buildings. 

Pronounced activity on the part of the Association of Commerce and 
the Commercial club, in their fine, new quarters. 

The utilization of the Government high dam, now under construction 
at the Soldiers' Home, to generate enormous electrical power to be dis- 
tributed throughout the city for manufacturing plants. 

Four new high schools in operation, and a smooth running public 
school system. 

A new belt line opening up the Northern border of the city to more 
convenient access — also crosstown lines. 

Two new interurban lines connecting the city with southern points 
in the state. 

Easy financial conditions resulting from the enormous crops harvested 
in all the vast tributary region, in 1912. 

Prosperous conditions in the realty market. 

The erection of a fresh-air school. 

The completion of the Wilder Charities building. 

Extended outreach of the St. Paul Institute. 

These are a few of the local propositions now in hand, and of the 
favorable omens of general prosperity, which make for better conditions 
and increased business for our fortunate people. On a broader field the 
steady development of our tributary resources and our lines of communi- 
cation, yield even more assured promise of a golden future. 

New Lines of Communic.\tion 

The building of the Panama canal seems destined to alter all the cur- 
rents of trade and of interest in this continent. Thus the stupendous 
work of man will make possible the long intention of nature. For na- 
ture intended that the lines in this continent should be drawn, not from 
east to west as they have been, simply because that is the way men have 
traveled for centuries, but north and south, as the contour leans. If 
the world did not want this thing to come, the time to prevent was when 
the canal was still on paper. 

The completion of the Panama canal will afifect St. Paul, through this 
diversion of the currents of trade — and whether favorably or otherwise 
depends, to some extent, on the advance preparations made for it. Bet- 
ter connections with the Gulf of Mexico, by rail and by river will be re- 
quired. Proposed new harbor improvements here ; the building of the 
high dam above St. Paul ; the deepening of the channels of the Missis- 
sippi : the inauguration of barge lines ; and the opening up of two or more 
direct railway systems from St. Paul to New Orleans or Galveston, are 
presumptive achievements of the near future. The solution of the water- 
way problem, on the carrying side, is the barge. Not only giants of 4,000- 


ton capacity (400 by 40 feet, nine-foot draft) but little 100 and 200 ton 
barges will find their place in future development of Western rivers. 
Connecting links of railway are being put in. A Denver paper said in 
July, 1912; "James J. Hill's vision of a great new railway from the Pacific 
to the Gulf of ^Mexico via Denver is about to be realized. His north and 
south route lacks but two little links, which are to be built as fast as man 
and machinery can prepare the roadbed and lay the track." The St. Paul 
Pioneer Press, of concurrent date, says : "The proposed purchase of the 
Iowa Central Railroad by the Minneapolis & St. Louis road, the merger of 
those lines and their extension into Canada is announced. The new line, 
with the traffic agreement with the Gould lines, will furnish an outlet to 
the Gulf ports for the produce and merchandise of the most productive 
area in the nation. St. Paul and the tributary territory is certain to profit 
commercially and industrially by being made one of the most important 
points on the new system connecting Canada and the Northwest with 
the Gulf of -Mexico." Another newspaper announcement of the same 
period, that "the Grand Trunk Railway System will enter St. Paul, and is 
negotiating for land on the West Side flats," may have direct relation to 
the scheme last referred to. 

Trebutary Agricultur.\l Resources 

The future of St. Paul is assured by the wealth and variety of the 
natural resources found in its tributary country, destined, as they mani- 
festly are, to be exhaustively developed by an industrious and intelligent 
population, domiciled therein. About 26,500,000 acres of the land in the 
state is in farms, but only 18,500,000 have been turned by the plow. Mi- 
nesota still afl:'ords over 25,000,000 acres in its virgin state. 3,000,000 
acres of public lands are obtainable at public sale at prices ranging from 
$5.00- per acre up, of which but 15 per cent is exacted as a cash payment, 
the balance being payable in forty years and drawing interest at four 
percent. A feature of the agricultural development of this great region 
has been the scientific methods which prevail for the conservation of the 
land. Profiting by the examples of the abandoned farms in the East, the 
Northwestern farmer, who perhaps was born and reared upon an old 
wornout farm in New England, took early precutions against the pos- 
sibilities of similar conditions in the new territory, and the state author- 
ities are cooperating with the farmers in this matter. Instead of con- 
centrating their efiforts upon the production of an annually decreasing 
yield per acre of a single grain the farmers are trying to see how great 
a variety of crops may be raised. 

■Minnesota's Timber Wealth 

In the recent years Minnesota has been giving so much attention to 
farming, dairying, mining, horticulture and other efiforts to woo rewards 
from the soil that the popular mind will probably be surprised at the 
report of State Forester Cox that the mature, marketable timber of the 
state has a value of at least $975,000,000, or about as much as the na- 
tional debt of the L^nited States. This takes into account only the timber 
which is ripe for the market and has no reference to the future resources 
of that kind which are capable of unlimited development through a proper 
protection of the existing timber areas and intelligent reforestation. 

Most of the land now covered with marketable timber is probably too 
valuable to warrant its retention for timber-growing purposes, but a 


proper system of reforestation on lands less suited for agricultural and 
other purposes would, in a few years, give the state a standing asset of 
timber land worth in the neighborhood of a billion dollars, or worth as 
much as the capitalization of the United States Steel corporation, which 
controls the steel industry of America and practically dominates the steel 
business of the world. This is an asset worth preserving and encourag- 

Incalcul.'^bly Valuable Mineral Deposits 

The people of the country gasped a little when they heard how steel 
properties owned by Andrew Carnegie jumped in value $100,000,000 or 
more at a time during the formation of the United States Steel corpora- 
tion. The world sympathized with the Merritts when they told of the 
many millions they did not get. Yet the figures, while amazing, did not 
mean much to many readers. 

It has remained for James J. Hill and Minnesota to furnish the truly 
startling example of the Midas-like transformation. Mr. Hill estimated 
that in his ore lands in this state there are 400,000,000 tons, worth 
$600,000,000 to $800,000,000. Probably $700,000,000 would be a con- 
servative estimate. 

Within a decade he and his associates, by the expenditure of a com- 
paratively small sum, have obtained control of wealth Minnesotans never 
suspected, and the magnitude of which they can grasp only in a vague 
way. The sum of $700,000,000 means nothing definite to most of us. 
The immensity of it is appreciated in some measure when it is considered 
that it is more than five times the assessed valuation of all the property in 
St. Paul; that it is almost three and a half times the assessed valuation 
of all the livestock, machinery, furniture, merchandise and other personal 
property in the state; that it is approximately three-fourths the value 
of all the farms and city real estate ; that it is more than four times the 
value of all the crops raised in Minnesota fields in one year. 

The natural resources of the Mesabi range and the magnificent facili- 
ties in the way of machinery which exists there for the purpose of de- 
veloping and transporting them have no equal in this country. There is 
no place in this world where so much natural wealth is assembled as on 
the Mesabi range and there is no country in which such magnificent 
machinery is employed to handle mineral. And then the grand 
$25,000,000 steel plant at West Duluth which, as we write is approach- 
ing completion, which will enable the state to reap the industrial advan- 
tages of its imperial mineral resources, which will add 40,000 wage 
earners to Minnesota's population and which is but the forerunner of 
other similar enterprises — all this adds to the importance of our affluent 
tributary region. 

Water Powers and Electrical Development 

Another natural resource, still in the earliest stages of its apprecia- 
tion and use, is the enormous wealth of water power furnished by the 
streams of Minnesota, all capable of convenient and profitable employ- 
ment in the generation of electricity for transmission to the cities, villages 
and farms — there to be consumed in a thousand productive instrumental- 
ities of modern civilization. Whatsoever the unfathomable future may 
have in store for human advancement by wringing electrical currents 
from the clouds of the sky, the winds of the forest and prairie, or the 
tides of the sea, there is already full demonstration before our eyes, that 


the flow of our creeks and rivers may be harnessed and converted into 
potential energ}-, by methods undreamed of in the recent past. 

Many difficulties have been overcome and others are being sur- 
mounted every day. It was found that through contact an electric light 
could be produced. The difficulty at first was to find how to make and 
how to break that contact in order to turn the light on and off. 'Morse 
experimented with electricity and gave us the telegraph. Edison ex- 
perimented, discovered something new about it and gave us the incan- 
descent light. Dr. Graham Bell experimented, discovered something else 
and gave us the telephone. Dr. Hertz paved the way for wireless teleg- 
raphy by his announcement of the principle of the Hertzian waves. 
Then Marconi proceeded to harness these electric waves and gave us 
wireless telegraphy, and Dr. Frederick Collins has followed with the 
wireless telephone. 

So looking backward for fifty years we realize that within that period 
man has succeeded in perfecting such a harness for electricity that he has 
accomplished many things which were once seemingly impossible. This 
line of reasoning applies to the harnessing of this mysterious force, so 
that, as is now predicted, we will in time completely overcome the forces 
of gravity. By this means, railroad trains, relieved of part of their 
weight, will travel faster and easier owing to the enormous reduction of 
friction. Steamships will skim across the ocean instead of having to 
plow through it. Aerial craft will be rendered absolutely and practi- 
cally independent of planes for buoyancy. By simply increasing or de- 
creasing a current of electrical waves they can be raised or lowered or 
kept stationary at the will of the operator. 

Even some of the older electrical arts are still undeveloped. Take 
the storage battery, for instance. The time is ripe for a signal improve- 
ment. One can confidently announce the coming, and very soon, of a 
new principle which will mark an epoch in the development of this 
branch of electricity. 

Electrical engineers promise for the cities, smokeless skies, railless 
street cars and domestic comforts now unknown, from the imminent 
expansion of man's knowledge of the generation and transmission of 

And to the agricultural districts will come added conveniences, re- 
duced labor and increased production beyond the dream of the intensive 
farmer of today. Field motors and barn motors and kitchen motors 
will replace the muscular strain on horses and men, and women, trans- 
forming life on the farm into a pleasurable and profitable career. Now 
comes George Westinghouse, the great inventor, with the statement 
that we are on the eve of stupendous achievement due to the scientific 
use of electricity so that there may be stimulation of the soil. In his 
opinion this is now beyond the experimental stage. Tests have been made 
upon tracts of land of considerable area, each one of which was sown 
or planted exactly as the other was. One was treated to an electric cur- 
rent of about one hundred thousand volts of very high frequency. The 
other tract was cultivated by ordinary intensive methods. The experi- 
ments, which were continued for five or six years, showed an increase 
of about fortv per cent in wheat crops grown upon the electrified plot 
as compared with the crops produced upon the unelectrified tract. 

With these multiplied new uses for electricity, and the vast possibil- 
ities of new sources of supply, the importance of the innumerable water- 
power sites in St. Paul's vast tributary regions, as a contributory re- 
source for the unlimited growth of the city, will be more apparent. The 


available waterpower of the United States at minimum flow, is approxi- 
mately 36,000,000 horsepower, and this can be increased five or six 
times by suitable storage facilities. A recent government report states 
that 6,000,000 horsepower has been developed in the United States for 
electrical and other industrial purposes. Minnesota, the water-shed of 
the continent, has its full allotment of the rapidly flowing streams that 
furnish water-powers. Her enterprising citizens will not be dilatory 
in finding productive employment for them. 

Nation.-\l Consider.\tions. 

To the varied and potent influences we have referred to, which com- 
bine, in augmented force and with the increasing efi^ect to give undeni- 
able assurance of St. Paul's splendid future, there are other considera- 
tions of a more general or national character, that bring their added quota 
of encouragement. This is an era of progress and reform. Men are be- 
ing led to see that the function of government is not to magnify the 
importance of commercial development at the expense of the people as 
a whole, but rather to establish just and equable relations between all 
classes and interests, to the end that all may have an equal opportunity 
to become useful, happy and progressive citizens and escape the demor- 
alizing influence of poverty. The relations of the government to the cor- 
poration, of the government to the people, and of the people to the cor- 
poration are in process of readjustment. For centuries utilities have been 
conducted by private capital. The firm succeeded the individual. The 
corporation took the place of the firm. Then came the amalgamation of 
firms and corporations into virtual monopolies, and the recapitalization 
of the whole upon a tremendously inflated basis. The people, the con- 
sumers, the men who pay the bills, have revolted at last. They are 
searching for remedies that shall be just to all the interests involved; they 
will find and apply those remedies. The result will be a new and more 
permanent measure of general prosperity, whereof the golden heart of 
the continent, the business heritage of St. Paul, will get its share. 

For, in all this aggressive movement, the middle west and the new 
northwest, have taken the lead. For many reasons, the crescent social 
forces of our time triumph West of the Alleghanies, sooner than East, and 
many policies, now distinctively western, will be accepted in the end, as 
American. One discerning writer has pointed out that the Middle West 
stands for certain things the East does not understand and needs to 
have interpreted to it, because the elements in its thinking are not the 
same. There are several important points of difference : 

1. The \\'est owns half the capital it uses. The East owns most 
of its own capital and half of the capital in the West. This makes the 
ownership interest stronger in the thought and policy of the East, 

2. The tariff-bred manufacturing interests are more numerous and 
influential in the East. 

3. The West is a century nearer its frontier experiences and still 
cherishes much of its pristine democracy. 

4. Eastern people of fortune are more closely in touch with the 
Old ^^'orld aristocracy and its pleasure-seeking ideals. The Western- 
bred rich who remain West are still strongly tinged with the yearning 
for achievement or usefulness. 

5. The incipient caste spirit of the East is stimulated by the pres- 
ence of great numbers of low grade, un- Americanized, and therefore ex- 


ploitable, immigrants. The immigrants in the West are less squahd, help- 
less, and deferential — they are more speedily and more thoroughly Amer- 

6. The culture of the East is more concentrated, specialized, ripened. 
and thorough; but the common people there are not so well-read, self- 
confident, and self-assertive, as those of the West. 

For the triumph of the dominant social forces of tomorrow, the in- 
terpretation of the coming gospel of progress and patriotism, what con- 
stituency is so well equipped as the intelligent and prosperous population 
of the magnificent empire tributary to St. Paul. 

A Dream of the Future 

We cannot, perhaps, better close this chapter and this volume, than 
by an abridgement of a seeming rhapsody, but probably only an actual 
prevision falling short of coming realities, printed in the Pioneer Press 
in June, 191 1, entitled "Looking Backward in 1916." 

Looking forward in 191 1, what optimist would have ventured to 
predict the greatness that is ours in this year of 1916? 

The loom of Destiny has plied a mighty traffic in these five years, yet 
leaves vast portions of the pattern but vaguely outlined yet. 

Standing in front of the magnificent Union Depot, who would think 
that only five years ago we scofifed and said. "It will never be." 

The Doubt of Yesterday has become the Faith of Today and the 
Promise of Tomorrow. 

All over this city is the glory of the completed dream of a generation 
ago. Upon the beginnings made by the pioneers we have built far to- 
ward a perfection they never could foresee. 

Father Hennepin, standing beside the Falls of St. Anthony, caught in 
a dream that pierced the future with prophetic reaches, never contem- 
plated a fraction of what we see and possess today. 

And five brief vears ago the enthusiastic boomers, confident of a to- 
morrow which should find St. Paul the teeming center of a new West, 
did not perceive how superlatively we should achieve what they aimed 

Rising above our doubts then we pressed onward to the present goal. 
And today, with new problems before us for solution ; with our horizons 
pushed far out, our possibilities greatly increased, and our responsibilities 
accordingly crowding upon us more insistently than ever, we begin to 
ask "What of the next five years?" And the answer comes from the 
last five years : "Just go ahead and do things." 

We conquered obstacles then, we can conquer them again. 
The material beauty of St. Paul is very great ; our new buildings, our 
factories, our stores, our homes, all these things impress us as they 
impress the stranger within our gates. But back of them all is the 
something which is greater — the one really great thing we have accom- 
plished. That is the unified spirit of St. Paul — the bond of a comomon 
purpose and common hope uniting all elements of our society into one 
community of interest and effort. 

Standing on a street corner in the year 1910. Charles W. Ames spoke 
with enthusiastic hope of the future of the St. Paul Institute, which 
he had helped to found and establish. He dreamed that it might grow 
to be a vital force in the civic life of St. Paul. He was enthusiastic 
then. But measured against the reality of today that dream of igio 
seems sadlv and curiously small. 



The splendid New Library has obliterated the memories of the ding}' 
old building at Seventh and Wabasha, and become a symbol of popular 
education, attracting the attention of the whole country, and making 
possible the realization of many of our community culture schemes. 

The New Cathedral, standing now complete and perfect on its com- 
manding hill, lealizing in its beauty and service the life-long hope of 
that splendid pioneer i:)riest, John Ireland, has drawn thousands to our 
city to see here a triumph of architecture such as has not been sur- 
passed in the story of any ancient people. 

The mighty river that for ages has swept past our doors has been 
humbled and turned aside, and the great levee and the countless ring- 
ing rails thrill us with the hum of modern commerce as its leaping ac- 
tivities serve mankind in ways our fathers never imagined. 

The State Capitol, improved little by little, has approached at last that 
splendid completeness which its great architect planned, the wide high- 
way of light leading from its doors through the city. 

The Natatorium has just been completed, as an integral part of the 
Civic Center movement, and nothing like it exists in America as yet. 

The dividing line between St. Paul and Minneapolis has been wiped 

The four interurban lines which only five years ago seemed to be the 
very acme of public service, have been augmented by an express line. 

Greatest of all is the urban street car system, with its own terminals 
where the old Alannheimer building once was on Third street. And con- 
necting with it a dozen suburban lines that thread the southern portion 
of Minnesota, connect St. Paul with the immediate life of hundreds of 
thriving towns and villages, and place the merchant of our city at the 
very front door of the farmer. 

Life, eager and abundant, thrills in our veins ; our skyscrapers rise 
toward the skies ; our parks blossom, our stores teem with industry, our 
joblaers ply their traffic across a whole continent and into the far north of 
the dominion. Above all these, and founded upon them, rise our beau- 
tiful homes, first pride of the city, and our efficient schools setting a 
mark for all the world to follow. 

Yet even this is not the end. What will the next five years be ? Who 
shall say? Looking upon St. Paul in this year 1916, looking back to 191 1, 
and peering into the unknown future, we can only cry as we try to pic- 
ture our ultimate destiny: 

"I only know it shall be high 
I only know it shall be great." 


Vol. n— 1 5 


Arnold Schwvzek, M. D. America owes much to Swiss stock and 
has honored and been honored by many gifted and noble men and women 
of this extraction. Few native sons of Switzerland have proved a greater 
honor to their adopted country than Arnold Schwyzer, a prominent St. 
Paul physician and the scion of an old family whose history is traced 
to the Middle Ages. Dr. Schwyzer, who is a man of education and train- 
mg, vast experience and remarkable native ability, has been identified 
with this city since December, 1891. From 1908 until March, 191 1, he 
served as Swiss consul for the states of Minnesota, North and South 
Dakota, ^lontana and Wyoming. 

Dr. Schwyzer was born on May 23, 1864, in Baar, county of Zug, 
Switzerland, and is the son of Colonel Arnold H. and Catherine (Iten) 
Schwyzer. As mentioned, the family is old and has had citizenship in 
the free city of Zurich since 1401. The subject's ancestors were the 
banner-bearers of Zurich at the battle of IMurten in the year 1476 ; at 
the battle of Marignano in the year 1515; and the battles of Kappel in 
the years 1529 and 1531. As his parents were in good circumstances, 
young Arnold was destined to receive a good education, which was found- 
ed upon six years attendance in the common schools and six and a half 
years in college. He early decided to adopt as his own the medical pro- 
fession and in preparation for the same attended the Universities of 
Geneva and Zurich. He subsequently went to Edinburgh, where he had 
for a short time the advantages of instruction from world-renowned 
physicians. He took the Swiss state examination as physician and sur- 
geon on March i, 1888, and in the same year was made first lieutenant 
of the medical corps of Switzerland. In 1890 he received his diploma as 
Doctor of Medicine. From 1888 to 1889 he was an assistant in the county 
hospital of Glarus. Switzerland, and in the years 1890 and 1891 he acted 
in like capacity at the University Women's Hospital of the city of Zu- 
rich. Thus his medical studies, including his hospital assistantship, 
which were of a varied character, consumed nearly a decade, lasting 
as they did from the fall of 1882 until the fall of 1891. The result has 
indeed justified the preparation, for he is today one of the most valuable 
physicians in the northwest, acute in his perceptions, widely read in his 
profession and skillful in applying his acquirements to practical use. In 
addition to his general practice he holds tlie position of surgeon to St. 
Joseph's Ho.spital; and gynecologist to St. Luke's. In the year 1909 Dr. 
Schwyzer was president of the Ramsey County Medical Society. In 
1899 he was clinical professor of surgical jiathologj' and later on until 
1907 he was professor of clinical surgery at Hamline Univcrsit\-. 


(^ ^yL^oU^^Y^ . 


Dr. Schwyzer was married in Zurich, his ancestral city, in 1899 to 
Hanny Henggeler, daughter of Colonel Adolf Henggeler, her demise oc- 
curring a few years later. Zurich was also the scene of his second mar- 
riage in 1906, when Marguerite Mueller, daughter of Colonel Mueller, 
chief instructor of the Swiss cavalry, became his wife. Dr. and Mrs. 
Schwyzer share their home with two children, Marguerite and Gustav 

Dr. Schwyzer has himself been allied with Mars as well as Aescula- 
pius, having served while living in Europe as first lieutenant in the Swiss 
army. In 191 1 he was appointed first lieutenant of the Medical Reserve 
Corps of the United States of America. He and his wife are members 
of the Swiss National Protestant church. 

August Radatz. New Canada township is the home of some of the 
best farmers of Ramsey county, whose efforts have ever been directed 
towards the development of their community and the betterment of exist- 
ing conditions. August Radatz, who carries on operations on an ex- 
cellent tract of 193 acres, located in section 2, belongs to this class. He 
was born in Prussia, Germany, August 27, 1855, and is a son of Ferdinand 
and Louisa (Priebe) Radatz. 

Mr. Radatz was seven years of age when he was brought to the United 
States by his parents, and the journey across the ocean took seven weeks 
and three days. They first located at Cleveland, Ohio, where Mr. Radatz 
received a good common school education, and when he was fifteen years 
old, in 1870, the family came to Minnesota, where Ferdinand Radatz pur- 
chased forty-five acres of land at seven dollars per acre, and on this wild 
tract erected a little log shanty of two rooms and a log barn. Later, in 
1876, he bought eighty acres more, at fifteen dollars per acre, and in 1886 
he sold his land at sixty dollars an acre and moved to St. Paul, eventually 
going to Otter Tail county, Minnesota, where his death occurred when he 
was seventy-nine years of age, his wife having passed away on the old 
homestead in 1882. 

In 1878 August Radatz bought ninety-two acres of land, at about 
twenty dollars an acre, and two years later, November 7, 1880, he was 
married in St. Paul to Miss Hulda Gehrmann, of Oakdale township, 
Washington county. She was born in Prussia, Germany, daughter of 
Frank and Henrietta (Ott) Gehrmann, who came to St. Paul in 1869, in 
which city Mr. Gehrmann worked at his trade of brick-layer. In 1877 
the family went to Oakdale township, where Mr. Gehrmann purchased 
one hundred acres of land, paying twelve dollars an acre for twenty acres 
and fifteen an acre for eighty acres, and in 1886 sold this land at fifty 
dollars an acre and moved to St. Paul, where both he and his wife still 
reside, being about eighty years of age. At the time of his marriage Mr. 
Radatz put up a house at a cost of about $200 and moved into it, but his 
wife's health not being very good, he left the farm and went to St. Paul, 
where they resided for about ten years. During the land boom he sold 
off twenty acres of his property at $230 an acre, and at that time tore 
down his old buildings and put up new ones, at an expense of about 
$4,000. Soon thereafter he bought forty acres of land in the same lo- 
cality at fifty dollars an acre, twenty-two acres at forty-five dollars an 
acre, and eighty acres at forty an acre, and he now has 193 acres, all in a 
fine state of cultivation. In 1909 he put up a barn thirty-four by sixty- 
six feet, with a good basement under all, and the water is piped thereinto 
as it is into the house. ^Ir. Radatz is one of the most progressive of 

678 ST. PAUL AND \'1CI.\ITN 

farmers and an excellent liusiness man. I le holds the confidence and es- 
teem of his neiglibors, and takes a pride in what he has accomplished. 

Nine children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Radatz, of whom five 
died in infancy, while the survivors, all of whom live at home, are Ernest, 
Lily, Fred and Frieda. iMr. Radatz is a Republican in his political afiilia- 
tions but has not been an ofiice seeker, although he has ser\ed as school 
treasurer of his home district for some time, and refused to allow his 
name to be used as a candidate for the office of county commissi.oner. 
lie and his wife and children are consistent members of the (German 
Lutheran church of North St. Paul, of which he was a trustee for twenty- 
seven years and then resigned. 

Edward Cr.-\ig Mitchell. One of the greatest losses that the city 
of St. Paul was called upon to sustain during the year of 191 1 came to 
her in the death of the Reverend Edward C. .Mitchell, who was pastor 
of the New Jerusalem church of St. Paul. He was not only a theologian 
and scholar, but as a minister he was deeply in earnest and in his belief 
that religion was meant to be used seven days in the week and not one, 
he did a great work in bringing the religious life of his people closer to 
their practical working lives. As a scientist he was widely known, his 
collection of archc-eological relics being one of the most valualjle individual 
collections in the country. It is not as a scientist and scholar that the 
citizens of St. Paul hold him in their memories, but as a philanthropist 
and practical sociologist. The kindergartens, the day nursery, societies 
lor the relief of the poor, in all of these he was the leader and organizer. 
Regardless of self, profoundly conscious of the needs of society and of 
his duty to society, he was an inspiration to those men who were in 
earnest and willing to work but who had neither his insight and knowl- 
edge of conditions nor his selflessness. This is why he is so deeplv 
mourned by the city, for though the great majority of the people did not 
know him jiersonally yet they had felt his uplifting influence. 

Edward Craig Mitchell was born in St. Louis, Missouri, on the 21st 
of July. 1836. He was the son of Edward Phillips ^Mitchell and Elizabeth 
(Tyndale) Mitchell. His father was a native of Salem, Roanoke county, 
Virginia, and for six generations the family has been represented in the 
Old Dominion. His grandparents on both sides were descended from 
old English families, his mother, who was born in Philadelphia, being 
descended from a brother of the famous William Tyndale who suft'ered 
martyrdom for his great work in the translation of the Bible into the 
English language. John Tyndall. the noted English physicist, was also 
a member of this family. When young Edward was five vears old his 
father removed to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and went into the mer- 
cantile business. He later became interested in linancial matters and was 
president of the Commonwealth P.ank of Philadelphia. He was some- 
thing of a scholar and was the author of several books. Edward C. 
!\Iitchell was the second of the three sons of his parents. His eldest 
brother is Judge James Tyndall Mitchell, of Philadelphia, who has been 
editor of the American Law Rcc/istcr atul was chief justice of the su])reme 
court of Pennsylvania. 

Central high school, Philadelphia, was the school in which Edward C. 
I\litchell received his elementary education. Here he took his A. B. 
degree in 1836. ,ind in 1861 he received his A. M. degree. He also at- 
tended the law school of the I'niversity of Pennsylvania, and he was 
graduated fi-oni this institution in 1859. Tie was admitted to the bar the 


same year, but turned from the law to the ministry. Therefore, during 
the years of 1859 ^"'^l I'^^o he practiced law while he was studying for the 
ministry. He was ordained as a minister in the Church of the New 
Jerusalem on the ist of October, i860, and began at once his active minis- 
terial work, which was to last for fifty years. 

Until 1863 he preached in Philadelphia, at Frankford. He was then 
called to Providence, Rhode Island, where he remained until 1865. The 
following year was spent at Pawtucket, Rhode Island, and then he was 
transferred to North Bridgewater, now Brockton, Massachusetts. In 
1869 he took charge of a church in Detroit, Michigan, where he remained 
until 1872. In April of that year he came to Minneapolis, Minnesota, 
where he lived until, in 1876, he moved to St. Paul. He remained in St. 
Paul for the remainder of his life, though from 1872 until 1880 he spent 
about as much time in Minneapolis as in her sister city for he had charge 
of churches in both cities. In 1880 he was made pastor of the New 
Jerusalem church in St. Paul. When he first came to St. Paul he held 
iiis services in the lecture room of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, but by 1876 the numbers and enthusiasm of the society had so in- 
creased that they bought the old First Methodist church on Market street, 
between Fourth and Fifth streets. This historic old edifice, which was 
built of the first bricks ever made in St. Paul, they refitted, and here 
Reverend Mitchell held services vmtil his congregation outgrew the 
church. In 1887, therefore, their present place of worshi]), at the corner 
of Virginia and Selby avenues, was built. 

The legal training of Reverend Mitchell gave him a logical mode of 
thought. He appealed to the reason of the people rather than the emo- 
tions, but it was said of him that his sermons were "written from the head 
and spoken from the heart." He was a student, yet he did not yield to 
the temptation of the student and speak in complexities. His language 
was simple, and no matter how abstruse might be his thought he suc- 
ceeded in translating it into the simplest and clearest language. He is the 
author of several works on difl^erent phases of religion. The "Parables of 
the Old Testament Unfolded," which is an interpretation of the spiritual 
meaning of forty of the parables, was his first. The "Parables of the Old 
Testament Explained" is another, and his latest work was "Scripture 
Symbolism." He spent the short time allowed him for recreation in 
scientific investigation. He gathered during the years between 1847 and 
1906 twenty-one thousand five hundred relics, representing many difi^erent 
kinds of stone, shell, horn, copper, bone, pottery and wood utensils. He 
presented the collection to the Minnesota Historical Society, and it now 
forms the most important part of their archaological museum. He had 
stone arrow-heads, knives and axes, and a number of aboriginal skulls 
from Minnesota ; cojjper implements from Wisconsin ; a remarkable cache, 
or hiding hoard of one hundred and ninety-two spearheads nearly alike, 
all found buried together, from Ohio ; from Arkansas and Arizona, In- 
dian pottery ; and from Alaska, articles of horn, ivory and bone. The col- 
lection fills fourteen cases and includes an interesting exhibit of coins from 
one to four thousand years old, and an interesting collection of polished 
stone implements from Denmark. This collection represents a vast 
amount of work and study, and when one thinks that it was only done 
during the leisure moments of Reverend Alitchell, some estimate of the 
enormous working capacity of the man may be formed. 

To turn to the field in which he was most deeply interested, the welfare 
of humanity, he was an active worker in many charitable and benevolent 


societies, of which only the most imiiortant may be mentioned. He was 
the originator of the free kindergartens of St. Paul, and was president 
of this movement until it was given into the charge of the public schools. 
The St. Paul Relief Society owes its existence to his efforts, and he was 
]jresident and chairman of the executive committee for several years. He 
also founded the St. Paul day nursery, and was for many years vice- 
])resident of the Humane Society for the prevention of cruelty to chil- 
dren and animals. A number of the great patriotic societies can claim 
him as a member, these being the Society of the Sons of the American 
Revolution, of which he was a charter member and an ex-chaplain ; the 
Societv of Colonial Wars of the State of Minnesota, of which he was also 
chaplain : and the Society of American Wars. He was a prominent mem- 
ber of the .Minnesota Historical Society and was a member of the board 
of managers. He was a member of the Peace Society of America, and in 
the scientific world held membership in the National Geographic Society, 
the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Science, and the St. Paul Academy 
of Science, of which he was president. He was likewise a member of 
the American Institute of Civics, and of such dissimilar organizations as 
the Young Men's Christian Association and the Commercial Club of St. 
Paul. The mere recital of this long list of associations in all of which he 
was active, is sufficient evidence of the broadmindedness of the man and 
of his progressive ideas. He endeavored to keep abreast of the great 
change that is taking place in economic, social and religious thought, and 
if any man could succeed he could. The work that he accomplished is the 
best proof that he did succeed. 

Reverend Edward C. Mitchell and Miss Louise C. Fernald were mar- 
ried on the qth of May, 1865, and it was on account of her ill health that 
he came to Minnesota. She did not live long and in 1876, on the 8th of 
July, he married Annie lungerich, a daughter of Louis C. lungerich. who 
was a prominent banker and capitalist of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
Mrs. :\Iitchell died in 1898. at the age of sixty-two years. Her husband 
died on the 8th of December. 191 1, at St. Paul, at the age of seventy-five. 
Their only son, Walton I. Mitchell, is now one of the leading physicians of 
Wichita. Kansas. He was born in St. Paul. Minnesota, on the 26th c)f 
December. 1877, and received his early education in the high school of his 
home citv. He then attended the University of Minnesota, where he was 
graduated in T900, with the degree of B. S. Having determined to stucly 
medicine, lie went to the Hahneman Medical College and Hospital in 
Philadel])hia. where he received the degree of M. D. in 1903. The two 
succeeding vcars he spent in study and practice in the Metropolitan Hos- 
intal in New ^'ork Citv. He was married on the 25th of June, 1901. to 
Blanche Crawford, a daughter of George D. Crawford, of Hagerstown. 
Maryland. Dr. and Mrs. Mitchell have two children, .'\nnie L. who was 
horn on the 23d of July. 1902. and Walton C. whose birth occurred in 
November. 1903. on the 7th of the month. 

CoNST.xNTiNE J. McCoNviLi.K. Notabl)' prominent among the suc- 
cessful business men of St. Paul is ConstantJne J. .McConville. the wealthy 
merchant and land owner. Mr. McConville's father before him was in the 
mercantile business. Both ^Michael McConville and ^lary (McDuft'ey). 
his wif*. were natives of Ireland : both are now deceased. Their son who 
is the subject of the present sketch, was born in New York City. He was 
educated in the public schools of that national metropolis and in the Col- 
lege of the Citv of New York. Mis first vocational em])loyment was in 


the New York dry goods house of WilHam H. van Slyck, who was the 
father of the well known George Finch van Slyck. In 1872 young Mc- 
Conville came to St. Paul. His intelligent grasp of all business details 
and his popularity with all customers was such that he soon became prac- 
tically invaluable to the company with which he associated himself, and 
on the first of January, 1888, he was made a member of the firm. When 
the company was reorganized eight years later he was made vice-presi- 
dent. And after the death of George R. Finch he succeeded, in June. 
1910, to the position of head of the firm. It is needless to comment on 
the standing of the house, the quality of its merchandise or the extent of 
its patronage, for the superiority of each is well known to all residents of 
St. Paul. 

Mr. McConville's accessory commercial activities are indicated by his 
relation to each of the following organizations : the Provident Loan Com- 
pany, of which he is president ; the White Bear Land Company, in which 
he holds the same ofiice ; and the Association of Commerce, of which he is 
one of the directors. He is a very popular club man, being a director of 
the Commercial Club and a member of the Minnesota Club, of the Town 
and Country Club, the Auto Club and the White Bear Yacht Club. 

The family life of Air. AlcConville is closely connected with St. Paul 
and St. Paul society. His first marriage was with .Mary J. Corrigan of this 
city; she died in 1890, leaving one daughter, Adelaide. His second mar- 
riage occurred in 1895, when Margaret Mae Butler, of St. Paul, became 
Mrs. McConville; their children are Constance M. and Clarence B. Mr. 
McConville and his family are among the most prominent members of the 
Roman Catholic church of this place. He is taking an especially important 
part in the plans and progress of the building of the new cathedral and is 
also a member of the Catholic Club of New York City. 

John W. Finehout. The early pioneer stock of St. Paul, consisting 
of unusually staunch and noble men who made their way into the new 
country and' laid the paths of civilization, straight and clean, is now rapidly 
disappearing, although here and there remains some fine patriarch not yet 
summoned to the Undiscovered Country whose memories bridge the past 
and present. Their sons are now leaders in the many-sided life of the 
city and representative of its most admirable citizenship, and among them 
none is more worthy of esteem than the gentleman whose name in- 
augurates this review, — Judge J. W. Finehout, for ten years judge of the 
St. Paul municipal court. Selected because of his supposed special fitness 
for the office, he has demonstrated in his continuous service in the position 
that there was wisdom and good judgment in the selection, and the ex- 
pectations involved in making it have been fully met in the capable and 
faithful performance of official duty. He is a veteran of the Spanish- 
American war and possesses several other pleasant distinctions in addi- 
tion to his prestige as a member of St. Paul's splendid judiciary. 

Judge P'inehout was born in St. Paul on August 2, 1873, the son of 
Henry Finehout, a native of the state of New York. The father was 
born at Fort Plain, ^Montgomery county, that state, in 1819. He became 
a railroad contractor and came to the new St. Paul when a young man, 
one of his earlv honors being the building of the first railroad into the city 
from the east — the Chicago & St. Paul Railroad, the same being com- 
pleted in 1870. So greatly was he impressed with the possibilities of future 
greatness for St. Paul that he decided to locate here and he became the 
first general superintendent of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail- 


road. However, his health becoming im])aired, he again went on the road 
and was an official on the Omaha Railroad until his retirement from 
active life. He also built the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad. 
The demise of this well-known and highly honored man occurred on June 
24, 1900, when over eighty years of age. His is a name which deserves 
a high place in the records of the pioneers of Ramsey county, where it is 
preserved and increased in honor by his worthy descendant. Judge Fine- 
hout's mother, whose maiden name was Catherine A. Cowan, is a native of 
Ireland and is still living, making her home at 595 Olive street. Of the 
three children born to her and her husband, the subject is the only one 

For his preliminary education Judge Mnehout is indebted to the public 
schools, the Franklin school having been the scene of his first introduction 
to Minerva. After finishing. its curriculum he entered Shattuck .Military 
Academy at Faribault, Minnesota, from which he was graduated in 1891. 
His first experiences as an actual factor in the work-a-day world were in 
connection with the railroad business, primarily in the office of the Omaha 
Railroad and then with the Great Northern. In the meantime he had 
decided upon his career, and his nights and all spare minutes were utilized 
in studying law. He concluded his preparation in the state university and 
from that institution received his bachelor of law degree in 1898. For 
some time previous to his graduation he was chief clerk in the legal de- 
partment of the Great Northern Railway. Upon the outbreak of the 
Spanish-American war, when patriotism became no longer a mere rhet- 
orical e.xpression, he enlisted and was made senior captain of Company 
B of a Minnesota regiment.- In the following year he was mustered out at 
Augusta. Georgia. For several years previous to his enlistment he had 
been connected with the First ]\Iinnesota National Guards. 

Upon his return from warfare Judge I'inehout took up his practice of 
the law and succeeding years have measured an eminently successful and 
useful career. For a time he was in the office of C. D. & T. D. O'llrien, 
one of the best-known law firms in the northwest. Mr. T. D. O'Brien sub- 
sequently serving on the supreme bench of the state. In September the 
subject was appointed assistant corporation attorney and shortly thereafter 
was appointed city prosecutor, serving until 1902. when he resigned to 
become a candidate for judge of the municipal court. He was elected 
and re-elected in 1906 and 1910. In 1906 he and Mayor Keller were the 
only Republicans elected to office. Judge I'inehout has the distinction of 
being the only man three times elected to the office of municipal judge. 
Since his earliest voting days he has been a loyal Rei)ublican and has ever 
since been one of the most active participants in the party's councils and 
campaigns. At present he is openly identified with the progressive wing 
of the party and devotes considerable time aiding in the work that is being 
attempted by the so-called insurgents. 

Judge iMuehout is of that type which finds pleasure and profit in asso- 
ciation with his fellowmen and he has a number of fraternal connections. 
fie belongs to the ancient and august Masonic order and has "traveled 
east" with the .Shriners. He holds menibershi]i with the Benevolent and 
Protective Order of Elks, the Commercial Club, the Junior Pioneers, the 
Woodmen and numerous other organizations. He is a director of the 
East St. Paul Commercial Club and is interested in all matters affecting 
the civic welfare. 

This "veteran" has not yet l)cco!ne a recruit to the ranks of the 



Honorable Walter H. Sanborn, LL.D. One of the ablest and 
most distinguished members of the judiciary of the United States re- 
sides in St. Paul, Walter H. Sanborn, United States circuit judge and 
presiding judge of the United States circuit court of appeals of the 
Eighth judicial circuit, in population, in area and in varied and impor- 
tant litigation the largest circuit in the nation, comprising the thirteen 
states, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska, Col- 
orado, Wyommg, Utah, Missouri, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma and 

Walter H. Sanborn was born on October 19, 1845, in the house in 
which his father and grandfather were born, on Sanborn's Hill in Ep- 
som, New Hampshire. His great-grandfather, who was state senator 
three terms, representative eight terms and selectman twenty years, 
built this house, which has long been Judge Sanborn's summer resi- 
dence, in the year 1794, and it and the farm upon which it stands have 
descended to the eldest son of the family since 1752, when Eliphalet 
Sanborn, a soldier of the French and Indian and of the Revolutionary 
war and clerk of the town in the memorable years 1773, 1775, 1776 and 
1777, and selectman in 1772, 1773 and 1774, settled upon it. Honorable 
Henry F. Sanborn, the father of the Judge, was selectman of his town 
six years, representative and a member of the state senate in 1866 and 
1867, when that body consisted of but twelve members. He entered 
Dartmouth College, but failing health compelled him to return to the 
farm and to the outdoor life. His mother, Eunice Davis Sanborn, of 
Princeton, Alassachusetts, was a grand-daughter of that Thomas Davis 
who served under Prescott at P)unker Hill, took part in the battle at 
White Plains, was one of the victorious army which compelled and wit- 
nessed the surrender of Burgoyne, served through the war and was one 
of the soldiers present whom Webster addressed as "Venerable Men" 
at the laying of the corner stone of the Bunker Hill monument in 1825. 

Walter H. Sanborn spent his boyhood and his youth in manual 
labor on the homestead farm, except when he was attending school and 
college, until he was twenty-two years of age. He was fitted for college 
in the common schools and academies of his native county, and entered 
Dartmouth College in 1863. During his four years in college he_ taught 
school five terms, was elected by all the students of the college in 1866 
one of two participants in the annual college debate, led his class for 
the four years and was graduated in 1867 with the highest honors as its 
valedictorian. He received from his college in due course the degrees 
of A. B. and A. M., on Tune 19, 1893. Dartmouth College conferred 
upon him the degree of Doctor of Laws and in 1910 he was elected 
president of the Association of the Alumni. 

From February, 1867, until February, 1870, he was principal of the 
high school in Milford, New Hampshire, and a law student in the office 
of Hon. Bainbridge Wadleigh. afterwards LTnited States senator. In 
February, 1870, he declined a proffered increase of salary, came to St. 
Paul. Minnesota, and in February, 1871, was admitted to the bar by the 
supreme court of Minnesota. On May i. 1871, he formed a partner- 
ship with his uncle, General John B. Sanborn, under the firm name of 
John B. and W. H. Sanborn, and practiced with him for twenty-one 
years, until on ]\Iarch 17, 1892, he was commissioned LTnited States 
circuit judge. He was one of the attorneys in several thousand law- 
suits and leading counsel in many noted cases. 


111 politics he is a Republican. In 1890 he was the chairman of the 
i\c[jublican county convention and for fifteen years before he was ap- 
pointed a judge he was active, energetic and influential in every politi- 
cal contest. In 1878 he was elected a member of the city council. In 
1880 he removed his place of residence to St. Anthony Hill and in 1885 
he was elected to the city council from that ward, which was the wealth- 
iest and most influential in the city. From that time until he ascended 
the bench he was re-elected and served in that position. He was vice- 
president of the council and the leading spirit on the committees that 
[jrepared, recommended and passed the ordinance under which the cable 
and electric system of street railways was substituted for the horse cars. 
When he entered the city council there was not a foot of pavement or 
cement side-walk on St. Anthony Hill, but under his energetic super- 
vision that hill, as far west as Dale street, including .Summit avenue, 
was paved, boulevarded and supplied with cement side-walks. He was 
treasurer of the State Bar Association from 1885 to 1892 and presi- 
dent of the St. Paul Bar Association in 1890 and 1891. 

It has been said of him that he has done more in recent years to 
make St. Paul famous than any other man. Since he has been on the 
bench he has delivered some of the most important and influential 
opinions ever rendered in this country, opinions so broad and compre- 
hensive, so replete with legal learning as to constitute in reality clear, 
vigorous and authoritative treatises upon their respective subjects. Con- 
spicuous among these are his opinion on the power of railroad com- 
panies to lease the surplus use of their rights of way in the Omaha 
Bridge cases, 2 C. C. A. 174, 51 Fed. 309; his definition of proximate 
cause and statement of the rules for its discovery and the reasons for 
them in Railway Company v. Elliott, 53 Fed. 949, 5 C. C. A. 347 ; his 
declaration of the effect by estoppel of the usual recitals in municipal 
bonds and rules for their construction in National Life Insurance Com- 
pany V. Huron, 62 Fed. 778, 10 C. C A. 637 ; his treatise on the law of 
patents for inventions in his opinion in the Brake-Beam case, 106 Fed. 
918, 45 C. C. A. 544. which has been cited and followed by the courts 
in many subsequent decisions and has become a leading authority upon 
that subject, his opinions in United States v. Railway Company. 67 
Fed. 948 and in Howe v. Parker, 190 Fed. 738, setting forth and illus- 
trating the quasi judicial power of the land department and the rules 
governing the avoidance of its patents and certificates and many others 
that cannot be cited here. He has delivered more than eight hundred 
opinions for the circuit court of appeals, in number more and in vol- 
ume greater than any circuit judge since the fotmdation of the govern- 
ment, opinions that in clearness of statement, strength of reason and 
of diction are equalled by few and that disclose an intuitive sense of 
justice, a profound and accurate knowledge of the law and an amount 
of labor that have rarely, if ever, been excelled. 

The great national judicial issues iluring the last twenty years have 
concerned the supremacy and extent of the jjrovisions of the constitu- 
tion of the Ignited States and the enforcement of the federal anti-trust 
act, and upon these questions Judge Sanborn's opinions have been pio- 
neer and formative. It was he who. while a practicing lawyer, argued 
before the Minnesota legislature, the unconstitutionality of the bill for 
the "dressed beef act" and after its enactment challenged it in the 
United States circuit court and in the supreme court of the I'nited 
States and sustained his position that it was violative of the commercial 


clause of the national constitution, (see In Re Barber, 39 Fed. 641, 
Minnesota v. Barber, 136 U. S. 313) and it was he who, in 191 1, when 
the state of Oklahoma by legislation and by refusal to permit transpor- 
tation across its highways, undertook to prevent the export of natural 
gas from its borders, in a logical and luminous opinion established the 
proposition subsequently adopted by the supreme court that "neither a 
state nor its officers by the exercise of or by the refusal to exercise any 
of its powers may prevent or unreasonably burden interstate commerce 
in any sound article thereof." Haskell v. Cowham, 187 Fed. 403, 221 
U. S. 261. 

In 1893, before the national anti-trust act had been construed by the 
courts of last resort, it became the duty of Judge Sanborn to interpret 
it and he delivered an exhaustive opinion to the effect that it was in 
reality an adoption by the nation of the common law upon the subject 
of combinations in restraint of trade, and that under it those combina- 
tions only that were in unreasonable restraint of competition and of 
trade violated it and that in each particular case the restrictions under 
the facts and circumstances presented must be considered in the light 
of reason. Trans-Missouri Freight Assn., 58 Fed. 58. In 1896 the su- 
preme court by a vote of five to four reversed that opinion and adopted 
the view that every restraint whether reasonable or unreasonable rend- 
ered a combination unlawful, 166 U. S. 291. Fourteen years later, how- 
ever, that court by a vote of eight to one abandoned that conclusion and 
adopted the view originally taken by Judge Sanborn, Standard Oil 
Company v. United States, 221 U. S. i, and it did so in a case in which 
the opinion it was reviewing was written by him and affirmed by that 
court. These and other like opinions have established his reputation 
throughout the nation as one of the ablest jurists of his time. 

In addition to his labors in the court of appeals the administrative 
work of the circuit has fallen upon him. There are nineteen district 
judges and courts in the Eighth circuit and it is his duty to supply the 
places of judges disqualified and to assign the district judges to the 
courts where their services are most needed. As a part of his admin- 
istrative work, and of a quasi judicial character, he has successfully 
conducted great receiverships and operated great railroads, the Union 
Pacific from 1894 to 1S98 and the Great Western in 1908 and 1909. In 
the management of the receiverships of the Union Pacific and its twenty 
allied railroads he collected through his receivers and applied to the op- 
eration of the railroads and the distribution to creditors more than two 
hundred and sixty millions of dollars without the reversal of a decree 
or order or the loss of a dollar. 

In Free Masonry he wrought long and faithfully to reach and to 
teach the lofty ideals of liberty, fraternity and justice the members of 
its order seek to attain and he commanded their respect and confidence. 
He was elected eminent commander of Damascus Commandery, No. i, 
of St. Paul, the oldest commandery in the state and one of the strong- 
est and most famous in the land in i88fi, 1887 ^"fl 1888, and in 1889 he 
was elected grand commander of the Knights Templar of the state. 

On November 10, 1874, he was happily married to Miss Emily F. 
Bruce, the daughter of Honorable John E. Bruce, of Milford, New 
Hampshire, and ever since 1880 they have maintained their town home 
in spacious grounds, shaded by more than twenty native oaks and elms 
at 143 Virginia avenue, St. Paul, and their summer home at the old 
homestead on .Sanborn's Hill in Epsom. New Hampshire. Their chil- 

686 ST. PAUL AND \1C1X1TY 

dren are Mrs. Grace (Sanborn) llartin, wife of Air. C. G. Hartin, Mrs. 
Marian (Sanborn) \"an Sant. wife of Mr. Grant \'an Sant. Mr. Bruce 
W. Sanborn, attorncv at law. and Mr. Henrv F. Sanliorn. all of St 

Judge Sanborn is a member of the Minnesota Club, the Commercial 
Club and the Minnesota Historical Society. 

Allan Keene Pruden. Among the imi^ortant enterprises which are 
solid resources of St. Paul's commerce and industry, the St. Paul Rooling. 
Cornice & Ornament Company and the Metal Shelter Company deserye 
special consideration. Their founder and president. Mr. Allan K. Pruden. 
has been for forty )-ears a progressiye business man of this city, and it is 
due to his energy and ability that the present business was deyel'oped from 
small beginnings. 

Born in Dayton, Ohio, Xoyember 13, 1850. son of Sylyester and Mary 
A. (Kittredge) Pruden, he received his early education in the public 
schools and then in Antioch College of Ohio. Coming to St. Paul, he 
established at 20 East Third street a business in stoves and house furnish- 
ing goods, which he conducted during 1874-76. From a small retail estab- 
lishment he developed this to a large supply house. F^rom 1881 to 1901 he 
was president and treasurer of the Pruden Stove Company, manufac- 
turers" agents and jobbers. In 1894 he organized the St. Paul Rooting, 
Cornice & Ornament Company, of which he is president and treasurer. 
This company has enjoyed seventeen years of increasing prosperity. It 
manufactures sheet metal, architectural work, steel ceilings, metallic 
interior tinish, fire-proofing, etc. He was the originator of rock-faced 
metal siding and introduced to this vicinity metal building fronts, metal 
window frames and sash, metal-covered interiors and exteriors, door 
frames and fire-proof and fire-retarding construction. In 1910 he invented 
and patented the "Pruden System" of Portable Fire- Proof Buildings and 
incorporated the Metal Shelter Company of which he is president. This 
system was pronounced the first strictly fireproof portable building ever 
devised. The business offices are located at South Wabasha and Water 
streets. A large number of skilled workmen are employed, and the annual 
volume of business has been increasing every year. 

Mr. IVuden served as president of the St'. Paul Commercial Club <lur- 
ing 1899 and 1900. and is one of its active members in furthering the sub- 
stantial interests of the city. He is a Scottish Rite Mason and Shriner. 
He was married in St. Paul, December 3, 1873, to Miss Emma Hare. 
Their home is at 604 Ashland avenue. They are the parents of the fol- 
lowing children: Leigh, Paul B. and Mrs. Jesse Neal, all residing in St. 

William Ltxdeke. The commercial history of St. Paul has been 
adorned by some notable figures, men with a high genius for business, with 
the integrity which is at the basis of all permanent commerce, and with a 
disinterestedness of attitude and etifort in behalf of civic welfare that has 
had large benefits. One such character was the late William Lindeke. 
vvhose death removed an eminent business man and splendid type of 

Mr. Lindeke had been a resident of St. Paul since 1857. Beginning 
as a youth without other means than his native intelligence, business sense 
and industry, he rose step by step to rank among the most successful men 
m the annals of St. Paul. Born near Berlin, (';ermany, October i, 18^5. 


educated in the common schools and working for his father until he was 
eighteen, he then sought larger opportunities by coming to the new world; 
Arriving at Montreal in June, 1854, and from there coming to Wisconsin, 
he spent two or three years in different employments, and in the summer 
of 1857 located at St. Paul. Minnesota was then closing the territorial 
period of its history, and St. Paul was a comparatively small town on the 
northwest frontier. With the remarkable historical progress made in the 
city and state during subsequent decades, his own career kept pace. 

His first work was in the saw-mill of Pierre Choteau Jr. & Company; 
Colonel J. S. Prince being the manager. A year later he was transferred 
to the same company's grist mill, and learned all the details of milling, 
a business in which he himself was to gain large prominence. He next 
became miller for the Winslow Mills of Gibbons & Marshall, and when 
Mr. Marshall erected the City Mills on Trout Brook near Lafayette ave- 
nue, he was promoted to head miller of this plant. In 1863 he leased this 
mill from JNIr. IMarshall, and the next year bought a site on what was then 
called Territorial road, now East Fourth street, where he erected his own 
plant, called the Union Mill. For the next three years he managed both 
mills, and sold the product almost entirely in the city, and then continued 
the Union Mill for twenty years. In the meantime he had acquired a large 
amount of land along Trout Brook between Fourth and Eighth streets, 
and with the growth of the city this became completely surrounded by 
the railroads. In 1886 he sold part of this property, including the Union 
Mills, to the Northern Pacific Company, reserving the privilege of running 
the mill until his new plant on East Seventh and Brook streets was com- 
pleted. The latter mill be had built against the advice of his family, 
but his judgment proved sound. The new mill was a model of the kind 
and one of the best in the northwest, and was managed by Mr. Lindeke's 
brother Frederick. So popular was the mill's product that every barrel 
of it was sold within the city. 

While Mr. Lindeke laid the foundation of his fortune in milling, he 
was also interested in various other enterprises. He established, in 1871, 
with his brother Albert H., a retail dry-goods store. In 1878 he engaged 
in the wholesale dry-goods and notion business, under the firm name of 
Lindekes, Warner & Schurmeier, which for years was one of the strongest 
firms in the wholesale district of St. Paul. The other members of this firm 
were Albert H. Lindeke, Reuben Warner and Theodore L. Schurmeier. 
These able merchants started the business on a modest scale and built it up 
until it was one of the largest establishments of the kind west of New 
York and had an annual trade of five million dollars. Mr. Lindeke was 
also vice president and a large stockholder in the National German Ameri- 
can Bank of St. Paul, and his financial and business interests extended 
into many lines. 

As a citizen he gave his business judgment and influence to the 
public good when ever possible. His public service included several terms 
as county commissioner, member of the board of water works, and in 
connection with various public institutions and enterprises. He was a 
member of the board of directors of the Chamber of Commerce. 

jNIr. Lindeke was united in marriage to Miss Rosa Brabek, who, with 
four children, survives him. The children are Frank, William, Rosa and 
Emma, and the tamily home is at j/ Central avenue. Both during her hus- 
band's life and since Mrs. Lindeke has taken a very energetic part in carry- 
ing out their ideals of practical philanthropy. This generosity manifested 
itself in "many unremembered acts of love" rather than in the flourish of 


public donations, but it has continued a constant and liberal stream for 
many years, helping and blessing many hundreds of the unfortunate. 
Both in his family antl to the public the late Mr. Lindeke was a benefactor, 
and as a successful business builder was actuated by motives of large 
accomplishment and public service rather than a selfish aggrandizement. 
He and his wife have been prominent members of the St. John's German 
Evangelical Lutheran church, and their names are associated with many 
movements and organizations undertaken in the name of social good and 
religious progress. 

WiLLi.\M L. Ames. The death of William Leonard Ames, on Septem- 
ber 29, 1910, removed from the citizenship of St. Paul a resident who had 
spent sixty years in the city and whose life activities possessed the valu- 
able quality of public service mingled with private prosperity. He was a 
citizen of high success and integrity, and his sudden death shocked the 
affections and regard in circles of acquaintance much wider than his own 
family and personal friends. 

The Ames family contributed invaluable pioneer service to ^linnesota. 
It was William L. Ames, Sr., who established the family here at the earl\ 
year of 1850, and during the following twenty years, while his son William 
was growing to manhood, he performed an important part in the improve- 
ment and progress of this region through his work as a farmer and stock 
raiser. He took up land in the vicinity of St. Paul and was operator of 
several farms, and was also quite extensively engaged in the lumber 
industry. His large and successful farm, including the present Hazel 
Park site near St. Paul, was a practical advertisement for Minnesota as 
an agricultural region and in the early days was of great value in this 
respect. It is said that the senior ]\Ir. .\mes introduced the first Short- 
horn cattle into this state. He was a charter member of the Territorial 
.Agricultural Society, and after it became a state organization he served a> 
its president and in other official relations. He was also interested in the 
St. Paul & Pacific Railroad, and was director of an insurance company, 
and very active in many important affairs. His wife was Amelia Hall, 
and previous to their settlement at St. Paul their home had been in 
the state of New Jersey. 

At their home in Franklin Furnace, New Jersey, January 10, 1846, 
was born William L. .\mes, Jr., who was four years old when the family 
located in Minnesota. His primary education was obtained in the public 
schools of St. Paul, and in 1859 he was appointed a cadet to the United 
States Naval Academy at Annapolis, where he remained three years. 
Among his classmates was Admiral Robley D. Evans. He returned to 
St. Paul in 1862, in time to participate with a company of St. Paul 
volunteers in the campaign against the Siou.x Indians. He spent some 
years in association with his father, and then in 1870 engaged in the 
live-stock business in \\'yoming, Colorado and Texas. His father died 
on February 8, 1873, and the son then returned and took the active 
management of the noted Ames farm. To older residents this splendid 
improved estate of twelve hundred acres was a familiar feature of the 
St. Paul suburbs on the east side, and it is now identified as the sites 
of Hazel Park and Hazel Heights. Mr. Ames continued to conduct 
the farm for a number of years and maintained its operation on the same 
high scale as his father. He erected his beautiful home, since identified 
as 1667 Stillwater avenue, where he lived with his family until his death. 

In platting the beautiful suburban community of Hazel Park, ^Ir. 


Ames did a notable work of improvement for the city by furnishing 
admirable sites for new homes and business houses and extending the 
growth of the city. As a real estate enterprise his management of this 
undertaking might well serve as a model for all such ventures. He dis- 
posed of his building lots at very reasonable prices and on the most liberal 
terms. He assisted many a worthy man in securing a home, and was 
always generous and obliging to a fault. It was this disposition to make 
his business of service to his fellow citizens that gave Mr. Ames such a 
high place in the regard of this community. He was a man of gentle 
and unassuming character, and won friends in all his personal and 
business relations. 

His domestic life was one of rare felicity. He was married on the 
2ist of December, 1874, to Miss Helen Fitzgerald, who survives him and 
continues to maintain the beautiful home at 1667 Stillwater avenue. They 
had no children of their own, but a niece of Mrs. Ames, Florence John- 
son, was reared in their home, and she is now the wife of Otto Wach- 
smuth, of St. Paul. Mr. Ames was also survived by a sister. Miss 
Amelia, of Boston, and a brother, Herbert, of Gray Cloud Island, Min- 
nesota. Mrs. Ames was a daughter of Michael and Kathryn (McCart- 
ney ) Fitzgerald, who came to this state from Canada. Her father was 
a lumberman and shipbuilder of prominence in Canada. He died while 
bringing his family to Minnesota, and the family then settled in St. 
Paul, where the mother spent the rest of her life. Three of the four 
children in the Fitzgerald family are still living : Mrs. Ames ; Thomas, 
a farmer; and Mary, now ^Irs. Sampson. 

The late Mr. Ames, in addition to his important work rendered 
through his regular business, also took his share of civic responsibilities. 
He was a member of the legislature during the session of 1891, served 
as county commissioner of Ramsey county, and was president of the 
St. Paul board of public works in 1899 and 1900. His career was one 
of varied interest and usefulness, and no history of St. Paul's citizen- 
ship would be complete without a record of his life. 

Albert Moore. In every community in Ramsey county, Minnesota, 
there are found men who have risen above their fellows in business and 
political life, not because they have had better advantages, but because 
their natural abilities created opportunities of which they were quick to 
take advantage. In a section like this, where good and reliable men are 
easily found, he who has been given preferment above his fellows has 
indeed achieved honor, for he has proven himself a person whom any 
man might trust. Albert Moore, one of the self-made men of Ramsey 
countv. is now filling the responsible position of superintendent of the 
Ramsey County Alms House, located five miles northeast of St. Paul, 
and has shown himself worthy in every way of the trust reposed in him. 
He was born in the town of Cape Vincent, Jefferson county, New York, 
March 28, 1862, and is a son of Charles H. and Ann Moore. 

Charles H. Moore was born in England, and came to the United 
States as a lad of twelve years, locating at Cape Vincent, where he 
was married, his wife being a native of Kilkenny, Ireland. In 1874 the 
family came to Minnesota, locating in Anoka county, where Charles H. 
Moore was engaged in agricultural pursuits during the remainder of 
his life. Albert Moore was given a common school education in the 
schools of Jefferson county, New York, and Anoka county, Minne- 
sota, and was reared to the hard work of the farm. On attaining his 


majority he began lo work in the kiinljer business for Minneapohs lirms, 
and followed this occupation for about twenty years. During this time 
he saved his wages carefully, his early training having been along the 
lines of frugality, industry and economy, and in 1902 invested j«rt of 
his savings in a residence located at No. 1309 Summer street, Alinnea- 
polis, which he now rents. In 1906 he bought a residence at No. 846 
York street, St. Paul, and later purchased the houses at Nos. 859 Fre- 
mont street and 1136 Ross street, and in 191 1 he became the owner of 
the home at No. 1090 East Minnehaha street, all of which he rents. In 
addition to the above Mrs. Moore has purchased out of her earnings a 
home at No. 853 Conway street, which is occupied by a tenant. 

In 1902 Mr. Moore came to St. Paul and for about three years had 
charge of the horses for Pratt's Express Company, and on December 
27, 1905, was appointed superintendent of the Ramsey County Alms 
House, a position which he has since continued to hold. This appoint- 
ment Mr. Moore secured strictly on his own merits and it cannot be 
charged that political obligations stood behind it, as in public matters 
he takes an absolutely independent stand, his allegiance being given to 
the candidate and not to the party he represents. Under his manage- 
ment there have been some wonderful improvements made in the county 
property, all of which have won the unanimous approval of the Uoard 
of Control. Everything about the place is absolutely in the finest pos- 
sible condition, and the buildings are models of neatness and order. 
In the large, well-lighted, well-ventilated, hygienic barns are kept over 
forty head of Holstein cattle, which furnish milk not only for the in- 
stitution, but for the city hospital as well. The pig sty and minor 
buildings receive the same care and attention that are given to the 
others and Mr. Moore has reduced the management of this trust to a 
science. Everything that can be done for the comfort of the unfortunates 
under his care is carefully attended to, and he has an able assistant in 
Mrs. Moore, who not only attends to the general overseeing of the place, 
but makes it a part of her regular work to do the sewing and darning, 
and to look after the sick and feeble in a motherly way that has won 
for her the afifection of all the inmates of the home. 

On June 6, 1886, Mr. Moore was married to Miss Sarah Lynch, who 
died in Minneapolis in 1896, leaving two children: Celia, who married 
Carl Schramm, of 1508 Nicolet avenue, Minneapolis; and Sarah, who 
married Fred Maxwell, living at 12 Highland avenue, Minneapolis, and 
has two children. On December 27, 1905, Air. Moore was married 
(second) in Centerville township. Anoka county, Minnesota, to Miss 
Annie Jane Hughes, who was born in England, daughter of John and 
Ann (James) Hughes, and was six years of age when she accompanied 
her parents to this country. Air. Aloore belongs to North Star Lodge. 
No. 40, I. O. O. F., at Alinneapolis. 

P.\UL E. Earringer. Dr. Barringer's life is a proof that valuable 
as adversity may be as a discipline and a spur to development, it is by 
no means necessary to success and high achievement that one experience 
it. The only child of well-to-do parents, Paul Barringer's career has 
been without the hardships which poverty entails upon the less fortu- 
nate. But as comfort did not in any sense represent the end of exist- 
ence to him, the possession of it did not incline him to feel that there 
was nothing in particular to work for. Rather, possessing the advan- 
tages which bis parents' industry had made possible for liini to enjoy 

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without eft'ort, he felt that he had all the greater reason to work for dis- 
tinction and that his obligation to do the kind of work which counts was 
doubly great. 

Almon N. Barringer, the father of the Doctor, was a native of Wis- 
consin. He came to St. Paul in 1879 and engaged in the real estate 
business. His wife was formerly Pauline B. Pfitzer, of New Ulm, 
:\Iinnesota. The father died in 1907, on March 6. Mrs. Barringer is 
still living, in good health, and resides in the city. Paul Barringer was 
born December 26, 1884, and graduated from the St. Paul high school 
in 1903. He then entered the Minneapolis College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, from which he graduated in 1907 with the degrees of M. D. 
and C. M. For nine months after his graduation he was interne in 
St. Joseph's Hospital and then began his practice, being first associated 
with Dr. S. S. Hesselgrave. This partnership lasted for two and a 
half years and then Dr. Barringer went into an office by himself. He 
is now located at 423 Robert street and is a general practitioner, though 
he specializes in surgery. 

Dr. Barringer is a Republican, hut has not found leisure from his 
professional studies and duties to take any active part in politics. He 
belongs to all the medical associations — the county, state and the Amer- 
ican — and, though very young, has made a reputation in the ranks of the 
profession as one whose future is assured by his interest in his work 
and his more than ordinary ability in it. 

William Lincoln Henderson, head of the firm of Henderson, Bass- 
ford & Company, bankers and brokers, has been identified with the busi- 
ness and financial activities of St. Paul for many years. In fact he grew 
to manhood in the atmosphere of finance, having laid the foundation for 
his later success while a boy clerk and employe in one of the old and 
well known houses of this city. 

Mr. Henderson is a native of Little Rock, Arkansas, where he was 
born February 10, 1870, a son of E. E. and Mary (Campbell) Hender- 
son. His parents moved to St. Paul in 1881, and this city has been his 
home and the scene of his subsequent business career. His schooling was 
obtained in Arkansas and in St. Paul, and in 1884 he entered the banking 
house of M. Doran & Company. He rose to large responsibilities with 
that firm and remained one of their trusted representatives until 1905. 
On the 1st of July, 1905, the businass of Henderson, Bassford & Com- 
pany was inaugurated as a new institution of the financial district, and he 
has devoted his energies to its successful management ever since. Mr. 
Henderson is a member of the Chicago Board of Trade. The offices of 
his firm are in the Germania Life building. 

He is a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, and his fraternal 
connections are with the Royal Arcanum and the Order of Elks. His 
principal recreation is motoring. His residence is at 956 Hayne avenue. 
Mr. Henderson married, at St. Paul in 1897, Miss Anna Ryan. 

John D. Roberts, whose ability and reliability in his line are so well 
known, is one of those men whose energies and time have been faith- 
fully devoted to a most important branch of human industry, that of 
practical mechanics. He is a native of Ohio, having been born in Wells- 
ville in that state on June 30, i860. His parents were David Wynn and 
Elizabeth Roberts, the former being a butcher by occupation. Mrs. 
Roberts, who is still living, resides at Parnassus, Pennsylvania. 


John Roberts" earliest scliool-days were spent at a district school 
known by the suggestive name of Possum Hollow. At the age of ten 
he exchanged rural scenes for the busy atmosphere and industrial interest 
of Irondale. Ohio, to which place liis parents removed in 1870. .\t the 
age of sixteen he made his first venture into the world, going to Ports- 
mouth, Ohio, where he was employed in the steel mills. In 1878 he 
accepted a position in a hospital for the insane at Columbus, Ohio. He 
left this situation to take charge of the machinery of the Burgess Steel 
and Iron Works in Portsmouth. In the spring of 1879 he resigned the 
latter position to install the machinery in the Craft and Boling Steel Mill 
at Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania. In the same plant he had charge of a 
steam hammer and also acted as millwright. During the same year he 
accepted a position with the Macgregor Machine Company of Chicago, 
which he continued to hold until his removal to St. Paul, on tlie fourth of 
January, 1882. 

Mr. Roberts was at that time still a young man, his enterprise and 
activity having been such as to bring him a variety of experience in his 
line that were afterward of much value to him. He became a permanent 
resident of St. Paul, where the major part of his life has been spent. 
where his family life has been lived, where his widest circle of friends 
has been made and where his greatest usefulness has been accomplished. 
He was for a number of years the efficient and highly respected foreman 
of the firm of Rogers and Davis, 182 East Fifth street. In that capacity 
he continued for several years, changing it only to become a member of 
the firm, when in 1887 Davis had severed his connection with the 
organization. The partnership between Mr. Roberts and the remaining 
former member lasted until 1894, when the entire plant passed into the 
hands of the subject of this biography. For eleven years the firm was 
known as the Roberts-Cioss Company, after which, in the year 1905, 
Roberts sold out to his partner. .Since that time he has been engaged 
in the occupation of consulting engineer on systems of steam and hot 
water heating. This work he has continued until the present time. 

Mrs. Roberts, nee Jennie Roberts, was a native of Wisconsin and a 
daughter of Robert and Elinor (Thomas) Roberts. Since the marriage 
of Mr. and Mrs. Roberts, on October 8, 1885, four children have been 
born to them, three daughters, Elizabeth R., Edith ^M. and Margaret E., 
and a son, Robert E. 

Mr. Roberts has various social •and business affiliations to sujjple- 
ment his vocational and home interests. He is a member of the Masonic 
order and of that of the Knights of Pythias. He is vice president of the 
Builders' Exchange and holds the offices of both vice president and 
treasurer of the Metal Screen Cottage Company. He is a member of 
the National Association of Stationary Engineers. Among his acquaint- 
ances his name is synonymous with thoroughness and consistency. 

Reverend Cii.\rles Gordon .\mes, D. D. .\s a clergyman prominent 
in west and east, as an editor influential in state journalism, as an author 
of deep and delicate appeal, as a philanthropist and friend of rare quality. 
Dr. Charles Gordon Ames has been so widely known as to be considered 
a national figure. Although a comparatively brief portion of his long and 
eminently notable career of eighty-four years was spent in Minnesota, 
the impress left by him on the plastic young community in its formative 
years, together with the more recent and now current distinguished 
service to the city in many capacities of his son, Charles W. Ames of .St. 


Paul, has earned a more elaborate tribute in these volumes than we have 
data to present. 

Dr. Ames was born in Dorchester, Massachusetts, October 3, 1828. 
He was educated in the public schools of New Hampshire and later at 
Geauga Seminary in Ohio. At the age of fourteen he became a printer's 
"devil" in the "Morning Star" office at Dover, New Hampshire, where he 
learned the printer's trade. He was ordained a minister- of the Free 
Baptist church in 1849, and ten years later he passed into the Unitarian 
denominational fold. His degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred 
upon him by Bates College in i8g6. To these conventional dates we add 
those of his first marriage. March 28, 1850, to Sarah J. Daniels, and. 
after her death, of his second marriage. June 25, 1863, to Fanny Baker, 
of Cincinnati; and that of the event which closed his earthly existence — 
April 15, 1912. Such a series of figures in most cases sums up the 
important details of a man's life. Of Dr. Ames they tell comparatively 
little, and of his labors they indicate almost nothing. Nor can an ex- 
tended article do more than to attempt a chronologically tabulated inter- 
pretation of this exceptional life. 

Dr. Ames came to ^Minnesota as a missionary of the IJaptist church, 
in June, 1851. He built a church in Minneapolis and became its pastor. 
In 1854 he established at St. Anthony, now Minneapolis East, a weekly 
newspaper called the Alinnesota Republican, and for three years was its 
aggressive, influential editor. He was a vigorous anti-slavery writer, 
and did much toward bringing the people of Alinnesota to a realization 
of the iniquities of the slave system. In his "History of Minnesota 
Journalism,"' Mr. D. S. B. Johnston says of Editor Ames : "He was a 
brilliant speaker, an able editor and a thoroughly conscientious man. 
His identification with Minnesota journalism was so prominent that in 
the chronicles of the Territorial era he ranks well up with Goodhue. Crof- 
fut, Foster, Wheelock and the other leading writers of the day." In later 
years, on the occasion of Dr. Ames' visit to ^Minnesota, he was a welcome 
guest at a meeting of the State Editorial Association. His editorial 
work led him temporarily into the political field. In 1857-9 it devolved 
upon him to serve as register of deeds of Hennepin county and he per- 
formed the duties of that office conscientiously and acceptably. 

But the life work of this variously talented man was that in which 
the related labors of clergyman, lecturer and author were blended. He 
held Unitarian pastorates successively in Bloomington. Illinois, in Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, in Albany, New York, in Santa Cruz and San Jose, California, 
in Germantown, in Philadelphia and in Boston. In the last named city, 
on January i, 1889, he succeeded the late Dr. James Freeman Clarke as 
pastor of the Church of the Disciples. His stimulating messages of 
spiritual and ethical purpose reached the public also through his lectures, 
for which his engagements were extensive. He was able to combine 
with other multifarious duties a second editorial responsibility, when in 
1877 he became the editor of the Christian Register of Boston, filling that 
chair for three years. He was a versatile though not a copious writer, his 
literary productions comprising poetic, critical and ethically philosophical 
material, the latter being often of an almost intimately concrete nature to 
his readers. His publications include "George Eliot's Two Marriages," 
which appeared in 1886; "As Natural as Life," 1894; "Sermons of Sun- 
rise," 1901 ; "Poems," 1898; and "Living Largely," 1904. 

A volume of "Prayers," published in 1908, is perhaps the most char- 
acteristic product of Dr. Ames' matured spiritual life. But the most 

694 ST. ]'AL"L AXD \1CIX1TV 

important of Dr. Ames' "literary remains," the one work of liis pen 
which will longest survive, and which will exercise the broadest and 
most permanent influence, is a single sentence — a form of church cove- 
nant, and a masterpiece of concise and comprehensive formulation ; 
"/;; the Io'l'c of Truth and the spirit of Jesus Christ, ar unite for the ■ccor- 
ship of God and tlie service of Man." This has already been adopted by 
more than a hundred churches (mostly L'nitarian ) ; and, as has been said, 
it might well become the basis of nonsectarian fellowship and union of 
all Christians of any theological belief. 

Dr. Ames was a man of such largeness of life, such breadth of useful 
activity, such wealth of service and experience as missionary, preacher, 
lecturer and author and. above all, so gifted with human s^mpathv as 
to have won the title of humanitarian. And, though Massachusetts at- 
tended his birth and witnessed his death, Minnesota eagerly enters the 
claim of having been the scene of his early endeavors, in which his char- 
acter was shaped and the foundation laid upon which was raised the 
superstructure of a remarkable career in which he touched thousands of 
human lives to help and uplift them. 

Such a man must needs be interested in ])ublic as well as personal 
affairs, and it is true that no cause which seemed to him righteous, 
whether a local or national or world movement, appealed in vain for his 
countenance. He had been an abolitionist ; he had been one of those who 
upheld the hands of Lincoln in the dark days of the Civil war. He pro- 
moted the cause of Booker Washington. He deprecated Cleveland's 
\ enezuela message, because he loved peace with honor. He was less than 
enthusiastic about the Spanish war ; and he could never be persuaded that 
we had any business in the Philippines. He had a profound concern 
for the public schools, an intense interest dating back to the days when 
the school committee consisted of a roomful of people, and could not 
always be redeemed to usefulness even b)- the wise, unselfish efforts of 
Dr. Ames, supported by Mrs. Ames and a few others. ( Something of 
the value of Dr. .\mes' sympathy to educators who came in contact with 
him is indicated in the fact, recently developed, that more than sixty 
teachers attended the Church of the Disciples.) The services he ren- 
dered the Boston Kew Voters' League were supplemented in numerous 
instances by good deeds to individuals whose uitfamiliarity with our 
language and customs made life in a strange country a severe experience. 
Alwavs at his pastoral receptions. fret|uenth- at his home, one might 
find representatives of half a dozen nationalities who were being gently 
guided into knowledge of American life. And in his denominational 
affairs, as well as his relations to the church universal, every act revealed 
the breadth of the man. 

During his last days while, in the city which had been the scene of 
his final responsibilities — which to him had ever been privileges — he was 
peacefully sleeping away the closing hours of his life, \Valter Leon 
Sawyer wrote for the Boston Transcript a sketch which is marked with 
sym])athetic understanding of the character of Doctor Ames. He begins 
bv quoting what he regards "the choicest tribute ever paid the good, 
great man who has so long engaged our sympathetic thought" — one 
which had been offered by the clergyman's son, C. ^^^ .\mes, of this city 
on the occasion of the celebration of Dr. Ames' seventieth birthday. To 
the members of the Church of the Disciples and other friends not of that 
fold who had united to commemorate the day of his father's birth, Mr. 
Ames had made the elo(|uently significant statement, "He has a gift for 


Iniman relations." And although the text was expanded by Air. Ames — 
who, by well-chosen reminiscences made tactfully impersonal, suggested 
the part his father had played as guide and comforter to persons who met 
him, as it seemed, once only and by chance. 

Something of the inner spirit of Dr. Ames was revealed in a sermon 
preached by him on the Sunday following his seventy-fifth birthday. It 
embodied this significant utterance: "T acknowledge my many bene- 
factors; and still they come. Stored in memory are instructions from 
many lands and times, and packed away in the interior tissues of being 
are the subtle influences by which life is nourished, even as by invisible 
gases and forces nourish the growing tree and build its solid fibre. 
Some have helped me by kindly recognition and generous praise ; others 
by friendly admonition and faithful reproof; a few even by that prickly 
and blood-letting sharpness of criticism which shows one the error of his 
ways and shames him away from his faults. But, as I have found by 
far the highest benefit in encouragement, it has been my ambition and 
prayer to be a wholesale and retail dealer in that medicine for the soul." 

William M. Liggett. A broad and useful life having tendrils of 
attainment and accomplishment in many different fields was the meed of 
Air. William AI. Liggett, one of the pioneers of St. Paul, well-known for 
his high and lofty aims and for his fidelity to the manifold interests en- 
trusted to him. He was born in 1846, in Union county, near New Cali- 
fornia, Ohio, and was the son of John and Polly (Laname) Liggett. Air. 
John Liggett was born in Pennsylvania, but like so many other young 
men he came west, locating on a farm near Marysville, Union county, 
Ohio. There his family of six children was reared. Air. William Lig- 
gett received his early education in the public schools and finished in 
Urbana, Ohio. 

So patriotic was the young student that when the Civil war threw the 
country into confusion he ran away from school to join a regiment, dis- 
playing the energy and daring which were such strong factors in the later 
successes of his life. He enlisted in the Ninety-sixth Ohio Infantry, in 
which he served faithfully until the close of the war. He was offered 
a commission to go to Texas, but he refused the honor. AVhen peace was 
once more brooding over the land. Air. Liggett pursued a finishing course 
in the high school at Urbana, Ohio, and was then otfered a position in a 
bank, which he accepted and filled most satisfactorily for several years. 
During this period he made his formal entrance into politics, being elected 
county treasurer over a large Democratic majority. 

Al^r. Liggett's extensive operations in the fields of finance and politics 
did not blind him to the military needs of his country. With Colonel 
Curry, he was instrumental in organizing the National Guard of Ohio. 
At the time of the Cincinnati riots Mr. Liggett, by this time lieutenant 
colonel of the Ohio National Guards, again grasped the opportunity to 
prove his devotion to the stars and stripes. With an exhibition of great 
bravery and daring his regiment saved the records of the county. During 
a struggle with the rioters Lieutenant Colonel Liggett was wounded so 
seriously that he was taken to a hospital. When his condition permitted 
he was removed to his home. 

When he again returned to the business world he formed a partner- 
ship to manage one of the largest stock farms in the state. In 1884 this 
corporation was known as Swift & Company in A'linnesota. In 1888 Air. 
Liggett was the recipient of an exceptional honor, Governor McGill 


appointing him a regent of the State University. Among other high 
offices for which Mr. Liggett's talents fitted him was the chairmanship 
• of the ]\Iinnesota School of Agriculture, the State Board of Agriculture 
and the Board of Farmers Institute. He was also a member of the execu- 
tive committee of the National Cattle Growers' Association. In 1890 
occurred his election to the secretaryship of the State Agricultural 
.Society. The wide-spread success of the Fair of 1890 was due to the 
foresight, energy and splendid executive ability displayed in Mr. Liggett's 
management. But the list of achievements is by no means complete, 
for even more honors were heaped upon him. By Governor Merriam he 
was placed upon the railroad commission of the state, later serving as 
chairman. He was a member of the executive committee of the National 
Society of Agricultural College Presidents for three years and after- 
wards, in 1892, was made president of this society, presiding at the annual 
meeting that year, which was held at Atlanta, Georgia. In 1893 he was 
requested by the Board of Regents to take the supervision of the Stale 
School of Agriculture, and in connection with this office 'Mr. Liggett 
devoted all his spare time to experiments in farming. His zeal, his wide 
knowledge and excellent administration led to his appointment as dean 
of the Agricultural School. Later he became director of the Experiment 
Station, to which office he was elected by the Board of Regents, October 
14, 1895. 

In addition to his service in educational fields. Mr. Liggett was a 
strong and influential attendant of the Presbyterian church, to which he 
made liberal contributions of both time and money. The Rawlins Post 
of the Grand Arm}- of the Republic at Minneapolis numbered him among 
its members. 

On July 3, 1876, was recorded the marriage of JNIr. Liggett and Miss 
Mathilda R. Brown, the daughter of Thomas and Mary (Root) Brown. 
Mrs. Liggett comes from the eminent family of which Mr. Elihu Root is 
a member. The Brown family has always played a prominent part in the 
civic and social life of Marysville, Ohio, and is one of the oldest families 
in that city. Four children have blessed the union of this distinguished 
couple: Madeline, the wife of P>ed L. Clarke; Robert I'rown, married to 
Miss Adele McClaron, of Duluth ; Walter W'., married to Miss Norma 
Ask, of Alaska, and residing in Tacoma, Washington ; and Gladys, the 
youngest, who remains at home. 

Mr. Liggett passed away on the 29th of August, 1909. His career 
exemplifies the success and honor accruing to those who altruistically 
put forth their best effort, whatever power they may have and all their 
strength and intelligence in behalf not only of their city, state and nation, 
but of their fellowmen. 

Lucius Frederick Hubb.\rd. Among those men who have so cred- 
itably acquitted themselves in the high office of governor of their state 
none stand higher in personal character, political integrity and in pa- 
triotic devotion to the nation in any crisis than does Lucius Frederick 
Hubbard. For many years he occupied the position of a leader in the 
Republican [)arty in Minnesota, and his labors for commonwealth and 
nation have been the tangible evidence of his high sense of duty and 
of his abiding love of the country. In the many important positions he 
has filled, as in the general assembly of the state, as chief executive of 
Minnesota and in legislative councils of tlie nation, his position has been 



one of unwavering support of his honest convictions, and his influence 
is always on the side of wise and honest government. 

General Hubbard was born January 26, 1836, at Troy, New York, 
and he is the eldest son of Charles F. and Margaret (Van Valkenberg) 
Hubbard. He is a direct descendant in the paternal line of George and 
Mary (Bishop) Hubbard, who became residents of ■ New England in 
the seventeenth century, the maternal side being of Holland-Dutch an- 
cestry that has been identified with the valley of the Hudson river since 
its earliest development. His maternal grandmother was Margaret Van 
Cott, a cousin of Martin Van Buren. Charles F. Hubbard was sherifif 
of Van Rensselaer county. New York, and was a man of high standing 
and influence in his community. He died when his son Lucius was 
three years of age, his wife surviving him for seven years, leaving the 
boy orphaned at the age of ten. Such schooling as he had received up 
to the age of ten years was supplemented by a three years' course of 
study in an academy at Granville, New York, and when he was fifteen 
years old he began to make his acquaintance with life as a breadwinner. 
He served a three years' apprenticeship at the tinsmith's trade, after 
which he passed three years in Chicago as a journeyman in that trade, 
and in 1857 he came to Minnesota. He soon abandoned his trade and 
became identified with newspaper work, and in 1859 he began the pub- 
lication of the Red Wing Republican, announcing himself as the cham- 
pion of the new party, established within the year or two preceding. 
His connection with newspaper interests soon brought him into a degree 
of prominence and his first political office was that of register of deeds 
of Goodhue county, which he filled for two years, and he also received 
the Republican nomination for state senator, but was defeated. The un- 
rest and dissatisfaction previous to the outbreak of the Civil war was 
a matter of close study to General Hubbard, and he was quick to en- 
list in the Union cause when hostilities opened. He became a private in 
the Fifth Minnesota Infantry, but did not long continue in that rank. 
His service was marked by a series of rapid promotions, as follows: He 
became captain on February 5, 1862, lieutenant colonel on the 24th of 
March, following, and colonel on the 31st of August of that year. On 
December 16, 1864, he was brevetted brigadier general, "for conspicu- 
ous gallantry in the battle of Nashville, Tennessee." He commanded a 
brigade for almost two years and participated in thirty-one engage- 
ments, among them the most prominent of the war, always acquitting 
himself in a manner that seldom failed to bring official mention from 
superior officers. General D. S. Stanley in his official report of the bat- 
tle of Corinth made special mention of the brilliant conduct of the regi- 
ment commanded by General Hubbard (then colonel), as did also Gen- 
eral Mower in a letter under date of January 25, 1864, with reference 
to another occasion. At Corinth, May 28, 1862, and at Nashville, De- 
cember 16, 1864, General Hubbard was severely wounded. The official 
report of Alajor General A. J. Smith, commanding detachment. Army 
of the Tennessee, makes mention of the fact that Colonel Hubbard of 
the Fifth Minnesota, commanding the Second Brigade, First Division, 
had three horses shot under him on the i6th, and that going into action 
with a total of one thousand four hundred and twenty-one muskets in 
his brigade, he captured over two thousand prisoners, nine pieces of ar- 
tillery and seven stands of colors, with casualties in his brigade num- 
liering three hundred and fifteen. General Hubbard's health gave way 
as a result of his strenuous service and his wounds, and it was some 


time after he was mustered out at .Mobile, on September 0, 1865, before 
he was sufficiently recovered to resume his former business at Red 
Wing, Minnesota. 

General Hubbard discontinued his connection with the newspaper 
he had conducted for some years previous to the war, and when he 
again took up active business in 1866 he became identified with the grain 
and milling industry, and he ultimately developed a trade of extensive 
proportions. He further gave his attention to railroad matters, and in 
1866 completed the road known as the Midland Railroad, running from 
Wabash to Zumbrota, this line being later purchased by the Chicago, 
Alilwaukee & St. Paul Railroad Company. General Hubbard later pro- 
moted the line of the Alinnesota Central from Red Wing to Mankato, 
and in more recent years built the Duluth, Red Wing and Southern Rail- 
road, which continued under his management until 1902. 

Apart from his private interests, which have been of considerable 
importance. General Hubbard has been for years a foremost figure in 
Minnesota politics, and his official record has become a matter of his- 
tory. His first position of importance was that of state senator, to 
which office he was elected in 1872, re-elected in 1874, and in 1876 he 
refused the nomination for a third term. In 1881 he was chosen stand- 
ard bearer for his party in the state election, and was elected governor 
by a majority of almost twenty-eight thousand votes, the largest vote 
ever received by any candidate up to that time, and a re-election con- 
tintied him in the office for five years. Many and important to the 
state of Minnesota were the measures adopted during his administration. 
Among the most important, secured as a result of his recommenda- 
tion, were : The present railway and warehouse commission ; the sys- 
tem of grain inspection by the state now in force ; the state sanitary or- 
ganization for protection of public health ; the state board of charities 
and corrections ; the establishment of the state public school at Owat- 
onna ; the organization of the state national guard : and the change from 
annual to bi-ennial elections, while the financial aft'airs of the state were 
never condticted more conservatively or with greater benefit to the pub- 
lic than dtiring his term of office. 

Aside from his labors as a public official, General Hubbard has given 
worthy service to the state in his capacity as a private citizen. In 1866 
he was appointed by Governor Marshall to investigate the matter of 
state railroad bonds, and in 1874 he was named a member of the com- 
mission appointed by the legislature to investigate the accounts of the 
state auditor and state treasurer. He served on the arbitration com- 
mission appointed by the state legislature in 1871) to adjust differences 
between the state prison contractors, and on a similarly appointed com- 
mission in 1889 to compile and publish a history of ]\Iinnesota military 
organization in the Civil and Indian wars. Between the years of 1896 
and 1900 he was a member for Minnesota of the Republican national 
committee, and he once more entered military life when, on June 6, 1898. 
he received the appointment from President !McKinley as brigadier-gen- 
eral and he served throughout the Spanish- American war in command of 
the Third Division, Seventh .Army Cor])s. 

General Hubbard maintains meml)erships in a number of fraternal 
and other organizations, among them being Acker Post, G. .\. R., of St. 
Paul; the Minnesota Commandery of the Loyal Legion; Minnesota So- 
ciety of the .American Revolution ; Society of the Army of the Tennes- 
see; the Military Order of Foreign Wars; the Society of American 


Wars ; and he is a Mason of the Knight Templar degree. Fifty years of 
residence in the state of Minnesota has made him a typical citizen of 
the northwest, and he has been one of the foremost and most impor- 
tant leaders in the march of progress in matters of political, education 
and business interest. 

On Alay 17, 1868, General Hubbard was united in marriage with 
JMiss Amelia Thomas, a daughter of Charles and Amelia Thomas and 
a lineal descendant of Sir John Moore. Three children have been born 
to them: Charles F., born in 1869; Lucius V., born in 1873; and Julia 
M., now the wife of Charles H. McGee. The family residence was 
maintained in Red V\"mg until 1901. after which they spent some years 
in St. Paul, during the height of General Hubbard's political career, 
but in recent years the home of the family is in Minneapolis. 

Henry G. NoRTO>f, M. D. In no profession is there more constant 
progress than in that of medicine and surgery, thousands of the finest 
minds the world has produced making it their one aim and ambition to 
discover more effectual method for the alleviation of suffering, some 
more potent weapon for the conflict with disease, some clever device for 
repairing the damaged human organism. Ever and anon the world hears 
with mingled wonder and thanksgiving of a new conquest of disease and 
disaster which a few years ago would have been placed within the field 
of the impossible. To keep in touch with these discoveries means con- 
stant alertness, and while there may be in many quarters great indolence 
in keeping pace with modern thought the highest type of physician 
believes it no less than a crime not to be master of the latest devices of 
science. To this type belongs Dr. Henry G. Norton, his constant thought 
and endeavor being devoted to the profession of which he is so admirable 
an exponent. Dr. Norton is one of the city's leading Republicans and is a 
prominent, popular and useful citizen. 

The birthplace of Dr. Norton was Cooper, Michigan, and his birth 
date August 17. 1876. His parents were Austin and Eunice M. (Seeley) 
Norton. The elder gentleman was born in Cooper, ^Michigan, and he 
was summoned to the Great Beyond in 1883. when the subject was a lad. 
He was a prominent farmer and stock-raiser. The mother was born in 
the Wolverine state and the worthy lady is now a resident of Minneapolis, 
JNIinnesota. They became the parents of the following six children: 
Albert E., now of Alinneapolis ; Isaac S., of Illinois ; Mrs. C. P. Hulbert, 
of North Dakota ; Frank E. and Willis I., both of 'Minneapolis : and 
Dr. Norton, of this l)iographical record. 

Dr. Norton received his preliminary education at ]\Iarshall, Lyon 
county, Michigan, and he subsequently entered the Michigan State 
University at Ann Arbor, at which celebrated institution he pursued his 
medical studies, being graduated from the medical department in 1900. 
He shortly afterward came to St. Paul and entered St. Luke's Hospital 
as an interne, and for one year served on the medical staff of that hos- 
pital, in order better to equip himself for the general practice which he 
had in view. At the end of that time he opened an office at 920 Rice 
street, and from a small beginning he has now come to have a large and 
lucrative practice. He is, in fact, regarded as one of the rising young 
doctors of St. Paul. 

Dr. Norton has run for office on three occasions and his defeat on all 
of these was by a very small margin. These candidacies were once for 
alderman and twice for the legislature. In his political affiliation he gives 


hand and heart to the pohcies and principles of the RepubHcan party. 
It is by no means improbable that the future holds a successful political 
career for him. 

Dr. Norton has a number of pleasant affiliations, having membership 
in the Woodmen of the World, the Modern Woodmen of .America and 
the Maccabees, all in St. Paul. He is also connected with the North 
Central Commercial Club and the State and Ramsey County Medical 

On December i6, igo6, Dr. Norton was united in marriage at St. 
Paul to Miss Louise Hoffman, daughter of .Mr. and ]\Irs. H. Hoffman, of 
this city. To this happy union has been born one son, Dale, the date 
of his nativity being September 29, 1908. Like most men who are essen- 
tially worth while, he has domestic tastes and is extremely fond of home 
surroundings and of hospitably sharing his household with his friends, 
of whom he possesses a remarkably large number. 

John H. Priebe, who owns and occupies a farm home near Lake 
Elmo, Minnesota, belongs to that element which has wedged itself into 
the make-up of the American population, and which, wherever found, 
can be relied upon as a factor of substantial worth, namely, the Germans. 

Mr. Priebe was born on a farm near Gramens, province of Pomerania, 
Prussia, Germany, July 4, 1846, son of Karl Anton and Louisa (Boese) 
Priebe, and sixth in a family of seven children. When he was eleven 
years of age his father died. By hard work and good management his 
mother kept the children together and gave them the best educational 
advantages the common schools of their locality afforded. John H. went 
to school until he was fourteen. When he was eighteen, in company with 
his mother and one brother and one sister, he came to America. That 
was in 1864. They were seven weeks in making the journey and their 
landing was at Castle Garden, from whence they immediately directed 
their course to Cleveland, Ohio, where one of his brothers was already 
located, this brother and two sisters having preceded the rest of the 
family to America by two years. Here the subject of our sketch began 
work as a hod carrier. Soon afterward he took the trowel, in hand, and 
he spread mortar in Cleveland until 1870. He continued work as a brick 
mason until 1877. I" the meantime, in 1875, he came to Minnesota and 
bought forty acres of land where he now lives, in section 36, White Bear 
Township. This land was then all covered with brush. He went to work 
that fall gruljbing, and the next spring he broke some ground and put 
in a crop. In 1877 he built a house and moved here, and here he lias 
since lived and prospered, having since purchased seventy-five acres 
adjoining his place, lying just across the line in section 31, Washington 

On July 16, 1867, in Cleveland, Ohio, Mr. Priebe took to himself a 
wife, Aliss Wilhimina Schumacher, a native of the same province in 
which he was born. Mrs. Priebe died April 23, 1902, and was buried 
in Lake View cemetery. North St. Paul. Sons and daughters to the num- 
ber of seven came to bless their home, as follows : John E., A., 
George F., Bertha M., Hulda M., Augusta W. and Alma E. 

Mr. Priebe has for years been an active and worthy member of the 
Lutheran church. For eleven years he was treasurer of the North St. 
Paul Lutheran church, but of recent years he has had his membership in 
the church at White Bear Lake. Politically he affiliates with the Republi- 
can party, not, however, in any sense of the word being active in politics. 


John Weber. Mr. Weber's name occupies a conspicuous position in 
the annals of Washington county, Minnesota, for he has been a resident 
of the "Gopher" state for over a quarter of a century. Luxemburg, Ger- 
many, was his birthplace, and he was born on the 23d of June, 1846, the 
son of Peter and Susan (Heber) Weber. He spent his youth in a small 
village and worked on the farm when he was not attending school. His 
formal education included one year in the gymnasium in addition to the 
usual period in the grade schools. After he attained his majority Mr. 
Weber worked for six months in Paris. He then decided to come to 
America, and so desirous was he of reaching the land of promise that 
he went into debt to the extent of seventy-five dollars in order to pay his 
passage. Pie embarked on a steamship at Havre for New York, and 
from that city he came to St. Paul, arriving on August i, 1867. Mr. 
Weber was totally unacquainted with the English language, but he soon 
picked it up in conversation with acquaintances. For several years he 
was employed on various farms, and in 1874 he purchased a farm of 
eighty acres at nine dollars an acre, and put up a log house. 

On April 29, 1875, he was united in the holy bonds of matrimony 
with Miss Mary Lenner, who came from Mr. Weber's native city in Ger- 
many. 1853 '^'^3.5 the year of her birth. When she was three years old 
her family came to America. Eight children have blessed this union : 
Anna, the first child born in the vicinity of Mr. Weber's present home, 
married Mr. Frank Auger, and has one son. They live in North 
St. Paul. Mary married Steven Schifsky, they have five children and 
reside in Grant township ; Susie is a stenographer in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts; Katie is the wife of Mr. Frank Snyder and resides at Lake 
Elmo ; John, Helena, William and Robert remain at home. To the origi- 
nal farm Mr. Weber has made a number of valuable additions, one of 
sixty-three acres at five dollars an acre, and his business sagacity has 
enabled him to put through profitable transactions in land from time 
to time. In 1907 he closed an excellent deal, selling the land at seventy- 
five dollars an acre. Again he purchased eighty acres at three dollars and 
seventy-fiye cents an acre and in boom times sold the property for eight 
thousand dollars and at a later period bought it back for fifty-six hundred 
dollars. His present residence is on the southeast quarter of section 31, 
Grant township, Washington county, and he also owns one hundred and 
forty-six acres on the northwest quarter of section 32. 

Mr. Weber gives his firm allegiance and generous support to the 
Democratic party, which he has served long and faithfully, though he has 
never aspired to any office. His service on the school board proved his 
interest in the educational advancement of the community. He is a 
staunch member of the Roman Catholic church of North St. Paul. 

In the course of his career Mr. Weber has overcome obstacles that 
might have seemed insurmountable to one of less strength of character, 
and has established a reputation for ambition, determination and the 
highest integrity. 

Samuel Rinah Van Sant, fifteenth governor of the state of Minne- 
sota, is a native son of Illinois. He was born in Rock Island, that state, 
on the nth of May, 1844, and is the son of John Wesley Van Sant, who 
came from New Jersey in 1837, where various members of the original 
family had settled, and located at Rock Island, Illinois. The Van Sant 
family, or as they were originally known, Van Zandt, were Hollanders, 
and the first of the name to immigrate to America came in 1607, on the 


ship "Gude I'Teund" and landed at Staten Island. lie was Jacobus or 
Johannes \'an Zandt, and his descendants settled on Manhattan Island 
and were eventually scattered from Albany, New York, down the Jersey 
coast and later to nearly every part of the United States. It is from the 
New Jersey branch of the family that Samuel R. Van Sant sprung. His 
great-grandfather was in the Revolutionary war, and his grandfather was 
a soldier in the War of 1812. The latter was also a clergyman of the 
Methodist faith, as were five of his sons. The father of Mr. \'an Sant, 
John Wesley \'an Sant, named in honor of the great evangelist and re- 
former, came west from New Jersey in 1837 and settled at Rock Island. 
The family had by that time anglicized the good old Dutch name from 
\'an Zandt to its present Anglo-Saxon tone, and this branch has since 
been known as ^'an Sant. 

Samuel Rinah Van Sant was born May 11, 1844, at Rock Island, 
and he had advanced in his studies as far as the high school when the 
Civil war broke out. He at once threw his books aside and enlisted in 
Company A of the Ninth Illinois Cavalry. His enlistment took place 
August I, 1861, and throughout the term of his service Mr. \'an Sant 
never missed an engagement, not once was wounded and was never in the 
hospital from any cause, nor ever taken prisoner. He was the last vet- 
eran of the Civil war to occupy the gubernatorial chair in Minnesota, 
being the tenth of our eighteen governors to have served both as soldier 
and statesman. 

When the war was over Captain \'an Sant engaged in the lumber 
business and in steamboating. and settled in \\ inona, 'Minnesota, where 
he continued to reside tmtil elected governor, and he has been a man of 
prominence in his state since that time. He was speaker of the house 
of representatives in the state legislature in 1895, and in igoi the people 
of Minnesota conferred upon him the highest office within their gift, — 
the governorship of the great northwestern commonwealth. He filled 
that office with honor and distinction between January 7, 1901, and Jan- 
uary 4, 1905. 

On December 7, 1868, Captain \'an Sant was united in marriage with 
Miss Ruth Hall at Leclaire, Iowa. She is of Scotch-Irish descent, her 
father's people coming from the north of Ireland. Her mother was a 
Ross, descended from ^lajor John Ross, distinguished for his service in 
the Revolutionary war and also in the War of 1812. Three children 
were born of their union but Paul and Gertrude died at the ages of two 
years. The only surviving heir is Grant, named in honor of the great 

The \'an Sant family now reside in the city of Minneapolis, at the 
Hampshire Arms. Governor \'an Sant is engaged in the land and loan 
Ijusiness, with which he was connected previous to his term of service as 
governor of the state. He has business offices in both St. Paul and 

From the beginning of his residence in ^Minnesota Captain \"an Sant 
evinced an active interest in the Grand Army of the Republic and has 
been called to the highest positions in that order. He was commander 
of his post at Winona. In 1894 he was elected commander of the depart- 
ment of Minnesota and in 1909 he was elected commander-in-chief by the 
.National Encampment. He served for one year in this exalted position, 
with great distinction, visiting the department encampments, in nearly 
all the states, traveling more than 40.000 miles and delivering stirring 
addresses for the encouragement f)f his comrades. 

a^ ^y <=xCy y^Yi. 



In his public career, as legislator and executive, Governor Van Sant 
always showed a lively interest in all matters looking to the advancement 
of the commonwealth and all its citizens. He zealously promoted plans 
for the increased usefulness of the educational and benevolent institutions 
of the state ; he insisted on wise economies of administration ; he in- 
augurated the legal proceedings, for the dissolution of the Northern 
Securities Company, a scheme of railway consolidation held to be inimical 
to the public interests. He retired from the governorship with honors 
accorded to few of his predecessors. 

John LaFayette Merriam was a descendant of men who helped 
to make America an independent nation and he performed a royal 
share in enriching the inheritance his ancestors sacrificed so much to 
pass on to their children, for he was a powerful factor in the industrial 
development of this region. The Merriams are a family of Massachu- 
setts origin in America and this particular branch moved to New York 
early in the nineteenth century and settled in Essex county. Here Wil- 
liam Merriam, the father of John L., was for years an iron man- 
ufacturer, following that occupation until his death in 1854. His wife 
was Jane Ismon, of a New Jersey family. 

John I^. Merriam was born in Essex county, New York, February 
6, 1825. He attended the district schools of the county and supple- 
mented the instruction received there by two years' attendance at the 
academies of Westport and Essex in his native county. His aptitude for 
business developed when he was scarcely more than a boy and he found 
scope for his far from ordinary talents in the iron industry. Beginning 
at this when quite young, he followed it for several years and carried on 
various and extensive operations. In i860 he came to St. Paul, where 
his first business venture was in the stage and express business, in which 
undertaking he was associated with J. C. P)Urbank and Russell Blakely, 
the firm name being Merriam and Blakely. At the same time he was 
engaged in conducting a commission business in companv with J. C. 
and H. C. Burbank and A. H. Wilder. This firm also did wholesale 
merchandizing in St. Paul and carried on a retail business at St. Cloud, 
Minnesota. The enterprises with which Mr. Merriam was connected 
were varied and important. He was one of the original incorporators 
of the St. Paul Foundry Company and was for many years at the head 
of the concern whose output is chiefly heavy machinery, such as en- 
gines, car wheels and such products. Another important establishment 
of which he was a promoter and a stockholder is the First National Bank 
of St. Paul. He also helped to organize the Merchants National Bank, 
of which he was a stockholder and for many years the president. 

Mr. Merriam was active in the organization of the dififerent rail- 
roads of the section. He was one of the {Promoters of the old St. Paul 
and Sioux City Railroad, a corporation of which he was vice-presi- 
dent. He also helped to promote the Worthington and Sioux Falls Rail- 
road Company and the St. Paul, Stillwater and Taylor's Falls, of which 
he was a director. All of these are now part of the Chicago, St. Paul, 
Minneapolis and Omaha Railroad. He was president of the construc- 
tion company which built the Northern Pacific road from St. Paul and 
Duluth to Morehead. Mr. Merriam retired from active business several 
years before his death, but remained a director in many of the compan- 
ies and financial enterprises which owed their existence to his initiative. 


He was always ready to go into any undertaking which had for its end 
the develojMiient of the resources of the country. 

In the midst of liis active commercial life he found time to take ac- 
tive part in the political side of life, too. From 1857 ^o 1859 ^^ was 
treasurer of Esse.x county, New York. The following year he moved to 
Minnesota and here, too, after he had devoted some time to the building 
up of his lousiness, he again entered public life. He had been an active 
member of the old Whig party until it went out of existence, and there- 
after was an equally staunch Republican. In 1871 he was elected to 
the state legislature, although his district was strongly Democratic. His 
personal popularity was stronger than party feeling in a time when elect- 
ors were much more partisan than today. An unusual honor which fell 
to his lot was that of being elected speaker the first session. In this post 
liis courteous manner and his ability for getting business disposed of 
promptly made him so ]5opular as a presiding officer that he was re- 
elected to the position. In 1876 he was a delegate to the national Re- 
publican convention which nominated Hayes and Wheeler, and was for 
years one of the influential men of his party, 

Before his removal to Minnesota he was colonel of a New York 
state militia regiment for several years. He was a Knight Templar, a 
member of Damascus Comniandery. For many years he was junior 
warden of St. Paul's Episcopal church. In all relations of" life he was 
a man of honor and rectitude, against whose character no disparaging 
word could be uttered. 

Mr. Merriam was first married on January 27, 1848, to Miss Ma- 
hala K. De Lano, of Westport, New York. She died in February, 1857. 
leaving one son, William R. Merriam, now a resident of Washington. 
D. C. The [iresent Mrs. Merriam was Miss Helen 'SL Wilder, of Lewis 
Essex county. New York. She became the wife of Mr. iMerriam in 
November, 1838. Two of their six children are still living: Jeanne 
Merriam McKenna and Robert H. Mrs. IMerriam is a sister of the late 
.\mherst H. Wilder, of St. Paul. The death of John L. ^lerriam in 
1895 took from St. Paul one of her most distinguished citizens. His 
three-score and ten years were filled with beneficent activity and his 
work was of lasting value to the progress of the city, whose ])ros])eritv 
is a monument to all who have given so freely of their energies to secure 
her commercial ascendancy. 

L.\Rs RnsNESS. A successful young lawyer and a Norwegian .\meri- 
can of exceptionally strong character is Lars Rosness, of St. Paul. His 
able legal practice is based on thorough knowledge and a firm technical 
foundation, to which are added an unusuallv practical method of analysis 
in individual cases. The keynote both of Mr. Rosness' character and his 
professional service may be .said to be a directness of ])urpose. How 
this (|uality has developed the man may be surmised in a consideration 
of the facts of his life. 

In a Norwegian home Lars Rosness was born on the twenty-fourth 
of March. 1878. His ])arents, .\nton and Andrea Rosness, came to 
.\merica within a few years after this son's birth and settled in St. Paul, 
where the boy made excellent use of the opportunities of the public 
schools of this city. When he was seventeen years of age he was grad- 
uated from the Central high school of .St. Paul. In 1895, the year of his 
cotnpletion of his academic education, he accepted a position in the busi- 
ness house of McKibltin. Driscoll and Dnrsc\'. Tn their .-iccoimting de- 


partment he worked steadily for nine years. But during this time he was 
doing something more than faithfully serving his employers and gain- 
ing a thorough knowledge of commercial conditions. He was slowly 
and surely gathering a body of legal knowledge by persevering evening 
study of the technicalities of law. By the year 1903 he had completed 
the course of the St. Paul College of Law. In 1904 he resigned his posi- 
tion with McKibbin, Driscoll and Dorsey and settled in Morris, Minne- 
sota, where he began his practice of law. Here he formed a professional 
affiliation with Lewis C. Spooner, the firm name being Spooner and 
Rosness. Two years later this partnership was dissolved and at that 
time, 1906, Mr. Rosness returned to St. Paul, where he has ever since 
continued to live and practice his chosen profession. 

Not only has Air. Rosness a clientele of gratifying proportions, but 
he is also at present local attorney for the American Surety Company of 
New York, the duties of which position he discharges with efficiency. 

In a political way Lars Rosness shows the same steady earnestness 
that characterizes his legal business. He has always been a loyal Republi- 
can and since attaining his majority has been for several years a member 
of the city and county Republican committees. 

His social acceptability among the lodge men of St. Paul is evinced by 
his membership in the order of Alodern \Voodmen, in which he has occu- 
pied many offices, and of which for the past four years he has been 
district deputy head consul. He is also a member of the Norden Club 
and of the Sons of Norway, having represented the latter body in the 
capacity of delegate to the Grand Lodge of the organization. 

Two years after his return to St. Paul Air. Rosness was united in 
marriage to Aliss Alice E. Jacobsen, the daughter of Ole Jacobsen, who 
was a prominent pioneer minister of the Norwegian Alethodist Episcopal 
church. The date of Mr. and Airs. Rosness' union was December 22, 
1908, and they have since been counted one of the most estimable Nor- 
wegian American families of the city. The Norwegian-American move- 
ment has been one of particular interest to Air. Rosness and one on which 
he has bestowed much attention. In whatever line this young lawyer 
finds reason for activity he is sure to be effective. Work has been his 
chief hobby ever since his schooldays when his work for the St. Paul Dis- 
patch made possible the completion of his general education. He is one 
of the worthiest of St. Paul's citizens and one of the most conscientious 
of her legal men. 

Doctor Henry Hutchinsox, whose death occurred in Algiers, 
Africa, December i, 1910, was born in Afontreal, Canada, August 20, 
1849. He was the son of Jonathan and Isabelle Paterson Hutchinson. 
He had attended the common schools in Toronto, coming with his parents 
to Alinnesota in 1859. Entering the common schools at Northfield, he 
finished the various grades and then enrolled as a student of Carleton 
College ; from Carleton he went to the Hahnemann Aledical College of 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from which he was graduated with the 
degree of AI. D. in 1874. 

A year later he married Aliss Alatilda AlcCurdy at Red Wing. After 
four years' practice in Northfield, Dr. Hutchinson moved to St. Paul, 
where he continued his professional work until shortly before his death. 
Soon after coming to St. Paul Dr. Hutchinson was made a member of 
the stafifs of St. Luke's. St. Joseph's and the City and County Hospitals, 
and was late professor of theory and practice in the College of Homeo- 


pathic Medicine and Surgery, University of Minnesota. He was a mem- 
ber of The American Public Health Association, State -\nti-Tuberculosis 
Association and the American and Minnesota Institutes of 1 Iomeopath\-. 
The Masonic order numbered him among its stanchest members. 

Dr. Hutchinson was appointed a member of the state board of health 
in January, 1895, by Governor Clough, in 1896 he was made vice presi- 
dent of the board and in April, 1904, following the death of Dr. Franklin 
Staples, was chosen president, continuing to hold this position until the 
time of his death. While actually president but six and a half years 
he was, in fact, president for a much longer period, as Dr. Staples was 
not able to attend the board meetings during several of the last years of 
his life. It is worthy to note that Dr. Hutchinson was the third president 
of the board to hold this position from the time of his election until death. 

He was always a conscientious practitioner, a faithful public official 
and for thirty-one years a member of the House of Hope church. After 
a lifetime of active service he retired te enjoy a well-earned vacation in 
extensive travel abroad. He left St. Paul August 17, 1910, but his earthly 
vacation was only the beginning of his eternal rest, so short was the 
sojourn. Quality of days and not quantity was truly his portion here, 
and St. Paul is bereft of an estimable as well as a distinguished citizen, 
but he leaves behind him in the hearts of his fellow citizens and friends 
memories of his many benefactions and laborious efforts in their behalf. 

Aliiiert a. Rene. Edward O. Rene, the father of Albert .A., came to 
Minnesota from Canada in the early days of the history of the state. 
He was a carpenter by trade and for some years after coming to this 
countr}' followed that occupation. As he had an opportunity to secure 
some valuable lands near White Bear lake, he removed to that district 
and became one of its prosperous and influential farmers. He died at his 
old homestead in December, 1893, having won the affection and esteem 
of all who knew him. His wife was before her marriage Jane Stupnska. 
They were married in the city and reared a family of three children, who 
are all now living. The mother died in December, 1894. The other mem- 
bers of the family besides Albert A. Rene are Arthur O., a resident of 
]\rihvaukee, Wisconsin, employed in the government service and Lorenzo 
L. Rene, a farmer of White Bear. Minnesota. 

Albert A. Rene was born in May, 1864, at White Bear. Minnesota, and 
attended the St. Paul schools, both in the grades and in the high school. 
In 1884 he graduated from the St. Paul business College. His first 
employment was in the wholesale carpet business, in the establishment 
of Mr. John ^lathias, who also conducted a retail store, .\fter three 
years here Mr. Rene spent about a year traveling through the United 
States and Canada before starting into the real estate business for him- 
self, in an office at 303 Jackson street. He remained here only one month 
before moving to Xo. no East Fourth street, where he stayed until the 
Germania Life P.uilding was completed. He then secured a suite of 
offices in the new structure, where he has ever since conducted his 
thriving estalilishment, handling all kinds of city and country jiroperty. 

Mrs. Rene is the daughter of Charles II. and Angeline \\eld. of Fari- 
bault. Minnesota, where her father was formerly connected with the 
grain elevator of the city and is now a well known stock man. The mar- 
riage of his daughter, Cora A., to Albert Rene took place in October, 
1893. Mr. and Mrs. Rene have no children. Both are well known in 


social circles of St. Paul and enjoy an enviable reputation as entertainers. 
They are communicants of the Episcopal church. 

Mr. Rene is a Republican in political convictions, but he takes little 
active part in politics. He is affiliated with the Masons and with the 
Knights of Pythias. He is active in the Commercial club of St. Paul, 
and in the Real Estate Exchange and belongs to the Y. M. C. A. He is 
very fond of out-door sports and athletics, and spends considerable of 
his leisure on horseback. One of the city's substantial men financially, 
he is also one of the best liked members of the company of St. Paul's 
leading citizens. 

Lyndon A. Smith. A lawyer of prominence in St. Paul and the 
state is Lyndon Ambrose Smith, attorney general of Minnesota. He is 
a man rightly famed for positions of eminence, well-known and respected 
by a large concourse of people, possessing a splendid legal mind, one 
which balks at no difficulty, refuses no handicap and is deterred by no 
obstacle. In glancing over his successful record, the lines of Oliver 
Wendell Holmes are likely to occur to one, — 

"There was a young fellow of excellent pith. 
Fate tried to obscure him by naming him Smith." 

But in this case, as in the other, Fate has been defeated in her nefa- 
rious plans. Mr. Smith was appointed to the office of assistant attorney 
general in 1909 and to his present office January i, 1912, and his selec- 
tion has proved a wise one. He held the office of lieutenant governor 
of the state from 1899 to 1903 and acted as county attorney of Chippewa 
county, Minnesota, from 1889 to 1890 and from 1903 to 1909. He gave 
excellent, progressive administrations to Montevideo while holding the 
office of president or mayor, from 1894 to 1895, and subsequently from 

1904 to 1906. Since its organization Mr. Smith has held the office of 
vice president of the First National Bank of Montevideo and between 

1905 and 1908 he was president of the Montevideo Telephone Exchange. 
He is very active and influential in the councils of the Republican party, to 
which he has given heart and hand since his earliest voting days. 

Lyndon Ambrose Smith was born in New England, that cradle of so 
much of our national history, his birth having occurred in Boscawen, 
Merrimack county. New Hampshire, on July 15, 1854. His parents were 
Ambrose and Cynthia M. (Egerton) Smith. The father was born July 
9, 1820, at Ossipee, New Hampshire, and was clergyman and pastor of 
the Congregational church at Boscawen from 1852 until his death there 
October 3, 1862. The mother was born January 2, 1821, and died in 
April, 1899, at Norwich, Vermont. The marriage of these admirable 
people was celebrated at Ouechee, Vermont, in May, 1846. 

Mr. Smith, of this review, received an education of the most ex- 
cellent and thorough character, from his early boyhood evincing an 
insatiable thirst for knowledge. His academical training was in Pem- 
broke (New Hampshire) Academy, and Norwich (Vermont) Academy. 
He subsequently matriculated in Dartmouth College, and was graduated 
from that celebrated institution in 1880, with the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts. He had in the meantime come to a decision to adopt the law as 
his profession and he received his preparation for the same in George- 
town (D. C.) University and the National University, winning from the 

former the degree of Bachelor of Laws in 1882 and Master of Laws in 
Vol. n— 17 


1884, and from the latter the degree of LL. AI. in 1883. Previous to his 
graduation he entered upon a career of usefulness, holding the office of 
assistant to the commissioner of education at Washington, D. C, from 
1880 to 1885. He first began his practice of the law at Montevideo in 
1886 and continued in uninterrupted practice until 1909, since which year 
he has devoted his attention to the work of attorney general. His suc- 
cess in important cases has fixed his status and he is recognized by both 
bench and bar as an honorable opponent and a lawyer of the highest 

Mr. Smith is a Mason of high standing, having attained to the thirty- 
second degree and exemplifying in his own life those ideals of moral and 
social justice for which the order stands. He is also affiliated with the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen. He is represented on the roll of the Commercial Club of 
Montevideo, and the University Club of St. Paul. His religious views 
are those of the Congregational church, of which he is a valued member. 

Mr. Smith was married in St. Paul, February 3, 1886, his chosen 
lady being Dora Rogers, daughter of John Rogers, of Kittery, Maine. 
Mrs. Smith, who holds high social position on account of many graces 
of mind and heart, is a granddaughter of Joseph Cox, who was connected 
with the United States navy, either actively or on the retired list, for 
sixty-two years. They share their home with one daughter, Charlotte, 
who was born in Montevideo, Minnesota. She was graduated from the 
state university in 1910, and received the degree of M. A. from Columbia 
University in 1912. The subject is connected with those organizations 
whose object is the promotion of the unity and progress of the profession, 
namely: the Ramsey County, the Alinnesota and the American Bar 

Herbert P. Keller. St. Paul, as a city, might be justified in be- 
lieving like the Little Corporal in "its star," so excellent have been its 
fortunes, so rapid and substantial its growth, so wide the fame of its 
beauty and high standing as an industrial, commercial and professional 
center. It has again been fortunate in the acquisition of that most im- 
portant factor towards municipal success — a good mayor, Herbert P. Kel- 
ler, who is filling that office with credit to himself and honor and profit to 
his constituents. Since assuming the mayor's office Mr. Keller has de- 
voted himself to the essentials of civic housekeeping in most praise- 
worthy fashion and has already proved that he belongs not to the class 
of modern politicians whose sole aim seems to be self-advancement, but 
that his ambitions and desires are centered and directed in those chan- 
nels through which flows the greatest and most permanent good to the 
greatest number. y\mong his other pleasant distinctions is that of being 
the first native-born mayor of St. Paul. 

Mayor Keller belongs to the younger generation of citizenship, his 
eyes having first opened to the light of day on February 7, 1873, his 
parents being John M. Keller, a pioneer lumberman of St. Paul, and An- 
nice E. (Scott) Keller, natives of Saxe-\\'eimar and Pennsylvania, re- 
spectively. The usual student of biography confesses to an eager de- 
sire to trace the ancestral forces that are united in every son and daugh- 
ter of unusual force and aliility, and a glance at the forebears of Mayor 
Keller reveals the fact that he is Saxon in origin. Like most of the men 
of his day and generation, he received his preliminary educational dis- 
cipline in the public schools of the city, and subsequently gained decjier 


draughts at the "Pierian Spring" as a student in the University of Min- 
nesota. From his first thought as to a career he had been inclined to 
the law, and he entered the law department of the university, graduat- 
ing from it with a well-earned degree in 1896, when twenty-one years 
of age. Here he began his practice and in 1904, eight years after his 
graduation and after having served about a year as Third Assistant 
corporation attorney, in charge of prosecutions in Municipal Court, he 
first became a candidate for political preferment. He was elected a 
member of the city council and distinctive mark of the strong hold he 
had gained upon popular esteem of the community in his first term was 
given in his re-elections in 1906 and 1908. In the first instance his vic- 
tory was a signal one, he alone of all the Republican candidates being 
returned. Two years later one other Republican, E. C. Mahle, was re- 
turned, but in 1908 Mr. Keller was again the only Republican councilman. 

Two years later the Democratic hold upon the city was considered 
almost impregnable and the Republican organization cast diligently for 
their strongest member to head the party ticket for the mayoralty. The 
record of Mr. Keller in the assembly during the six years of his incum- 
bency amply recommended him. His popularity with the masses 'was 
unquestioned and his party fidelity .had been demonstrated as of the 
highest order. He was chosen the candidate and after a stirring cam- 
paign, full of thrills, the smoke of the final day's battle cleared away 
and "Herb" Keller had been elected by an overwhelming majority. The 
following tribute has been paid to his services as mayor in a local pub- 
lication : 

"When 'Herb' Keller was elected mayor of St. Paul the first native- 
born municipal chief magistrate took charge of the helm of city diffi- 
culties and activities. Hundreds of years of heredity in positions of 
trust and authority displayed themselves in the firmness with which he 
at once gathered the reins of authority and directed the destinies of the 
important city under his command. In his campaign he pledged his 
best eiforts to curb municipal extravagance ; to lower, if possible, the 
taxes of property owners, and his first efforts were directed to make 
these promises good. In preparing the budget of 191 1 disbursement the 
iron fist of the mayor was felt by every department and expenses were 
cut to the barest necessities. The bung in the 'pork barrel' was driven 
home with a will and the people's money was allowed to escape only 
where beneficial results were bound to follow and where the direct good 
of the people themselves was at stake." In fact, as far as general sat- 
isfaction is possible in this mundane sphere there is general satisfac- 
tion over the present mayor of St. Paul. He was re-elected May 7, 1912. 

Mayor Keller is a member of the law firm of Loomis, Keller & 
Schwartz, with offices at 702-704 Globe building. 

Fraternally he is a Knight Templar and a Shriner and a member of 
the Elks, Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias fraternities. He is also 
associated with the Commercial Club, in the Association of Commerce and 
other clubs and societies. 

Mr. Keller, on the 20th day of December, 1906, married Miss Carrie 
S. Johnston, of Wabasha, Minnesota. 

Frederick Nussbaumer. To the transient visitor a city is known 
and remembered by nothing more vividly than by its parks, but even the 
viewpoint of civic pride is by no means the most importaint in the case, 


since these spots often afford the only relief from sordidness for the 
poorer classes. Hamlet"s advice to the players, 

"Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy, 
For the apparel oft proclaims the man," 

might by a slight stretch of imagination be applied to this department of 
civics and general acknowledgment be made that the best park a city 
can afford is by no means too good. A city is truly to be congratulated 
which has for its superintendent of parks one who is a true artist and at 
the same time a good executive, and these traits are united in Frederick 
Nussbaumer, superintendent of the parks of St. Paul and landscape gar- 
dener. Como Park, one of the most beautiful in America, is a striking 
testimony to his ability, this having been developed entirely under his 
supervision, and thousands of visitors from other states annually carry 
away with them an enthusiastic appreciation of his work, thus spreading 
his fame to all portions of the country. It has been aptly said of him 
that he is a public official whose works are a visible tribute to his skill 
and fitness. 

Mr. Nussbaumer was born in Baden, Germany, November 7, 1850, 
and is the son of Frederick and Ann Maria (Shillinger) Nussbaumer. 
He received his elementary education in the public schools of his native 
country and subsequently matriculated in the University of Freiberg, 
from which institution he received diplomas in mechanical and civil 
engineering, botany and landscape architecture. He afterward put his 
knowledge of landscape gardening to practical use in his father's nursery. 
During the Franco-Prussian war he served in the army and shortly 
thereafter came to America, locating in St. Paul, where he embarked 
as a horticulturist and florist. In 1891 he was appointed by the city as 
superintendent of parks and he has planned and laid out all the parks 
of the city. In fact, it was largely due to his masterful mind that the 
city now has so many beauty spots on which the visitor may gaze with 
wonder and admiration. INIr. Nussbaumer has indeed given the best 
years of his life to the service of St. Paul. 

Mr. Nussbaumer was married in St. Paul in 1880 to Miss Rosa A. 
Mattmuller, daughter of Jacob and Barbara Mattmuller. They have 
been blessed with the following children : Annie, Alfred, Lillie and 
Arthur, and the family maintain their home at lovely Como Park, a 
truly ideal situation. 

The subject is prominent in the society of park superintendents of 
America and a national authority on all related subjects. He is a mem- 
ber of the Civic and Commercial League of the State of Minnesota ; the 
Masons; the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks; and of the Sons 
of Herman. Lie is deservedly ])opular and highly esteemed and is fond 
of all manner of out-door pursuits. 

George L. Huntingtox, a native of ^Michigan, was born .\pril 8, 
1867. near the city of Kalamazoo. He came of Revolutionary stock, Sam- 
uel Huntington signing the Declaration of Independence. His father 
was a native of ^'ermoIU and his mother of New York. 

He was brought up on a farm in Dane county, \\'isconsin, until 
fifteen years of age, when his family moved to Rock county, Minnesota, 
locating on a farm adjoining the city limits of Luverne. In i88g he 
graduated from the Luverne high school and then entered the LTniversity 


of Minnesota, graduating from the scientific course in 1893. He then 
took a year in the law school of the same institution, but as he did not 
feel impelled to enter the legal profession he went into mercantile busi- 
ness in Luverne for a brief time and then decided to become a physician. 
Accordingly he entered the Northern Institute of Osteopathy at Minne- 
apolis and was graduated in 1899. In October of the same year he began 
his practice in St. Paul, where he has since been located. 

Dr. Huntington is a member of the American Osteopathic Associa- 
tion, of which he was vice president for one year, and also of the Minne- 
sota State Osteopathic Association, of which he was president the first 
two years of its existence. He was secretary of the State Board of 
Osteopathic Examiners for seven years, receiving his appointments from 
Governors Van Sant and Johnson. His professional record has been 
one of high achievement and he stands among the leaders of this branch 
of his profession. The large practice which he has built up in the com- 
paratively short time he has been practicing testifies to his ability in his 
chosen calling. 

On June 20, 1900, Dr. Huntington was married to Miss Minnie L. 
Schuck, of Geneseo, Illinois. She is a lady of charm and culture and 
well fitted to share the success which her husband's abilities secure to 

Dr. Huntington belongs to the Masonic fraternity, being a member 
of Triune Lodge, Merriam Park. Though his large and growing prac- 
tice leaves him little leisure, he still finds time to make many friends, and 
the high regard in which he is held as a physician is not greater than 
that paid to the man as a tribute to his personal character. 

Arthur J. Stobbart. A record of well-won success has been made 
by Arthur J. Stobbart, a stalwart member of the Ramsey county bar. 
An Englishman by birth, he early adopted this country as his own and 
in this city has achieved a measure of success gratifying and merited, 
He has been identified with the bar of this city for a number of years 
and his reputation as one of its most talented members has been rein- 
forced with the passing years, during which he has appeared in connec- 
tion with many important cases and he has many noteworthy forensic 
victories to his credit. He is a strong advocate before court or jury and 
not only marshals his causes with ability, but also brings to bear the 
power of a strong and upright character, so that he has gained and 
held the confidence and regard of his fellow practitioners and also of 
the public. 

Arthur J. Stobbart was born December 31, 1872, in Chatham, Eng- 
land, the son of Ralph and Elizabeth Stobbart. He received a splendid 
preliminary education in the thorough English schools and subsequently 
entered Gloucester College. At the age of eighteen years he paid his 
adieux to the old associations and crossed the Atlantic to go in quest of 
the wider opportunity held out by the newer country. He arrived in 
May, 1890, and very shortly afterward located in the state of Minnesota. 
Having determined upon his profession, he entered the law department 
of the University of Minnesota and in 1897 received the degree of LL. B. 
In the following year he received his master's degree in law. He was 
admitted to the bar June 3, 1897, and came to St. Paul to begin his 
career, and ever since has been actively engaged in practice before the 
federal and state courts. In the fifteen or more years of his activities 
here he has built up a large and lucrative practice and has been engaged 


in many important cases, and has always been true to his trusts. In 
recent years he has served as counsel of the board of water commission- 
ers. In 1897-98 he acted as deputy clerk of the district court of the 
Second judicial district and in 1900-01 he served as assistant corporation 
attorney for St. Paul. This he resigned to enter general practice. Mr. 
Stobbart was secretary of the Ramsey County Bar Association in 1900 
and he was later on the executive committee of that organization. He 
held the office of president of the law department of his alma mater, 
the University of Minnesota, in 1901-1902. 

On June 16, 1897, in St. Paul, Mr. Stobbart laid the foundations of a 
happy household and congenial life companionship by his union with Miss 
Domia Mills Cudworth, daughter of Captain Darius A. Cudworth. They 
have two daughters : Doris Elizabeth and Donna Louise, and two sons, 
Arthur James and Roger Lyne. The family are communicants of St. 
Matthews Episcopal church, in which ]\Ir. Stobbart is vestryman. His 
fraternal relations are with the A. F. & A. M., K. of P.. B. P.' O. E., and 
the Minnesota chapter of Delta Chi. Mr. Stobbart and his wife, who are 
leading members of an admirable social circle, are held in general con- 
fidence and esteem. 

Rush B. Wheeler. Among the men of integrity, courageous deter- 
mination and high scholarship who have taken an active part in the up- 
building of St. Paul, a place is easily accorded Rush B. Wheeler, who has 
held a prominent place in the high affairs of the city since his advent in 
1883. Rush B. Wheeler was born in South Butler, Wayne county. New 
York, January 29, 1844. He is a son of Orange Hall and Eve (Tucker) 
Wheeler. His college preparatory work was done at the Cazenovia 
Seminary, Cazenovia, New York, following which he went to New 
Haven, Connecticut, and was graduated from Yale University with the 
degree of A. B., in the class of 187 1. 

After the completion of his university work ]\lr. Wheeler taught 
for a while in the institute at New Marlboro, Massachusetts, from which 
place he came to Austin. Minnesota, in 1873, to read law in his brother's 
office. After spending some time with his brother E. O. Wheeler, he was 
admitted to the Minnesota bar at Austin in 1876. Seven years later he 
moved to St. Paul, and has since been prominent in the real estate and 
loan business. In his profession he has specialized in real estate law. 

From 1880 to 1883 Mr. Wheeler was a director in the First National 
Bank of Austin, Minnesota. In 1894-3 he was president of the Real 
Estate Exchange of St. Paul, and from 1900 to 1904, treasurer of the 
same organization. For several years he was treasurer of the Y. M. C. A. 
of St. Paul, and he was a director of the St. l^aul Chamber of Com- 
merce for fifteen years. 

On May 17, 1876, in Rochester, Minnesota, was solemnized the mar- 
riage of Rush B. Wheeler to Miss Harriet S. Clark, daughter of Asa S. 
and Rhoda (Shaw) Clark. Mr. and Mrs. Wheeler have become the 
parents of four children: Frost M., who was married June 30, 1909, to 
Miss Emma Becker, of ]\Iount \'ernon, New York; Cleora, at home; 
Everett and Ross, neither of whom arc now living. Mr. Wheeler and his 
family are members of the Park Congregational church. 

Politically Mr. Wheeler favors the men and measures of the Repub- 
lican party. He is a member of the Saint Paul Commercial Club and the 
White Bear Yacht Club. 





John B. Sanborn. Among the young leaders of the St. Paul bar, 
John B. Sanborn is distinguished by many of the qualities of solid abil- 
ity and successful achievement which were characteristic of his emi- 
nent father, one of the greatest lawyers, statesmen and soldiers of the 
state of Minnesota. 

John B. Sanborn, son of the late General John B. Sanborn, was born 
at St. Paul, November 9, 1883. With the illustrious example of his 
father as a guide, he prepared for the same profession, and received 
most liberal educational advantages. He graduated from the Central 
high school of St. Paul in 1901, then entered the University of Minne- 
sota, where he received the degree of A. B. in 1905, and was graduated 
LL. B. from the St. Paul College of Law in 1907. He has since been 
engaged in general practice, and is a member of the well known firm of 
Markham and Sanborn. 

A Republican in politics, he is a member of the college fraternity of 
Chi Psi, and belongs to the Minnesota Boat Club, the Sons of the Amer- 
ican Revolution and to the Loyal Legion. His church is the Episcopal. 
On the 18th of May, 1907, Mr. Sanborn was married to Miss Helen S. 
Clarke. She is a graduate of the University of Minnesota and was born 
in Algona, Iowa, a daughter of the late George E. Clarke, who during 
his lifetime was a prominent attorney of that state. For recreation Mr. 
Sanborn turns to the world of sport, and is particularly fond of hunting 
and fishing. 

The late General John Benjamin Sanborn was one of the distinctive 
personalities and most prominent actors in the history and affairs of 
Minnesota and St. Paul. Coming to the city and state during the pio- 
neer period of the decade before the war, he at once took a conspicu- 
ous position as a lawyer and man of affairs, and for many years his abil- 
ity and achievements were effective in shaping the destinies of the 
state. He was one of the great men of Minnesota, and his place in the 
history of the state will remain secure through subsequent generations. 

Of prominent New England ancestry, he was born in the town of 
Epsom, Merrimack county, New Hampshire, December 5, 1826. The 
homestead where he was born had been for generations a possession of 
the Sanborn family and is still the property of people of this name. 
The town of Sanbornton is another memorial of the influential activi- 
ties of this family in that state. Two brothers of the name settled on 
the tract where General Sanborn was born, more than two centuries 
ago, a century before the Vermont colony had been detached from the 
New Hampshire grants. Eliphalet Sanborn, the great-grandfather of 
the General, was a colonial soldier during the War of the Revolution, 
and the maternal grandfather, Benjamin Sargent, entered the service as 
a drummer boy, continuing throughout the war and finally being a sold- 
ier in the ranks. Hon. Josiah Sanborn, the grandfather, was a pros- 
perous lumberman and farmer, and for seventeen consecutive years 
was a member of the New Hampshire legislature. Frederick Sanborn, 
father of General Sanborn, was a citizen of exalted character, who lived 
for nearly a century on the old homestead above mentioned. His wife, 
the mother of General Sanborn, was Miss Lucy L. Sargent, a native of 
Pittsfield, New Hampshire, and a woman of great strength of character 
and mind. From these worthy ancestors General Sanborn no doubt in- 
herited many of the native qualities which distinguished his career. 

The training of his early youth was on his fathers' farm and in the 
saw mills and lumber woods of the Granite state, and during this time 


he obtained an education in the common schools. On attaining his 
majority he prepared for college at Pembroke Academy in New Hamp- 
shire and Thetford Academy in \'ermont, and entered Dartmouth Col- 
lege in the fall of 1851, but remained only one term, beginning the study 
of law without the introduction of a college training or degree. In the 
spring of 1852, at the age of twenty-tive, he entered the law office of 
Judge Asa Fowler, a distinguished lawyer of Concord, and after a very 
thorough course of study and practical instruction was admitted to the 
bar at a general term of the superior court in July, 1854. 

After a few months of practice at Concord, he decided to contribute 
his career to the growing west. The territory of Minnesota was then 
attracting notice, and he set out with St. Paul as his destination. At 
Dubuque, Iowa, he left the railroad to continue the rest of his journey 
overland, the river being closed to navigation at that season of the year. 
With some companions, with a wagon and team which they bought at 
Dubuque and sold in St. Paul, he arrived in this city in December, 1854, 
and immediately began the practice of his profession. His partner was 
Mr. Theodore French, another young attorney from New Hampshire. 
From their advertisement in the Emigrants Guide for 1856 the firm of 
Sanborn and French were not only attorneys at law, but commissioners 
for the state of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts and 
New York, were agents for the Aetna and Phoenix Insurance Companies 
of Hartford, and were prepared to "take charge of real estate" and to 
sell, loan and locate land warrants and negotiate loans on commission. 
The office of the firm was in Mackubin and Edgerton's building on St. 
Anthony street. They had a good business from the first, and in Janu- 
ary, 1857, Mr. Charles C. Lund, another New Hampshire lawyer, was 
admitted to the partnership. As Sanborn, French and Lund this con- 
tinued till the death of Mr. French in i860, and the remaining partners 
continued until the senior member went to the front in 1862. 

General Sanborn was from the first successful in his profession, 
both as counselor and advocate. He gained a large practice in the state 
and federal courts and achieved an extended and enviable reputation. 
In 1859 h^ '^vas elected to the lower branch of the legislature and during 
his first term served as chairman of the judiciary committee. His most 
valuable service in this connection was in the formulating and enact- 
ment of a system of laws which restored and in part inaugurated a 
sound and healthy condition in the financial afifairs of the state. In i860 
he was elected to the state senate, and was made chairman of the com- 
mittee on military afifairs. 

For the cause of the Union during the Civil war General Sanborn 
performed conspicuous services that have placed his name on the roll of 
honor of the nation. His part in the war occupies many pages of the 
annals of Minnesota and of the Civil war epoch, and only a brief outline 
will be given in this personal sketch. In April, 1861, he was appointed 
by Governor Ramsey to the position of adjutant general and acting 
quartermaster general of the state, with the rank of brigadier general. 
The responsibility of the organization and equipment of the ^klinnesota 
volunteers fell upon him. He surrendered a profitable practice, with the 
prospect of large civic honors, and gave himself with characteristic en- 
erg\' and zeal to the duties of the new office. The state had no war chest 
or commissariat and its armament was practically worthless. With the 
aid of his patriotic fellow citizens he soon had the Minnesota contin- 
gent ready for duty in the field. In order to have the first regiment 


properly uniformed he had to make a trip to Washington, but the en- 
thusiasm and generous labors of himself and others resulted in the state 
being represented by a fine body of soldiery. After the First Regiment 
he equipped for the field the Second and Third. 

After he had systematized and put in order the machinery of his 
office he offered his own services as a soldier. On the organization of 
the Fourth Regiment of Infantry, on the ist of December, 1861, he 
was commissioned its colonel. During the frontier hostilities of that 
and the following year the headquarters of the regiment were at Fort 
Snelling, and he had command of all the troops and garrisons along the 
frontier of the state. Early in the spring of 1862 he was ordered south 
with his regiment, and joined General Halleck's army while it was in 
front of Corinth, Mississippi. He was assigned to General Pope's com- 
mand, then called the Army of the Mississippi. During the siege of 
Corinth he was given command of a demi-brigade consisting of three 
regiments of infantry and a battery of artillery. After the city was 
evacuated by the Confederates on May the 29th and the Union troops 
had pursued them as far as Boonville, Missouri, his command returned 
to the vicinity of Corinth. There a reorganization was made in the 
troops of this department, and although he held only the rank of colonel 
he was given command of the First Brigade, Third Division, of the 
Army of the Tennessee, the division being under the command of Gen- 
eral C. S. Hamilton of Wisconsin, and General Rosecrans being the 
ranking general of the entire army. About the middle of September the 
division was ordered to luka, which had been captured by the Confed- 
erate leader. General Price. On September 19th occurred the battle of 
luka, one of the hardest fought and, considering the numbers engaged, 
one of the most sanguinary engagements of the war. In this battle 
General Sanborn's brigade consisted of the Fifth and Sixteenth Iowa, 
the Twenty-sixth Missouri, the Fourth Minnesota, the Forty-eighth In- 
diana and the Eleventh Ohio Battery, a total of twenty-two hundred 
men in action. This brigade sustained the brunt of the day's battle and 
gained for itself and leader a brilliant reputation for prowess. General 
Sanborn was opposed by Maury's division of Confederates, nearly six 
thousand strong, and he fought them from three o'clock in the after- 
noon until nine in the evening. After the battle had been in progress for 
some time, a few regiments of General Stanley's division came to his 
aid, but all accoimts agree and all reports show that Sanborn's brigade 
did far the greater part of the fighting on the Federal side and saved the 
day. This was the first test of fire through which General Sanborn 
and most of his men had passed. Yet he held his forces in line with 
the coolness of a veteran and exhibited all the qualities of an expert in 
the art of war. The battle was a series of assaults and counter-charges, 
with hand-to-hand fighting, and his battery was three times taken and 
three times recovered. At the close of this battle Sanborn held his po- 
sition, with six; hundred of his command killed and wounded, the loss 
of the enemy opposed to him being much greater. That night General 
Price withdrew his forces. In the orders communicated to General San- 
born, General Rosecrans gave him and his associates the highest credit 
and praise for their skill and gallantry in defending the position. 

For four years General Sanborn remained with the armies of the 
Union, through a series of campaigns and services, the telling of which 
would require a volume. He was one of the able field generals of the 
war, and his achievements are part of every complete record of that 


great war. After the surrender at Appomatox in 1865 General San- 
born was assigned to and took command of the District of the Upper 
Arkansas, and conducted a campaign against the Comanche, Kiowa, 
Cheyenne, Arapahoe and Apache Indians. By the first of November of 
the same year he had estabHshed peace with all of these tribes. He was 
then sent by order of President Johnson to the Indian Territory to ad- 
just the relations between the slave holding Indians and their former 
slaves, and accomplished this without the use of force. In June, 1866, 
he was mustered out of the service, having given more than five years 
to the cause, and after this long interruption he returned to St. Paul 
to resume his practice as a lawyer. He was not to be allowed to bury 
himself in his practice so speedily, however, for in 1867 he was desig- 
nated by Congress as one of the Indian Peace Commission and to- 
gether with Generals Sherman, Harney, Terry and other members of 
the commission concluded a number of treaties with the Indian tribes 
east of the Rocky mountains. These treaties played an important part 
in the development of the west and southwest, and had much influence 
in ameliorating the conditions of the Indians. 

In addition to his law practice in St. Paul. General Sanborn also 
opened an office in Washington, D. C, and here the firm of Sanborn and 
King was continued with large successes and a fine reputation until 
July, 1878, when General Sanborn retired from active practice in that 
city. On the ist of January, 1871, he had associated with himself his 
nephew, Hon. Walter H. Sanborn, making the well known law firm in 
St. Paul of John B. and W. H. Sanborn. In 1881 E. P. Sanborn, an- 
other nephew, was added, and upon Walter H. Sanborn's appointment 
to the bench the firm name became John B. and E. P. Sanborn, and so 
remained until the General's death. 

In 1872 General Sanborn was elected a member of the state legis- 
ture, and in 1882 consented to serve another term in order that his abil- 
ity might be used in restoring the somewhat impaired credit of the state. 
Throughout his career General Sanborn was closely identified with the 
business and civic interests of St. Paul. For several years he was presi- 
dent of the Chamber of Commerce, was director and vice-president of 
the German-American Bank, and was vice-president and trustee of the 
Bankers Life Assurance Society, and of the Minnesota ^Mutual Life In- 
surance Company. He was also president of the St. Paul Roller Mills 
Company, and connected with various other enterprises. He took a 
He was department commander of the Grand Army of the Republic; 
prominent part in many of the organized activities of his city and state, 
commander of the Minnesota Commandery of the Loyal Legion ; mem- 
ber of the executive council of the State Historical Society, and its 
president at the time of his death ; and held like offices in other organ- 
izations. As a lawyer he stood for years in the front rank of the pro- 
fession, not alone in the city and state but in the nation. He was a cit- 
izen of public spirit and executive ability, whose accomplishments left 
their impress in the enduring record of progress, and his relations were 
always marked by faithfulness to his highest concepts of duty and honor. 

General Sanborn was three times married. His first wife, whom he 
married in March. 18^7, was Miss Catherine Hall, of Newton, New 
Jersey. She died in November, i860, leaving one daughter, Hattie F., 
whose death occurred in December. 1880. Miss Anna E. Nixon, of 
Bridgton, New Jersey, a sister of Hon. John T. Nixon, of the Federal 
district court of New Jersey, became his wife in November, 1865. Her 


death occurred on the 25th of June, 1878. On the 15th of April, 1880, 
General Sanborn married Miss Rachel Rice, daughter of Hon. Edmund 
Rice, of St. Paul. To this union were born four children. The eldest 
is Lucy S., now the wife of A. W. Clapp, of the law firm of Clapp & 
Macarthey ; the second, John B. Sanborn, Jr., a lawyer of St. Paul ; and 
the others are Rachel Rice Sanborn and Frederick Sanborn, also of this 

General Sanborn died on the i6th of May, 1904. No departed cit- 
izen of Minnesota was ever more widely and sincerely mourned. Many 
military and civic associations joined in the commemoration of his 
achievements and the recognition of his high character. His statue in 
bronze stands in the rotunda of the state capitol, testifying to future 
generations tjie gratitude of the commonwealth for his splendid services. 

Hans Nelson. Many of the leading inen of Washington county, 
Minnesota, started out in life as poor boys, but through their own 
efforts have become wealthy and prominent, demonstrating that the most 
successful men of this country are not always those who are born to 
wealth and influence. There appears to be something in the necessity 
for exertion that develops a man's best qualities and shows what he is 
capable of accomplishing. Hans Nelson, of section 18, Oakdale town- 
ship, is an excellent example of this fact, and is proud that all that he 
now owns has been earned through his own efforts. Mr. Nelson was 
born on a farm near Ystad, Kaage-Holver, Sweden, June 8, 1846, a son 
of Nels and Ellen (Jonson) Hanson. 

Mr. Nelson's father died when he was fifteen years of age, and he 
remained on the home place with his mother for a few years, when he 
began working out among the farmers of his native locality. At the 
age of twenty-six years he came to the United States, and after a long 
voyage landed at Quebec, from which city he went to Milwaukee and 
thence to St. Paul, being from May 2 to May 27 in making his way across 
the country. He secured employment on a railroad, but remained there 
only a short time, his next work being as a harvest hand, at which he 
continued until 1876, on October 7th of which year he was married to 
Miss Celia Anderson, who had been born on a farm near Radinge, 
Sweden, and was twenty-three years old when she came to the United 
States. In 1880 Mr. Nelson started out to look for employment, and 
hearing of some land for sale in Oakdale township he purchased eighty 
acres, at ten dollars per acre. This land he found to be all in woods, 
swamps and lakes, but with characteristic energy he settled down to 
work, felled the trees, opened ditches, drained the land and built a two- 
room house, into which he moved in 1881. He built a log barn and set 
out a good orchard, and in 1887 sold his land for $14,000 and moved to 
St. Paul. In 1891, however, he returned to the farm, as the parties did 
not live up to their contract, and in 1908 he purchased twenty-two acres 
adjoining, all of the property now being in an excellent state of cultiva- 
tion. Mr. Nelson is a Republican in politics, but while always interested 
in current issues and well informed upon political matters he has re- 
fused nominations for office. Surrounded by his children, ministered to' 
by them and his wife, this hale, happy farmer is enjoying his declining 
years, having every reason to be contented with what his life has pro- 
duced. It is such men as he whose lives point a moral and make the 
present generation take notice and renew their endeavors to live uprightly, 
so that when they are passing down the slope of existence they may 


as peacefully look back over past years with as little regret as can Hans 
Nelson. All of his children are a credit to Him and their bringing up, 
and he is justly proud of tliem. They are as follows: l^llcn. who mar- 
ried Frank Anderson, of St. Paul, and has three children ; Jennie, who is 
a dressmaker, residing in Yellowstone Park; William, living in Minne- 
apolis, married Anna Anderson and has one child, Mr. Nelson being a 
draughtsman for the Sioux Railroad Company ; Fred, who holds a like 
position in the same office ; Peter, residing at home, a student in an agri- 
cultural college; and Henry, who is receiving a musical education. Mr. 
Nelson was reared in the faith of the Swedish Lutheran church, in 
which he was confirmed when he was fifteen years of age, and for sev- 
eral years he has acted in the capacity of deacon. 

Fred W. Gosewisch. A young man whose broad views and strong 
personality have been felt in the municipal life of St. Paul is Fred W. 
Gosewisch, who has served as clerk of probate since 1900 and who be- 
tween 1905 and 1908 served as mayor of North St. Paul, where he makes 
his residence. He is actively interested in the success of good govern- 
ment, stands high in the councils of the Republican party and it is through 
his enlightened efforts that the office of the clerk of the Ramsey county 
probate court has become one of the best systemized and most efficiently 
managed in the west. He has to his credit more than a decade of valua- 
ble service to the city. 

Although of German descent, Mr. Gosewisch is a native son of Min- 
nesota, his birth having occurred at Wabasha, June 19, 1875. To the 
public schools of Wabasha and later to those of St. Paul is he indebted 
for his education and for some years after leaving school he confined 
himself to the reading of law. As a very young man he became inter- 
ested in politics and was soon recognized as of the right material to 
which to entrust the fortunes of the Grand Old Party. His services 
as mayor of North St. Paul were of the finest and most satisfactory 
character. As the champion of the maintenance of the best educational 
system possible it is very appropriate that he should be secretary of the 
board of education, which office he has held since 1902. It is safe to say 
that no citizen of his years has been as active in municipal affairs. 

It has been said of Mr. Gosewisch, "His appointment to the clerk of 
Probate court came in recognition of the earnest and able work that he 
gave his party, and while l\Ir. Gosewisch has never sought political office 
of an elective nature at the hands of the voters at large over the country, 
he is one of the best known and most popular of the county officials and 
would be hailed cordially by many for any office to which he aspired." 

J. A. OuiNN, M. D. A popular man that has hosts of loyal friends, 
a skillful physician and surgeon, and a citizen of integrity, — such is the 
high estimate placed liy all who knew him upon Dr. J. A. Quinn. of St. 
Paul. He was born in Sangamon county, Illinois, December 8, 1855, the 
son of William B. and Louisa Quinn. His parents were pioneers in St. 
Paul in 1849, a date when St. Paul was considered remote territory. 
Dr. Ouinn's boyhood was spent on a farm in the neighborhood of St. 
Paul. At the age of nine he was sent away to school at Jacksonville, 
Illinois, and at thirteen he entered the preparatory department of the 
University of Minnesota. He remained in that institution for seven 
years with the exception of one year spent at Wesleyan University at 
Bloomington, Illinois. He left tlie Wesleyan University of Bloomington 


in 1876 and spent one year in travel. Upon his return he entered the 
office of Dr. J. H. Murphy, one of the oldest and most distinguished 
doctors in Ramsey county. He remained there, a student of medicine, 
and in 1880 graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 
New York City. He at once engaged in the practice of his profession 
in St. Paul, being associated with Dr. Murphy for the ensuing six years. 

In 1883 Dr. Quinn was elected coroner of Ramsey county on the 
Democratic ticket, and he served for four successive terms. During his 
long residence in St. Paul his service and his own personality have alike 
made him well-known throughout the city. 

In April, 1887, he married Frances B. Hampson, a native of Minne- 

John H. Colwell. Minnesota is fortunate in the identity of the man 
who has charge of one of the most important of its public trusts, — un- 
deniably important from the fact that in its duties are incorporated the 
safe-guarding of the lives of thousands. John H. Colwell, state boiler 
inspector, has been fitted for his office by many years of practical ex- 
perience in mechanics, and his carefulness and intelligent understanding 
of what is expected of him is of the highest character. He was appointed 
to his present place in 191 1 by Governor Eberhardt. He is one of the 
public-spirited citizens of St. Paul and one of his particular hobbies is 
public improvement, in which department of civic ethics he has played an 
important part. His office is situated in the Old Capitol Building and 
his residence at 257 Johnson street, this city. 

John H. Colwell was born at Malone, Franklin county, New York, 
May 16, 1858. He is the son of Lawrence and Susan (Gormley) Col- 
well, the father a native of Malone and the mother of Rochester, New 
York. Lawrence Colwell was a machinist by occupation and came to 
Minnesota in the spring of 1863, locating at first in Minneapolis and being 
connected with the first shingle mill in the state, the same being owned by 
Elder & Spink. He remained in that association for eight years, acting 
as head sawyer of the drag saw, which cut the logs into shingle bolt 
lengths. In the early '70s he removed to a farm in Sherbourne county, 
near Becker, which property he had taken up as a homestead, and it was 
while there residing that he passed away about the year 1872. His wife 
had preceded him to the Great Beyond several years before, soon after 
they took up their residence upon the farm. There were seven children 
in the family, the subject being the fifth in order of birth. All survive 
with the exception of William, who was killed August 31, 1881, on the 
St. Paul & Pacific Railroad. He was a single man. The father, an 
estimable man, was a Democrat in politics, but never an office seeker. 
He was reared in the Catholic faith, as was also the mother. 

Young John received a fairly good common school education and 
when the homestead was taken up was of years sufficient to assist in 
clearing it. After the parental estate was settled he worked for neigh- 
boring farmers for a year of two, for the remuneration of ten dollars a 
month at first. He then secured work in the shingle mills at Anoka at a 
dollar and a half a day, the pay of an experienced workman. It was his 
task to pack shingles and to direct what was known as knot sawing. 

At the age of about eighteen or nineteen years he began to work on 
the St. Paul & Pacific Railway as fireman, and from fireman he was 
eventually advanced to engineer, in which difficult and dangerous work 
he engaged for fifteen years, part of the time doing the work of stationary 


engineer and his territory being divided between Minnesota and Wiscon- 
sin. Upon entering upon his railroad career he took up his residence in 
St. Paul and here he has ever since resided. As mentioned in a preced- 
ing paragraph, he was appointed to his present position in 191 1, and has 
now held the office for about a year, sufficient period to prove that he 
is the right man for the place. 

Mr. Cohvell was first married August 2, 1882, the young woman to 
become his wife being May Stone, of Minneapolis. On September 20, 
1907, he was united in matrimony to Grace Heller, of Sac City, Iowa, 
in which locality her birth ocurred. They maintain a pleasant and hos- 
pitable abode and are happy in the possession of hosts of friends. 

Mr. Cohvell is one of the most prominent members of the Fraternal 
Order of Eagles, evidence of his popularity in the organization being 
the fact that he is now serving his fifth term as deputy grand president. 
He has assisted in organizing many lodges throughout his district. He 
is also a member of the Dayton's Bluff Commercial Club. He is presi- 
dent of the Mounds Park Improvement Association, which was recently 
organized, Mr. Cohvell being the first president. The object of this 
league is clearly expressed upon its membership application blanks, as 
follows : 

"The purpose of this organization shall be the banding together of the 
residents of .Mounds Park and vicinity for the study and discussion of 
all questions relating to the advancement of their interests, such as the set- 
tlement of -the district, transportation facilities, fire and police protection, 
lighting of streets and homes, grading and improvements in streets when 
necessary, good roads, street crossings, the suppression of nuisances, the 
procuring of better educational facilities and all matters pertaining to 
the general public welfare of this district." 

Mr. Cohvell was born and reared in the Democratic partv, but his fine 
broad mindedness, a mark characteristic, has made him independent, and 
he endeavors to support the man and the measure most likely to ])rove 
the friend of the people. 

John A. Willwerscheid. In all large communities every line of 
endeavor is likely to be represented, and all require different grades of 
ability to prosecute them properly. No line of work requires more tact 
or consideration for the feelings of others than does that connected with 
the undertaking business. The records of St. Paul, Minnesota, show 
that the funeral directors of that city are fully abreast of modern scien- 
tific progress and discovery, and that the men Ijclonging to this, one of 
the most important of the professions, rank with the foremost in the 
state. One of the leading undertakers of St. Paul is Mr. John A. Will- 
werscheid, of No. 458 St. Peter street, who has been engaged in busi- 
ness here for a number of years. He was born in this city, June 24, 
i860, and is a son of Adam and Christina (Hilgers) Willwerscheid, 
natives of Germany. 

Adam Willwerscheid came to the United States as a youth, and his 
wife when about ten years of age, and tliey were married in Chicago, 
where for some years the father followed the trade of carpenter, and 
later became a hotel keeper. In about 1856 the family came to St. Paul, 
where Mr. Willwerscheid again took up carpentry, and this continued 
to be his occupation until his death in 1869, when he was buried in Cal- 
vary cemetery. His widow still survives, at the age of seventy-seven 
years, and resides in the residence in St. Paul where John .\. Will- 
werscheid lived until his marriage. 


John A. Willwerscheid received his education in the parochial school 
at St. Paul, which he left at the age of twelve years to enter the employ 
of the Pioneer Printing Company, serving an apprenticeship to the book- 
binding trade. He continued with this firm for sixteen years, and in 
1887 he entered the Catholic Book store and the undertaking business at 
42-44 West Ninth street, from whence he moved to his present quarters. 
Mr. Willwerscheid has been affiliated with the Minnesota Funeral Di- 
rectors' Association for about fifteen years, during which time he has 
served as secretary for seven years and as president of the organiza- 
tion one year. He is a member of the state board of examiners, the du- 
ties of which are to examine and license embalmers, and a position which 
he has held for eight years. He is treasurer of the National Funeral 
Directors' Association, to which he was elected in the fall of 1910, 
during the past ten or twelve years has attended all national meetings as 
representative of the Minnesota association. In political matters he is 
a Democrat, but he has never been an office-seeker, although he was ap- 
pointed a member of the board of fire commissioners in 1910, and now 
serves as president thereof. He is a member of the Knights of Colum- 
bus; a charter member of the Catholic Order of Foresters, of which he 
was first secretary; and a member of St. Peter's Benevolent Society 
and St. Clements' Benevolent Society of Assumption Parish, in which 
he has been baptized, confirmed and married. 

On June 28, 1883, Mr. Willwerscheid was married to Miss Eugenia 
Metzger, who was born in St. Paul, Minnesota, daughter of Frank and 
Louisa (Boedigheimer) Metzger. Mr. and Mrs. Willwerscheid have 
had the following children: Frank, who died at the age of seventeen 
years ; Paul and Leo, who died in infancy ; Lawrence, educated in the 
parochial school and the Cretin high school, and who since the age of 
eighteen years has been assisting his father in business ; Jeanette Grace, 
a graduate of St. Joseph's Academy, residing at home; Norbert, who is 
a student in a law school ; Charlotte, a graduate of St. Joseph's Acad- 
emy ; Edith and Mary, who are attending that academy ; and John and Eu- 
gene, who are students in the parochial school. The pleasant family 
home is located at No. 375 Inglehart avenue. Mr. Willwerscheid car- 
ries a large line of undertaking supplies, and has every equipment nec- 
essary for dignified and efficient funeral directing. He has been suc- 
cessful in his business enterprises because he possesses the qualities which 
bring success — good judgment, business faculty, a high sense of honor 
and a just appreciation of the rights of others. 

Leo S. Lamm. After a long and useful career spent in mercantile 
pursuits, during which he built up an enviable reputation for integrity 
and upright methods of doing business, Leo S. Lamm is now living a 
retired life at No. 2525 Aldrich avenue, Minneapolis. Mr. Lamm was 
born July 23, 1861, at Mankato, Blue Earth county, Minnesota, and is a 
son of Stephen and Caroline (Steltemier) Lamm. He grew to manhood 
in his native place, attending the parochial schools until he was fifteen 
years of age, at which time he entered the State Normal School, and after 
two years of attendance in that institution .became collector in the First 
National Bank of Mankato, being later promoted to the position of book- 

During the fall of 1885 Mr. Lamm engaged in the hardware business 
with his brother-in-law. continuing therein until January i, 1887, and 
then became a partner in a furniture business, with which he was asso- 


ciated until January i, 1897. On June i, 1886, Mr. Lamm had been 
married at Mankato to Miss Tillie Klein, a daughter of John Klein, his 
partner, and they had four sons: William G., Alphonso A., Vincent 
dePaul and Gregoire I. Mrs. Lamm died June 22, 1897. While he was 
engaged in the furniture business Mr. Lamm purchased the greater 
part of his stock from the Luger Furniture Company, and the daughter 
of John Luger, Sr., I\Iiss Minnie C. Luger, was at that time a frequent 
visitor of the daughter of Mr. Klein. In this way she became acquainted 
with Mr. Lamm, and on November 15, 1898, they were married in .Minne- 
apolis, to which city her father had moved during that year. On Janu- 
ary I, 1897, Mr. Lamm sold his interest in the furniture business, and 
with his father engaged in dealing in real estate and loans, this associa- 
tion continuing until the death of the father, ]\Iarch 23, 1904, since which 
time Leo S. Lamm has been executor of the estate. The family moved 
from Mankato to ^Minneapolis in July, 1909. Three sons have been born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Lamm, namely : Norbert Leo, Hugo Clement and George 

Mr. Lamm is a Democrat in political matters, but has never cared for 
public office. He was reared in the faith of the Catholic church, in which 
he was confirmed at the age of fourteen years, and he is now a member 
of the Catholic Order of Foresters and the Benevolent Society of St. 
Peter and Paul. Formerly he was connected with the Commercial Club 
of Mankato. 

Mrs. Lamm was born at Wabasha, Minnesota, and received her educa- 
tion at the Sisters Convent at that place until she was seventeen years of 
age, at which time she accompanied the family to North St. Paul. Mrs. 
Luger, the widow of John Luger, Sr., was about twenty-three years of 
age when she came to America. Her father had preceded the family to 
this country, landing at New York City after a stormy voyage of 100 
days, and it had been agreed that his wife and children should meet him 
in that city. Through some cause or other, how-ever, the wrong ticket 
had been secured for them, and w-hile their trip only lasted sixty-one days. 
they landed at New Orleans. Here the mother and youngest child con- 
tracted cholera, and the latter died. In the meantime the father had gone 
to Dubuque, Iowa, where he was traced after some time by the Board 
of Information in New Orleans, and eventually he came for his family 
and took them to Dubuque. 

Both the Lamm and Luger families are well and favorably known 
throughout this part of Minnesota, and members thereof have been 
prominent in the business w'orld, public life and the professions. Mr. 
I.amm. although not now actively engaged in business, finds his time fully 
occupied by the duties incidental to executing his father's large estate, 
but manages to interest himself in all movements tending to advance his 
section, and is known as a charitable and public-spirited citizen. 

Dr. Frederick John Mitchell. Saint Paul numbers among her 
citizens Dr. Frederick John Mitchell, physician and surgeon. He was 
born in Richland Center, Wisconsin, on the 17th of July. 1879. Very 
probably he inherited his predilection for the medical profession, for his 
father was a physician and his mother was the daughter of a physician. 
During a period of forty years Dr. George Ray ^Mitchell has followed 
his profession in Richland Center and is still in active practice. The 
maiden name of his wife was Laura Dodge, and at the time of her death 
Mrs. Mitchell was thirty-eight years old. Five children were born to 


this union: Dr. Frederick John Mitchell, of St. Paul; Miss Lottie E. 
Mitchell, a teacher at Valparaiso, Indiana; Miss Marjorie Mitchell, a 
vocal teacher; Miss Myra and George Mitchell. All of Dr. Mitchell's 
ancestors were of Scotch-Irish blood. Cyrus Mitchell came to this coun- 
try at an early period, locating in Jefferson county, New York, from 
whence he moved to Wisconsin. 

Frederick John Mitchell received a good education in the public 
schools and continued through the high school of his native town. A 
teacher's graduating course, pursued after he had received his diploma, 
completed his preparation, and for one year he taught a district school 
in his home county. At the end of that year the Spanish-American war 
broke out and the patriotic young schoolteacher was one of the first to 
respond to the call for volunteers. He enlisted in the service of his coun- 
try and was made first sergeant of Company M. Fourth Wisconsin Volun- 
teer Regiment. They immediately went into camp at Camp Shipp, Ala- 
bama, waiting the call to go to the front, but they waited in vain. For 
eight months Dr. Mitchell's regiment was in camp and by the end of that 
time his service was no longer required. Again he turned his attention 
to teaching, repairing to Boaz, Wisconsin, and taking charge of the Boaz 
graded schools. At the end of the year of his service as principal of 
this school he determined to take up the study of medicine. 

He entered Hahnemann Medical College at Chicago, Illinois, and was 
prominent and popular in college affairs. He was elected to the presi- 
dency of the class of 1903, in which he was graduated. Euclid, Polk 
county, Wisconsin, was the scene of the Doctor's first practice, being as- 
sociated with Dr. Jackson S. Chapin. Five years later he returned to 
Chicago to take a special course in the treatment of eye, ear and nose 
diseases, and he was graduated from Northwestern Medical College in 
June, 1909. 

After this long apprenticeship in one of the noblest professions in 
the world Dr. Mitchell came to St. Paul and locating at No. 889 Payne 
avenue, immediately began the practice of medicine. In the few short 
years that he has been established in this city he has built up a reputation 
as one of the leading young physicians. His efforts for the betterment 
of his fellowmen have not been confined solely to ministering to their 
physical ailments. He is a firm believer in the wisdom and justice of 
independent voting. 

Dr. Mitchell is an assiduous worker in a number of fraternal and 
benevolent organizations — among them the Alasonic order, the Independ- 
ent Order of Odd Fellows, the Modern Woodmen of America, the Wood- 
men of the World, the Yeomen, the Royal Neighbors, the. Good Samari- 
tans, the Woodmen's Circle, the Owls, and the Moose. He is physician 
to the Omaha Benefit Association and to the Saint Cashmere and National 
Polish Union. He is also a member of the Ustion Medical Fraternity of 
Chicago, and the American, State and Ramsey County Medical Associa- 

On the 5th of December, 1906. Dr. Mitchell was united in marriage 
with Miss Minnie E. Lane, daughter of Arthur D. Lane, of Richland 
Center, Wisconsin. 

Sumner A. Farnsworth. St. Paul is particularly fortunate in the 

possession of a city treasurer of the type of Sumner A. Farnsworth, a 

gentleman of the highest civic ideals and greatest capability. Until a 

few vears ago he was known among the foremost educators in the city 
Vol. n— 1 8 


and preceded his present activity by several years identification with the 
real estate business. In addition to his other reasons for prominence he 
is exceedingly well known in Odd Fellowship, being past grand master 
of the Minnesota Grand Lodge. 

Sumner A. Farnsworth is a native of Bristol, Wisconsin, where his 
eyes first opened to the light of day on November 26, 1852. His parents, 
Joel and Alary Farnsworth, were of New England parentage, but came 
to the northwest some time before his birth. The father is now living 
at the age of ninety-three years, making his home at Sheldon, Iowa. To 
the public schools of River Falls, Wisconsin, is Mr. Farnsworth indebted 
for his early education. He subsequently matriculated in the River Falls 
State Normal School, where he completed his work in 1876, although 
he did not graduate until 1896, some twenty years later. At the age of 
eighteen Air. Farnsworth began upon his career as a teacher, occupying 
the pedagogue's desk in a country school. From that time on he had 
many positions of trust and his work ever gave general satisfaction. He 
was superintendent of schools at River Falls, Wisconsin, from 1876 to 
1877; held a like position at Brainerd, Alinnesota, in 1877-8 and 1880; 
at Crookston in 1882-3; and at Ada in 1884, 1885 and 1886. In 1886 he 
accepted the position of principal of the Cleveland school at St. Paul and 
his wonderfully fruitful labors in that capacity continued to January, 
1907. For eight years he was chairman of the legislative committee of 
the State Teachers' Association and he was president of both tlie Alinne- 
sota Educational Association and the St. Paul Teachers' .'Association. 
His name will long be associated with the securing of the district high 
school system in St. Paul, in which campaign he was a prime mover and 
he was active in that field even after quitting school work. In January, 
1907, he entered the real estate business and engaged in that line of en- 
deavor until 1910, in which year he was elected to the office of city 
treasurer, which he now adorns. 

A local publication in speaking of the record of Mr. Farnsworth re- 
fers to him in the following warm and convincing terms: 

"Many strong qualifications commended Sumner A. Farnsworth to 
the confidence and favor of the public in his candidacy for the office of 
city treasurer at the last city election. He was known to be a gentleman 
of strict integrity and broad culture. His administrative ability had been 
demonstrated in valuable public service as principal of the Cleveland 
school in St. Paul for a period of about twenty years. Business capacity 
of a high order had marked his course as a member of the real estate 
firm of Farnsworth & Campbell, with offices in the court block. He had 
made manifest his deep and abiding interest in the welfare and progress 
of St. Paul and everybody was familiar with his obliging disposition, 
courtesy of manner and genuine consideration for the rights and the 
feelings of others. Here were honesty, ability, efficiency, public spirit 
and assurance that could be relied on for rigid protection of every public 
interest and of fair and genteel treatment for all persons of every class 
and condition who might have business with the city treasurer's office. 
What more could the people ask? They showed by their verdict at the 
polls that they considered these enough and by his course in the office 
Air. Farnsworth has greatly strengthened and intensified their convictions. 
He has been faithful to every duty and intelligent and firm in the per- 
formance of all." 

Air. Farnsworth has always associated with the Republican party, but 
he is independent in local politics, supporting whomever he believes will 


be most effective in advancing the interests of the whole of society. He 
is well-beloved in Odd Fellow circles and has belonged to the order ever 
since he attained to his majority. He was grand master of Minnesota in 
1903, was grand representative in 1904-5; and is at present grand senior 
warden of the Grand Encampment. He joined the ranks of the ancient 
and august Masonic order in 1896, has attained to Scottish Rite honors 
and is past senior warden of St. Paul Lodge, No. 3. 

On October 21, 1879, Miss Eliza L. Gross, daughter of William 
Gross, became the bride of Mr. Farnswortli, their marriage being cele- 
brated at Glyndon, Minnesota. The Gross family is prominent and highly 
respected and her parents were among the territorial pioneers. The sub- 
ject and his wife are favorites in their circle and maintain a hospitable 
home. They have no children. 

Kenneth Clark, for a number of years a leader in financial and 
industrial circles in St. Paul, is a lineal descendant of an old and honored 
New York family, one of his ancestors being Peter Schuyler, an early gov- 
ernor of old New York. He was born at Fort Plain, New York, in 1847, 
and is the son of William and Anna Maria (Neukerck) Clark, both natives 
of that state. The mother, as well as the father, was descended from Hol- 
land Dutch ancestry, and many of the sterling traits which have marked 
the character of their son, Kenneth Clark, are directly attributable to 
this fine old strain of blood. 

The early education of Mr. Clark was acquired in New Haven, Con- 
necticut and in Union College at Schenectady, New York, from the latter 
of which he was graduated with the class of 1869. In the following year 
he came to St. Paul, where he took up the study of law, although he 
never engaged in its practice, becoming, instead, interested in mercantile 
matters, as a result of his partnership with C. C. DeCoster, the firm being 
known as DeCoster & Clark. A few years later he became an important 
factor in financial circles in St. Paul, having in 1892 been made vice 
president of the Capital Bank. His identification with the Merchants' 
National Bank dates from the year 1897, when he was chosen vice-presi- 
dent. In the same year he was further honored by his election to the 
presidency of this institution, which is recognized as one of the strong 
financial concerns in the city, its position and standing in moneyed circles 
being well known. 

In addition to these offices Mr. Clark is president of the St. Paul 
Bethel, a charitable institution for which he has done much ; of the St. 
Paul Cattle Loan Company and vice-president of the St. Paul Gas Com- 
pany, trustee of the Northwest Trust Company and vice-president of the 
State Savings Bank of St. Paul. In addition, he is a director of the 
American Exchange Bank of Duluth, and in all these offices of importance 
and responsibility his services have ever been of an order calculated to 
result to the highest interests of the various institutions. The possession 
by him of unusual qualities of initiative, judgment and foresight and their 
judicious exercise in his various activities have placed him in the front 
rank of financial and commercial circles in St. Paul, and his sterling 
character, combined with his admirable business ability, have given him 
a power and prestige which has been resultant of much in the way of the 
development of St. Paul. And it is not too much to say that few, if any, 
have been privileged to do more for the city in that respect than has Mr. 


The Republican party has always held the unswerving allegiance of 
Mr. Clark, and he is a member of the House of Hope Presbyterian 
church, as well as a member of its board of trustees. He is a member 
of his college fraternity, the Chi Psi, and of Summit Lodge No. 163 of 
the Ancient Free & Accepted Masons. He is also a member of the Society 
of Colonial Wars, to which he is eligible to membership by reason of his 
early American ancestors who in the history of young America bore 
valiant parts in the conquest of the wilderness and so laid the foundation 
for that wonderful development which has been the work of later genera- 
tions, and in which Mr. Clark, in his generation, has done so much. 

Mr. Clark was united in marriage in 1872 with Miss Alice G. (Gil- 
christ, a native of Brooklyn, New York, and the daughter of Andrew and 
Kate Gilchrist. 

Gebhard Bohn. Coming to America with only a smattering of 
the English language, arriving in Minnesota, a bareheaded, penniless 
youth, accepting subordinate positions vmtil he could gain knowledge of 
the customs and methods of the business people of the United States, 
working his way to a position of influence and affluence only to see his 
fortune swept out of his grasp, and then, nothing daunted, rising again 
to prosperity through his own sheer grit and persistent effort, — such has 
been the career of Gebhard Bohn, president of the White Enamel Re- 
frigerator Company of St. Paul, Minnesota, and a man who for more 
than thirty years has been intimately associated with the best business 
interests of the city. Mr. Bohn was born at Immenhausen, Hessen- 
Cassel, Germany, May 11, 1854, and is a son of Adam and Elizabeth 
(Dietz) Bohn. 

Mr. Bohn attended the village schools of his native place until he 
was twelve years of age, at which time he went to Hersfeld, attending 
the institution at that city until he was fifteen. He then became a stu- 
dent in the polytechnic school at Cassel, and there took a course for 
practical life, being educated in German, English, Erench and Latin and 
taking a thorough course in mathematics and mechanics. He was grad- 
uated at the age of eighteen years, and soon thereafter started for the 
United States, two of his brothers and two sisters having preceded him 
to this country and residing at Winona, Minnesota. He embarked as a 
steerage passenger, and after fourteen days reached the United .States, 
but on getting as far as Buffalo, New York, found that the money chang- 
ers had cheated him, and he was without funds and so hungry that he 
was compelled to ask a stranger for five cents with which to buy a small 
pie, and he has often since declared that no food has tasted so good in 
his life. On the train coming from T.uffalo, Mr. Bohn had his hat 
stolen while he was asleep, and so, without money or head gear he ar- 
rived in Winona. Although able to read, write and translate the Eng- 
lish language, Mr. Bohn was unable to speak it fluently, and at first se- 
cured employment at ijulling lumber from the river and piling it, and 
after about four months of this kind of work he had picked up the Eng- 
lish language. Eventually he secured a position in a bank, writing 
up the bank books, and at the end of a year had been promoted to col- 
lector and general correspondent. During this lime he had also started 
to keep books for his lirotlier, who was engaged in the manufacture of 
sash and doors, and when he left the bank he gave all of his time to aid- 
ing his brother, who had enlarged his plant, and remained with him for 
two years. 





'JfpfMa^ ^ £^j.^ jyyr 



Mr. Bohn was married in Winona, September 15, 1875, to Miss Lena 
Nockin, who was born in Chicago, Illinois, daughter of Charles Nockin, 
and in 1877 he moved to Redwood Falls, where he was engaged in the 
retail lumber lousiness prior to the building of the railway from Sleepy 
Eye to that point. Although he was successful in that venture, Mr. Bohn 
decided to locate at a point where he would have a wider field for his 
operations, and after three years came to St. Paul. While in the lum 
ber business Lord Ramsey, who had purchased a tract of several thous- 
and acres in the northwest, came to Mr. Bohn to purchase lumber with 
which to build homes for his tenants, and during these negotiations a 
warm friendship sprung up between the two men, which has lasted 
through the years that have followed, and Lord Ramsey visits at Mr. 
Bohn's summer home on Lake Minnetonka each year while on his an- 
nual visit to this country. 

On coming to St. Paul Mr. Bohn became the head of a branch of his 
brother's business, the sash and door concern gradually developing into 
a lumber business. First located at the corner of Third and Jackson 
streets, in 1881 Mr. Bohn erected a building at Sixth and Wacouta for 
offices and warerooms, but in 1888 the Bohn Manufacturing Company 
located on Arcade street, and in the following year Mr. Bohn bought his 
brother's interest. In 1899 he sold his interest to devote his time to the 
White Enamel Refrigerator Company, which had been put in as a branch 
of the business in 1897 but was not looked upon with favor by Mr. 
Bohn's partners, which led to Mr. Bohn's retiring from the firm. As 
the business was not making money at that time he found himself unable 
to sell his stock, and his only means of raising money was on his life 
insurance policy, on which he borrowed $4,000 to use as capital. 
Starting with a three-horse power motor, and buying electric power 
from the gas company with which to operate it, the business has grown 
to such an extent that he now uses 650 horse-power electric engines, 
and a 250 horse power steam power engine and manufactures his own 
gas for the enamel plant. His first location was in a little office in the 
old market building at the corner of Seventh and Wabasha streets. After 
doing a business about $10,000 the first year he decided to enlarge, and 
subsequently moved to Jackson, between Fifth and Sixth streets, where 
he remained until the summer of 1903. At that time he purchased 
twenty-three acres of land on which the company now has its plant, at 
Nos. 1340 to 1400 University avenue, St. Paul, which had formerly 
been the trace-track and stables of Commodore Kittson. Each year he 
has remodeled his plant and added to its capacity, and there are now 
about four acres of buildings, not counting the sheds. The output in 
1910 amounted to more than a million and a quarter of dollars, and 
goods were shipped to all parts of the civilized world. 

In addition to being the head of this great industry, Mr. Bohn has 
spent a great deal of his time in inducing other large plants to make 
their headquarters in St. Paul, and among them may be mentioned the 
Walter A. Wood Harvester Company, which is now owned by the In- 
ternational people ; the Northwestern Car Wheel and Foundry Company ; 
the Herzog Iron Works; the plant which now houses the Crex Carpet 
Company, and a great many smaller concerns. For some years he gave 
as much time to getting new plants started in St. Paul as he devoted to 
his own business. 


Mr. Bohn is a Republican in politics but is not a politician. With 
the exception of three times, when he voted for Grover Cleveland, 
he has always supported Republican candidates and has taken a keen in- 
terest in the success of his party. He was reared in the Presbyterian 
faith, but during late years has attended the Lutheran church. Fra- 
ternally he is connected with the Masons, having taken his first degree 
in St. Paul, where he has attained the thirty-second degree of Masonry. 
Like other big men, Mr. Bohn has his enemies, but he has ever been 
respectful of the rights of others, and his many warm, personal friends 
testify to his popularity. Self-made, possessing honorable business prin- 
ciples, and associating himself only with those concerns which have car- 
ried on business along strictly legitimate lines, Mr. Bohn is known and 
respected throughout the business circles of this section. 

Five children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Bohn, as follows: 
Gebhard C, vice-president of the White Enamel Refrigerator Com- 
pany, is married and has four sons ; Cora, wife of Walter S. Chase, a 
well known attorney of Minneapolis, has three children ; Ida, who re- 
sides with her parents ; William ; and Anna, living also with her parents. 
William Bohn, formerly vice-president of the White Enamel Refrig- 
erator Company, is now connected with the Northwestern Insulating 
Company, which was established by the older concern in 1909 and has 
ten acres in the plant at North Wabash, between Raymond and Hamp- 
den Railway, at Minnesota transfer. There is manufactured the flax 
felt used as insulating material, and in 1910 the company used $140,- 
000 worth of flax straw, which formerly the farmers were accustomed 
to burn to be rid of it. This new concern has grown rapidly. Both his 
sons, G. C. and William B. Bohn, are connected with the Refrigerator 
Company and the Insulating Company, and have contributed to the success 
of both companies. 

Joseph Bartles. Mr. Bartles' ancestors on both his father's and 
mother's side came to this country before the Revolutionary war and 
he has had all the advantages which accrue to one from a long inheritance 
of highminded forefathers and from the best which our modern civiliza- 
tion can offer in the way of education and environment. His mother's 
maiden name was Eliza Randall, and she was born in the state of New 
York. Her ancestors came to this country in 1648 and settled in Con- 
necticut, taking part in the colonial wars and also in that of the Revolu- 
tion. The family of which his father was a descendant came from Ger- 
many to Philadelphia in 1752 and they too gave soldiers to the new 
country both to fight the Indians in the colonial wars and to win the 
independence of the nation. Charles Bartles was born in New Jersey, 
in J\Iarch, 1801, and lived to the age of eighty-two. He was a successful 
lawyer and left a large estate. 

Joseph Bartles was born July 7. 1847. in Flemington, New Jersey. 
He attended the famous prejjaratory school at Lawrenceville and entered 
the college to which it sends so many distinguished students. Mr. Bartles 
received his degree from Princeton in 1868 and began his business career 
at Williamsport, Pennsylvania, where he was secretary for the White 
Lead and Color Works. He remained with the firm for four years and 
then went into business for himself in the same town. He established 
the L Bartles & Company Glue Works and conducted it successfully until 
1882, when he sold the business and removed to St. Paul. For one year 
he was secretary of the Missouri River Transportation Company and then 


engaged with the Standard Oil Company and became their manager at 
Winnipeg, Canada. Here he remained two years and at the end of that 
period was assigned to the position of assistant manager for St. Paul and 
he kept this position until 1887, when he resigned and went into the oil 
business for himself. As a member of the Independent Oil Company 
Mr. Bartles engaged in selling oil on his own account until 1892, when he 
sold out and again returned to the Standard Oil Company. For ten 
years he was general manager at St. Paul and then he again left that 
corporation to form the Bartles Oil Company, with plants at Grand Forks, 
North Dakota; Waterloo, Iowa; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and Peoria, 
Illinois, and with a capacity of six hundred barrels a day. The trade of 
the company was largely with the northwestern states. Since 1906, Mr. 
Bartles has been engaged in fighting the Standard and through his efforts 
has been successful in securing from the railroad commission such reduc- 
tion in classification as will permit competition and thus has done away 
with the Standard's monopoly in the northwestern states. There are 
now eighteen independent oil companies in Minneapolis and St. Paul and 
since 1906 they have saved the people of the northwest an annual sum 
of at least $250,000 in Minnesota, North and South Dakota. 

In politics Mr. Bartles is a progressive Republican. He has been a 
member of the Elks' lodge for twenty-two years and has filled a number 
of the chairs in that body. He is also affiliated with the Knights of 

In May, 1868, at New York City, Mr. Bartles was married to Miss 
Alma Houghton, a native of New York state. After fourteen years this 
union was dissolved by the death of Mrs. Bartles. She was the mother 
of three children who are all living at the present time. Charles resides 
at Grand Forks, North Dakota, and is in the oil business there. Bessie 
Bartles Hawke, the wife of Dr. W. W. Hawke, resides at Flemington, 
New Jersey. Lucy, Mrs. Manton Shepherd, lives in Waterloo, Iowa, 
where her husband is engaged in the oil business. In 1898 Mr. Bartles 
was married to Miss Lillian Mulcay, who is a native of Huntington, West 
Virginia, but was a resident of Minneapolis at the time of her marriage 
to Mr. Bartles. Both of the daughters, Mrs. Shepherd and Mrs. Hawke, 
are members of the Daughters of the American Revolution and perhaps 
it is not out of place to say that as his ancestors fought for political 
liberty Joseph Bartles has fought for industrial freedom and economic 
opportunity in his generation, whose need of them is not less than was 
that of the colonists for civil liberty. 

Sherman Sedgwick Hesselgrave. There are very few of us even 
in this age of peace conferences whose pulses are not quickened at the 
sound of martial music and the sight of uniformed men marching under 
streaming banners, and if we know they are going to a battlefield our 
emotion is of the sort which grips the very heart strings and chokes our 
utterances. This is partly because of our natural love of pomp and cir- 
cumstance and partly because of an inherited reverence for those who 
fight for our lives and our liberties. War is a never-ending condition of 
our existence; the only change is in the enemy. The dangers which 
threaten us now are not of the sword of the invader nor of the revolt of 
the downtrodden of our people, but of ignorance and disease and we 
have a great and valiant army which fights those destroyers, but they 
march under no banners nor are they heralded by booming drums and 
shrilling fifes. The code of the etiquette of their profession forbids any- 


thing whicli savors of publishing their deeds and yet they are devoted 
to fighting death in every form and their battle is not won at the sacrifice 
of other human life. St. Paul has a large and devoted band of physicians 
whose work is an honor to the country and whose services place them in 
the number of the highest benefactors of the race, among whom is num- 
bered Sherman S. Hesselgrave. 

Dr. Hesselgrave is a native of Sibley county, ^Minnesota, and was 
educated in the public schools of St. Paul. He graduated from the high 
school in 1891 and three years later received his degree from the Uni- 
versity of ]\linnesota in the department of medicine. While in college 
he was a member of the Xu Sigma Xu fraternity and in the professional 
societies he is a member of the county, the state and the American 
medical associations. From 1896 to 1900 he was the deputy coroner of 
Ramsey county. 

In the city clubs Dr. Hesselgrave is associated with the Commercial 
Club and belongs to the Recreation Club and the Automobiling Club. 
He is also a member of the IMasonic order. Politically he is a Republican 
and is deeply interested in public affairs, although absorbed in his pro- 
fession, of which he is one of the leading members in the city. 

In 1897 on June i, Dr. Hesselgrave was married to Miss Alarie E. 
Greget, of St. Paul. She was educated in the parochial schools and the 
\'isitation convent. She is a member of the Schubert Club. Their res- 
idence is at 1009 Lincoln avenue and the Doctor has his office in the 
Endicott building. 

John P. Jelinek. One of the leading druggists of the beautiful 
Minnesota capital, St. Paul, is John Peter Jelinek. His long and suc- 
cessful career as a pharmacist has entitled him to the leading place in 
the profession which he has chosen, his election to the presidency of the 
St. Paul Retail Druggist Association being closely followed by the Min- 
nesota State Pharmaceutical Association offering him the same high posi- 
tion of honor. He combines a thorough knowledge of the technical side 
of his work with a keen business head, and this combination has enabled 
him, instead of remaining a humble clerk in the drug store of another 
man, to own and manage not one, but two thriving stores in most desirable 

Although the greater part of his life has been spent in this country and 
commonwealth, Mr. Jelinek is not by birth a native of this country. He 
was born in Austria, on the 19th of June, 1870, near Prague. His father 
was Frank Jelinek, and his mother was Anna (Neider) Jelinek. Austria 
■was also the native country of the father, whose natal day was March, 
1846. He received a common school education, and upon growing to 
manhood adopted the trade of a tailor. In the month of Xovember, 1879, 
he turned to America, as a haven of refuge to escape the monarchy and 
oppression existing in Austria. Preferring to raise his family in .\merica 
"the land of the Free," he came to the United States Xovember, 1879, and, 
crossing half the continent, he finally located in New Prague, Minnesota. 
Here he pursued his even life of industry so successfully that he was en- 
couraged to try his fate in a larger city, so the following year saw him set- 
tled in St. Paul. In the crowded and artificial conditions of life in 
eastern Europe Mr. Jelinek had followed the path that his father had 
trod before him. and had found his religious life in the bosom of the 
Roman Catholic church, but now in this cool northern country, where 
the great winds swept the broad prairies all day, where there were long 


peaceful twilights and silent, quiet nights, the religion that found its 
expression in a creed became inadequate; one did not need a church in 
which to worship in this great free country, so Mr. Jelinek dropped the 
Catholicism to which he had been bred. As for politics he became 
a Democrat when he first became a citizen of the United States, but after 
the administration of President Cleveland he turned Republican, thinking 
the principles of the Republican party were now the safest for the guid- 
ance of the "Ship of State." The marriage of Mr. Jelinek took place 
before he left Austria in Budowitz. His wife was also an Austrian by 
birth. May ii, 1851, being the date of her birth. John P. Jelinek is the 
eldest of the six boys and four girls who were born to this worthy couple. 
All of them are living except one son, William, and the father and mother 
reside quietly in St. Paul. 

As a lad of nine years John P. Jelinek was brought by his parents 
into the wonderful new country, so different from that home he had left. 
The impression on his childish mind is one that Mr. Jelinek has never 
forgotten. The public schools of St. Paul took him in hand and he was 
speedily transformed from a shy little Austrian lad into a sturdy young 
American. While still a boy, in 1886, having finished his public school 
education, he entered the drug business. In four years, by constant ap- 
plication to work and by keeping his naturally receptive brain continually 
on the alert, he found himself ready to take up the business himself. 
He was admitted to practice pharmacy in the state of Minnesota in 1890 
and in 1898, having saved his money by rigorous self denial, he was able 
to go into the business for himself and opened up a store at 961 West 
Seventh street, at the corner of James street. In 1898 he bought another 
store at the corner of West Seventh street and Sherman street and since 
that time has been operating both of them with great success. 

Mr. Jelinek is an active party worker, his affiliations being with the 
Republican party. He is now the representative to the legislature from 
the thirty-fifth district, having been elected on the 8th of November, 
1910, to serve till December 31, 1912. Knowing his reputation for recti- 
tude and honesty of purpose, his constituents feel perfectly safe in leaving 
their affairs in his hands. He is director and treasurer of the West End 
Commercial Club Building Corporation, of St. Paul, incorporated for the 
purpose that the West End Commercial Club might have suitable quar- 
ters, and a member of the Minnesota River Gun Club and of the St. Paul 
Drug Club. His valuable services as president of the Minnesota State 
Pharmaceutical Association for the year 1910-1911 and as president 
of the St. Paul Retail Druggist Association have already been mentioned. 
Although not connected with any religious organization, Mr. Jelinek 
firmly believes in the one great teaching on which they all unite, love of 
one's fellow men. This is exemplified by his enthusiasm in regard to the 
fraternal orders and the many positions of honor and responsibility which 
he has held in the same. His long list begins with the Masonic order, 
in which he is a member of Capital City Lodge of Masons, No. 217, 
serving as worthy master for 1909-1910; he also belongs to the Ancient 
and Accepted Scottish Rite of St. Paul, to the Minnesota Consistory, No. 
I, to the Osman Temple of the Mystic Shrine, to Summit Chapter of 
the Royal Arch Masons, to Paladin Commandery, and to St. Paul 
Council, No. i. He is also a life member of the Elks No. 59. is a mem- 
ber of the Odd Fellows, Capital City Lodge No. 48, and affiliates with 
Grant Lodge, No. 88, of the Association of United Workmen. The for- 
eign society to .which he belongs is the C. S. P. S., No. 12. No better 


example of the universal popularity of this man could be given than the 
above list. To be a welcome member in so many different groups speaks 
well for the adaptability of the man. 

On the 2nd of March, 1897, Mr. Jelinek was married to l\Iiss Helen 
M. M. Ris, a daughter of Gottfried Ris and Johannetha Ris. Mr. Ris 
was a carpenter and contractor, who was born in Switzerland, in 1835. 
He was a veteran of the Civil war, having been a volunteer in the Wiscon- 
sin Second Light Artillery under Captain Berger, from which he received 
an honorable discharge at the end of his service. At his death he was 
buried with military honors. Mr. and Mrs. Jelinek have no children. 

Mr. Jelinek is proud of the fact that he is essentially a self-made man, 
that he owes his success to no one but himself. His life should be a great 
encouragement to other young men of foreign birth to whom the country 
seems to offer a cool front, for he began with no one to back him, with no 
money and little encouragement, and solely by his own efforts has raised 
himself to his present position. 

Robert J. Cl.\rke. Among the men of enterprise who have made 
successful careers in the commercial life of St. Paul, one of the best 
known is Air. Robert J. Clarke, the merchant and member of the state 
legislature. He has been identified with this city over a quarter of a cen- 
tury, and has enjoyed a steady advance in prosperity and influence until 
he is one of the leaders of the community. 

Mr. Clarke is a native of Ireland and was born in County Cork April 
24, 1862. His father was George Clarke, who was born in Ireland in 1832 
and died in 1881. He was a merchant and farmer and a well known 
cattle dealer, being one of the substantial citizens of his community. The 
mother was Elizabeth (Pattison) Clarke, who was born in Ireland in 
1834, and died in 1881. 

Robert J. had school privileges until he was thirteen years old, at- 
tending the Model school of County Cork. He then entered the service 
of the West Cork Railway Company, being assistant station agent, and re- 
mained in the railway service seven years. Leaving Ireland in 1882, he 
spent seven months in South Wales, and then came to America in 1883. 
He spent the first year in farm work in Wisconsin, and in the spring of 
1884 arrived at St. Paul. The beginning of his career in this city was in 
the employ of the McMillan Packing Company for a few months, and he 
then entered the service of the Canadian Pacific Railroad. Returning to 
St. Paul, he has made this city his residence ever since with the exception 
of eight months during 1886-87, when he lived in Colorado. From 1888 
to 1906 Mr. Clarke was connected with the St. Paul postoffice as mail 
carrier, and then resigned to enter an independent commercial career. 
The firm of Regan, Clarke & Company, clothing and men's furnishing 
goods, continued successfully in their location at 58 East Seventh street 
until 1909, when Mr. Clarke established a tailoring and men's furnishing 
business at 461 Wabasha street. This is the firm of Clarke & k^einstein, 
one of the most popular shops of the kind in the retail district. 

Mr. Clarke is one of the influential Democrats of the city and one of 
the active workers for the party's welfare. On this party ticket he was 
elected a member of the state legislature in 1910. Fraternally he is a 
member of the Fraternal Order of Eagles, the Ancient Order of L^nited 
Workmen, the Ancient Order of Hibernians, and the Loyal Order of 
Moose. Through the North Central Commercial Club he lends his in- 


fluence for commercial improvement and the general progress of his home 
city. His church is the Roman Catholic. 

On the i8th of October, 1887, in St. Paul, Mr. Clarke was united in 
marriage with Miss Anna O'Toole. Her father, Phil O'Toole, was a 
native of Ireland and came with his family to this country when she was 
a child. Nine children have been born to their happy marriage. The 
daughter .Mabel died at the age of eight years, and the others are : Mar- 
garet, Marie, Susie, George, Robert Emmett, Alice, Catherine, Phil, all 
of whom claim St. Paul as their native city. Mr. Clarke came to America 
a poor boy, and without influence or financial aid has performed the 
achievements and accumulated the means which are the tokens of business 
and civic success. In his career he has had his chief aid in the encourage- 
ment and counsel of his worthy wife and to her he gives the highest 
credit for his present prosperity. Their comfortable home is at 107 Litch- 
field street. 

Theodor Henninger. One of the interesting, highly honored and 
long-time residents of St. Paul is Theodor Henninger, a leading Ger- 
man-American citizen, a veteran of the Civil war, and one of gallant 
record, whose part in the business world was that of a printer. He is 
now retired and in well-earned leisure enjoys the possession of hosts of 
friends and admirers. In recording Mr. Henninger's distinctions one 
would scarcely omit his prominence in the musical life of the city, for 
he has for many years been a leader in the sphere of Orpheus. 

Mr. Henninger belongs to that fine race which has given to America 
an immense proportion of her best, citizenship, for his birth occurred in 
the grand-duchy of Baden, in the town of Tauberbischofsheim, the date 
of his nativity being September 11, 1840. He received his education in 
the public schools of Baden, which he attended until the age of ten years, 
and afterwards in the schools of the United States. Both of his par- 
ents were native Germans, but the father, Adam Henninger, a lock- 
smith by trade, died when a comparatively young man, in 1841, the year 
after the birth of him whose name inaugurates this review. The wid- 
owed mother, whose maiden name was Margaretha Mittnacht, in hope 
of securing for her children wider opportunities and better prospects, 
crossed the Atlantic with them in 1850. There were eight sons and 
daughters at that time, but only three survive at the present. 

At the time of the family exodus young Theodor was a lad about 
ten years of age. Upon their arrival on these shores they settled for a 
time in the state of New York. The studies of the subject were pur- 
sued in the schools of New York, Buffalo and Cincinnati, Ohio, which 
cities were the various scenes of their residence. When his education 
was completed he served as an apprentice in the printing business under 
his brother, Richard Henninger, who published a newspaper in Indian- 
apolis, Indiana. After successfully conducting this journal for a time his 
brother sold out his interests and Theodor returned to Cincinnati, where 
he continued to be engaged as a printer. Later he went back to Indian- 
apolis, but subsequently, learning of the vast business possibilities and 
healthy climate presented by this city, he decided to come here in 1867. 

Immediately upon his arrival in this city Mr. Henninger began work- 
ing at his trade and was soon brought into prominence by his musical 
talent, which seems to be the birthright of so many of his countrymen. 
In the course of his peregrinations he had devoted much study to music 
and was discovered to be a particularly enlightened teacher of the sci- 


ence. He was one of the directors of the first Liederkranz Society and 
also the Germania Singing Society of St. Paul, and of the Cathedral 
Church Choir and schools. Another connection linking him to the mu- 
sical history of the city was his membership in the Musical Society and 
the first band (Great Western) which was conducted by I'rofessor 
George Seibert. 

At the outbreak of the Civil war Mr. Henninger had opportunity to 
prove the genuineness of his loyalty to his adopted country by enlisting 
in defense of the preservation of the Union. His enlistment was made 
at Indianapolis in the Eleventh Indiana Regiment in the musical corps, 
his commander being the late General Lew Wallace, later to become so 
famous as an author. Mr. Henninger's regiment took part in many 
notable engagements, that which remains most vividly in his memory 
being the battle of Shiloh. The Rebel army had surprised and nearly 
surrounded Grant's army, and the Federals had almost abandoned hope, 
when, at the eleventh hour, the tide of battle turned from defeat to vic- 
tory for the Union. In that battle thousands of the flower of Ameri- 
can manhood were slain and wounded. Mr. Henninger was mustered 
out August 14, 1862, at Helena, Arkansas, and he subsequently returned 
to his home in Indianapolis. At the time of John Morgan's raid he 
again proffered his services, but his enlistment was for only a short period. 

This useful and honorable pioneer citizen has since his earliest ar- 
rival here been closely identified with the interests of St. Paul, and now 
in the calmer days of his retirement he finds that he loves its institu- 
tions and that for him it is the ideal place of residence. He has, for 
three and one-half years, been working on a new song, and has at last 
completed (1912) the "Glorious Star Spangled Banner." He has a 
number of social, musical and fraternal relations in which he takes a 
great pleasure. He was a member of the Great- Western Band and di- 
rector of the "Liederkranz" and the "Germania" singing societies, and 
is a member of the Musicians' Union and also the Sons of Herman. He 
has never lost his interest in the comrades of other days and renews 
old associations as a member of the German-American \''eterans and 
Garfield Post of the Grand Army of the Republic. He is a staunch 
adherent of the "Grand Old Party" and is a member of the Evangeli- 
cal church. 

In 1865 Mr. Henninger laid the foundation of what proved a happy 
household and congenial and sympathetic life companionship by his 
union with Bertha Kuester, daughter of Rev. Karl and Friederike 
Kuester, of Indianapolis. This admirable woman, who bore the subject 
nine sons and daughters, died in St. Paul in 1909, at the age of sixty- 
three years. Concerning the children the following data are herewith 
entered. Arthur, born in Indianapolis in 1866, died in St. Paul in 1884. 
Paul, born in St. Paul in 1869, is married and resides in St. Paul, his 
two children being Herbert and Alice; he was for seventeen years in the 
government service. Mrs. George Dahlberg, born in St. Paul in 1871, 
resides in the city and is the mother of two children, — Bertha and Ar- 
thur Dahlberg. Herman, born in this city in 1874 is married and re- 
sides in Los Angeles, California, with his family, which includes two 
sons and a daughter. Sylvan, Leroy and Dolora. Julius, born June 9, 
1876, died in 1901, in this city. Rudolph, born in 1878. married, and is 
the father of three children : Rudolph, Jr., Theodor and Margaret. K(\- 
win G., born in 1881, in St. Paul, died in 1886. !Miss Ella Augusta, born 
September 17, 1885, resides with her father and is prominent in sing- 


ing circles in this city, being gifted with a wonderful voice. The same 
is true of her younger sister, Dora Amalie, born in St. Paul, in 1889. 

H. Martin Johnson. A successful business man and well known 
citizen, H. Martin Johnson has won his position in commercial affairs 
through his personal ability and industrious efforts. Though not yet 
thirty years of age, he is secretary and one of the active managers of the 
Bodin-Sundberg Drug Company, the largest retail drug house in the city, 
with five branch stores in different parts of the city. 

Mr. Johnson is a native of St. Paul, born here April 27, 1883, a son of 
Frank and Martha Johnson, who were both born in Sweden but were 
married in St. Paul. The father settled in St. Paul in 1880. He is a 
railroad man and for the past five years has been connected with the 
Northern Pacific. Of the five children in the family, H. Martin is the old- 
est. Two died in infancy, and his two brothers are Albin F. and Emil T., 
both of whom were born in this city. 

After attending the public schools of this city during his youth he 
began his practical career in the employ of the drug store of J. A. Batto at 
309 Jackson street, where he was employed five years. Having determined 
to follow this line of business, he had in the meantime studied in the 
school of pharmacy at Minneapolis, where he was graduated as pharma- 
cist in 1901. In 1903 he entered the firm of John Bodin & Company. 
He made his services so valuable that on the death of Mr. Bodin in 1906 
and on the reorganization of the company he became a member of the 
company known as the Bodin-Sundberg Drug Company, and has since 
been secretary. The business was incorporated with a capital of twenty- 
five thousand dollars, and the other officials are : V. C. Sundberg, presi- 
dent and treasurer; Mrs. H. Bodin, vice president; and C. J. Rudeen and 
A. T. Sundberg, directors. The stores of this company are located as 
follows: 329 East Seventh street, 881 Payne avenue, 11 10 Payne avenue, 
879 Rice street, and a branch store for the hospital at corner of Ninth 
and Wacouta. Mr. Johnson is manager of the store at the corner of 
Payne avenue and Jessamine street. When he first began in the drug 
business he was a poor boy with only his own character and persevering 
industry as aids to advancement, and it is no small achievement to have 
placed himself in so few years among the independent business men of 
this city. 

He is also a public-spirited citizen, an active Republican, and represents 
the first ward of the city on the city and county Republican committee. 
He is a member of the finance committee of the Ramsey County Prog- 
ressive League, and is one of the young leaders in civic and political ad- 
vancement. He was one of the organizers and is a member of the East 
Side Commercial Club. Fraternally his affiliation is with Montgomery 
Lodge, No. 258, A. F. & A. M., being a trustee of the lodge, and a member 
of Jewel Chapter, Royal Arch Masons. He was manager of Maple Camp, 
No. 5453, M. W. A., a charter member of the Current Topics Club, a 
charter member of the Payne avenue Lodge, Loyal Order of Moose, a 
member of the Modern Brotherhood of America, and one of the organizers 
and a member of the Board of Directors of St. Paul Drug Club. His 
church is the English Lutheran. 

Mrs. Johnson is a member of the Maple Leaf Camp, Royal Neighbors, 
the Ladies' Aid .Society of the Arlington Hills Lutheran church and the 
Ladies' Auxiliary of the East Side Cambridge Club. 


Mr. Johnson owns a comfortable and attractive home at 614 East 
Jessamine street. He was married in this city on November 12, 1906, 
to Miss Marie Peterson. She was born in St. Paul, November 5, 1884, 
a daughter of ]\Ir. and Mrs. Jacob Peterson. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson are 
parents of two children: Howard Alartin, born August 20, 1907; and 
Elaine, born May 26, igii. 

Max Ernst Robert Toltz. The Toltz Engineering Company of St. 
Paul, of which Mr. Toltz is president, is the largest firm of general en- 
gineers in the northwest, and its business extends to all parts of the 
United States and Canada. The founder and head of tliis firm has had an 
unusual record of service as a railroad and general engineer. Thirty 
years ago, when he first came to ,\merica, though he possessed a profes- 
sional degree, he was entirely without capital, and he began his career in 
this country as a common laborer for day's wages in a stone quarry. 
When the opportunity for professional service did come, he quickly proved 
his worth, and has advanced from one grade of success and responsibility 
to another until he is among the ablest engineers of the country and so 
considered at the present time. 

Max Toltz was born in Germany, on the 2d of September, 1857, ^ 
son of Herman and Malvina (Beilfuss) Toltz. His father was a mer- 
chant in the old country and died in 1867, being survived by his wife 
until 1896. From the public schools of Germany Mr. Toltz entered the 
Royal Polytechnikum at Berlin, where he was graduated with the degree 
of Civil Engineer in 1878, at the age of twenty-one. As a German youth 
he served in the national army, with the Railroad Regiment, and at his 
discharge had the rank of second lieutenant. 

In 1881 he came to -America, and soon after his arrival in St. Paul he 
was employed by the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitolaa Railroad, now 
the Great Northern, continuing in railroad service for over twenty years, 
until 1903. He then resigned, but at once became identified with the 
Canadian Pacific until 1905. At the latter date he was made vice presi- 
dent and general manager of the Manistee & Grand Rapids Railroad, an 
office he held until 1908. Since that time he has served as consulting en- 
gineer for a number of railroad lines. In May, 1910, he organized and 
became president of the Toltz Engineering Company. Mr. R. E. Stenton 
is treasurer of the company and W. E. King secretary. The company's 
offices are in the Pioneer building, but their services in general engineer- 
ing are engaged in many parts of the country. 

Mr. Toltz is an esteemed member of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers, the American Society of ]Mechanical Engineers, the Railway 
Master Mechanics Association and the St. Paul Engineers Club. In polit- 
ical principle he is a Republican, but gives his support to the best man 
regardless of party. He is affiliated with Landmark Lodge. No. 5, A. F. 
& A. J\I., at St. Paul, and is also a thirty-second degree Mason, and a 
Shriner. He is also a member of the ^Minnesota Club and the University 
Club of St. Paul. He has always been interested in niilitarv afl:'airs, and 
in 1900 he organized and became captain of a companv of engineers in 
the National Guard. This company has since been turned into Battery C 
of the First Field Artillery of the National Guard of Minnesota. Mr. 
Toltz holds now the position of Engineer officer, with the rank of Captain. 

At St. Paul on the 17th of .May, 1883, :\Ir. Toltz married Miss .A.malia 
Krahmer, a daughter of E. F. Krahmer, who was a native of New Ulm. 


They are the parents of one daughter, Florence, who was born in this 
city. The family residence is at 433 Holly avenue. 

WiLLi.^M C. Kregel. Among the merchants of St. Paul who have 
built up extensive and prosperous lines of business in their special call- 
ings, one of the most enterprising is Mr. William C. Kregel, whose retail 
drug establishment at the northwest corner of Rice and- University avenue 
is one of the best in this part of the city. 

Mr. Kregel was born at Castle Rock, Minnesota, July 31, 1876. His 
father was Frank H. Kregel, for some time a retired resident of St. Paul 
and who for many years was a substantial farmer in the vicinity of Castle 
Rock. He was born in Germany in March, 1837, and came to America 
in 1855, first locating in New York state, and coming to Minnesota in 
1872. He served in the Civil war with a New York regiment. His death 
occurred in St. Paul in 1912, and his widow resides in this city. She was 
Rachel A. Voorhees, born in New York state, September 23, 1847, and 
they were the parents of four children, William C, being the third. 

The latter began his education in the district schools of his native 
vicinity, and at the age of twenty-four was graduated from the Carlton 
Academy. He began depending on his own efforts at an early age, and 
has always been an industrious worker, which accounts for the success he 
has won. For the first two years after leaving school he was employed by 
the National Biscuit Company at Minneapolis, but then resigned to enter 
the drug business, which he had determined to make his regular vocation. 
For one year he was with the Tupper & Chamberlain drug firm of Min- 
neapolis, and then for three years with the A. D. Thompson Drug Com- 
pany. With this experience as a preparation, on February 20, 1908, he 
purchased a half interest in the Capitol Drug Company, his partner 
being Mr. N. Nelson. This was an incorporated business, and Mr. 
Kregel was its secretary and treasurer. In December, 1909. he bought 
all the stock and has since been sole proprietor of the establishment. 

Mr. Kregel was formerly a member of Company D of the Minnesota 
National Guard at Northfield. Fraternally he is a member of the Royal 
Arcanum, the Equitable Fraternal Union and the Sons -of Hermann. 
His interest in the larger growth and welfare of the city's business is 
maintained through his connection with the North Central Commercial 
Club. In politics he votes for the best man and is an independent. His 
church is the Catholic. 

Mr. Kregel was married in this city, June 30, 1909, to Miss Mary 
M. Pulrange. She was born at Minneapolis, May 5, 1887. Their one 
child, Catherine Ann, was born August 9, 191 1. 

Charles A. Ahlouist. Among a large class of people in this country 
to-day many are beginning to show a preference for modern methods of 
healing to take the place of the old medical regime which has held full 
sway for so many years. Science has taught that in many cases the ills 
of the body, and even of the mind, can be greatly benefitted, if not abso- 
lutely cured, without the use of either drugs or surgical instruments, and 
as a result the massage and Swedish movement systems are gaining many 
advocates. Charles A. Ahlquist, whose establishment is situated at No. 
604 Chamber of Commerce Building, St. Paul, is an expert in these arts, 
and has built up a large and lucrative practice since locating in this city. 
He is a native of Stockholm, Sweden, and was born May 28, 1863, a 
son of Peter and Augusta (Brodin) Ahlquist. His father was for a 


number of years chief of the custom house at Sundvall, Sweden, and 
his ancestors have been ministers of the Swedish church since the year 

Professor Ahlquist was reared to manhood in Stockholm, and besides 
the public and private schools of that city he attended high school and 
was prepared for a collegiate course. For several years he was engaged 
in gardening, and on March 18, 1885, was married to Miss Emma John- 
son, who was born on a farm some miles from the Swedish capital. 
While following gardening, Mr. .'\hlquist became interested in massage, 
his brother's wife being a practitioner and one of the first to take up that 
profession in Sweden, and when about twenty-seven years of age he 
concluded to engage in the study of this interesting science. He had pur- 
chased property at Arboga, Sweden, and there sent his family to live 
while he entered an institution to learn massage and Swedish movement, 
and after completing his course he began practicing in his native city. 
In 1902 he decided to come to the United States, and subsequently sold 
his property in the old country and came to St. Paul, where he has since 
been very successful. His first home in St. Paul was destroyed by cy- 
clone in 1904, and in 1907 he bought his present beautiful residence on the 
south shore of Silver Lake, North St. Paul. Mr. and Mrs. Ahlquist have 
had five children, as follows : Perry, an auditor employed by the Northern 
Pacific Railway, has one child ; Jones, now studying to become a mis- 
sionary doctor ; Albert, who died at the age of nine years ; Margaret, who 
lives at home with her parents ; and Erik, a student in North St. Paul 
high school. The latter is an athlete of some note, and in 191 1, with a 
friend, Paul Aurelius, accomplished a tramp of 700 miles. 

Mr. Ahlquist is a Republican, but he has never been an office seeker, 
the duties of his profession having claimed all of his time and attention. 
However, he is a good and public-spirited citizen, and all movements 
which have for their object the betterment of conditions in his community 
in any way will find in him a hearty advocate and liberal supporter. He 
was reared in the faith of the Swedish Lutheran church, but now holds 
membership in the First Swedish Baptist church of St. Paul. 

Gener.^l R. N. McL.^ren. The sudden death on July 30th, 1886, 
of General R. N. McLaren deprived St. Paul of one of her most illus- 
trious citizens, and ended a life fraught with high consequences to the 
community, a life that had been spent in useful activity in behalf of the 
public. As an army officer he had been daring and courageous, sagac- 
ious in planning, bold in execution, a gallant commander in all encoun- 
ters. As a politician — and he was that in the best sense of the word, 
for he felt it the duty of every high-minded citizen to accept public trust 
with private zeal — he was a picturesciue figure in many of the now his- 
toric conventions of the northwest, deliberate, far-sighted and eager al- 
ways for the greatest good to the greatest number. As a man he was 
sincere and humble, with that Christian attitude that cares less for 
worldly honors than for the "well done" of the Maker. In the course of 
a long life he filled many important and honorable positions and he 
never betrayed a trust, however slight it may have been. It is not too 
much to say of him that he remains, after twenty-five years, one of .St. 
Paul's noblest and most cherished memories, a man not easily forgot- 
ten, for his kind are rare. 

General McLaren was born in Caledonia, Livingston county. New 
York state, on April 28, 1828. He was the son of the Reverend Donald 

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C. McLaren, D. D., of the United Presbyterian church, and his wife, 
Jane (Stephenson) McLaren, both of whom were of Scotch ancestry. 
General McLaren's grandfather, Finley McLaren, immigrated to the 
United States prior to the American Revolution, locating in the vicin- 
ity of Syracuse, New York, where he attained a position of prominence. 
Another noteworthy member of the McLaren family is the well-known 
divine, the Rt. Rev. Bishop McLaren. 

General McLaren was prepared for college at Cambridge Academy, 
Washington county. New York, and after finishing the course entered 
Union college at Schenectady, New York. He did not complete his 
course, however, for ill health interfered and he left the institution in 
1851. His first business venture was as the partner of Hon. Henry C. 
Corbett, afterwards United States senator, in a mercantile business in 
Portland, Oregon, whither he had gone and where he remained for sev- 
eral years. During his stay in Portland he served as a member of the 
Portland city council for one term. 

In 1856 General McLaren returned to the east, and in 1857 decided 
on Red Wing, Minnesota, as a permanent location. There he em- 
barked in a lumber business, the firm being known as Densmore and Mc- 
Laren. He was also the junior member of the firm of Mesrole & Mc- 
Laren, which carried on an extensive forwarding and commission busi- 
ness. In 1859 he was elected state senator from Goodhue county, and 
served throughout the second and third sessions of the Minnesota state 
legislature. During his career in that body, he was chairman of the 
committee on banks and took an active part in all legislation calculated 
to advance the interests of the state. 

At the outbreak of the Sioux Indians in 1862 General McLaren 
raised a company for the Sixth Minnesota Infantry, and on August 22d 
of that year was commissioned major, a commission which he held for a 
period of eighteen months. He accompanied General Sibley against 
the Indians and made a gallant record at Birch Coulee and at the en- 
gagement of Wood Lake. It was his battalion of infantry with Mc- 
Phaill's company of cavalry that extricated the little command of Brenn 
and Grant from a perilous position at Birch Coulee, and he was in com- 
mand of the daring fellows who routed the Indians at Wood Lake. He 
accompanied the Sibley expedition in 1865 and was in the front at all 
engagements. He gained quite a reputation as an Indian fighter, and 
when the Second Minnesota Cavalry was ordered out for service on the 
frontier he was made commanding colonel, the date being January 13, 
1864. He was mustered out of the service November 17, 1865, with the 
rank of brevet brigadier general, under a commission signed by Presi- 
dent Johnson. During his service he had taken part in three campaigns 
against the Indians, one under General Sibley and two under General 
Alfred Sully. In the latter campaign he went as far west as the Yel- 
lowstone valley, where the troops were subjected to arduous and trying 
circumstances. For considerable length of time he was commandant at 
Fort Snelling, and was in charge of the post at the time of the execu- 
tion of Shakopee (Little Six) and Medicine Bottle for their share of the 
outrages against the whites. 

After he returned from frontier service in 1866 General McLaren 
was sent by the department of the interior as one of the commissioners 
to treat with the Sioux Indians at Fort Laramie, an event which marked 
the closing of his active military career. 


After liis service General McLaren came to make his home in St. 
Paul. Soon after his arrival he was made internal revenue assessor for 
the second JMinnesota district, and on consolidation of the offices of 
assessor and collector, was appointed to the office of United States 
marshal for the district of Minnesota May 17, 1873, by General Gram 
and re-appointed to the same office by President Hayes in November, 
1877. He remained in the government service in that capacity until 
18S2, when he retired from public life to look after his property inter- 

Politically General McLaren was a staunch supporter of the Repub- 
lican party, its men and its measures. He was often present at the con- 
ventions of his party as a delegate from his home district, and was at 
one time chairman of the state central committee. His rare qualities of 
generalship and management made his advice valuable to the leadeis of 
his party, and his advice was followed on more than one occasion. 

General McLaren was united in marriage in May, 1857, to Miss 
Anna Mc\'ean, of Livingston county, New York state. Like her hus- 
band she was of a long line of Scotch ancestry of gallant history and 
honorable traditions. General and Mrs. ]\IcLaren became the parents of 
three children, — Miss Jennie ]\IcLaren, Robert F. McLaren and Dr. 
Archibald McLaren, the well known physician of St. Paul. 

General McLaren passed away very suddenly on the 30th of July, 
t886, leaving vacant one of the highest places attained by any citizen 
in the esteem and affection of the city of St. Paul and the great north- 

Arthur J. Reeves. Some men attain to more than ordinary promi- 
nence through the recognition by their associates of their ability to dis- 
charge certain duties, and this is undoubtedly the case with -Arthur J. 
Reeves, of 302-4-5 Ryan Building, St. Paul, who now acts as general 
agent for the New England Mutual Life Insurance Company. .]\Ir. Reeves 
was born on a farm in Dane county, Wisconsin, September 24, 1864, 
and is the son of John and Jane (OsW'in) Reeves. 

Mr. Reeves' parents were born and reared in England, where they 
were married, and they came to the United States in 1855, settling on 
the Dane county farm where I\Ir. Reeves was born. He was about seven 
years of age when the family moved to a farm in Mitchell county, low'a, 
and in that vicinity he grew to manhood. After leaving the country 
schools he attended the Cedar Valley Seminary for about a year and a 
half, and soon after his return to the farm his father died, it being left 
to Arthur J. to settle up the affairs of the estate. This work accomplished, 
in April, 1886, Mr. Reeves came to St. Paul and began to clerk in a shoe 
store. In January, 1887, he went into the real estate business, continuing 
therein until i88g. While thus engaged he began negotiating with several 
fire insurance companies and established the fire insurance agency that 
was afterwards known as the Reeves i!<: Gillian .Agency, now owned by 
W. S. Gillian. In April. 1902, he became, through appointment, general 
agent for the New England Mutual Life Insurance Company, which at 
that time had about $80,000.00 premium collections in the agency, and so 
successful has Mr. Reeves been that during 191 1 the company collected 
nearly $250,000 in the agency. The insurance business is one that de- 
mands more than ordinary ability, as competition is especially strong be- 
tween the companies. 'Air. Reeves has demonstrated that he possesses 
the rare faculties essential to those who make a success of this particular 


line of endeavor, and in the comparatively short time that he has been 
engaged in this work here has shown that he is a valuable man in the 
insurance field. 

On November 5, 1891, Mr. Reeves was married to Miss Mary S. 
Clark, of St. Paul, who was born in Baraboo, Sauk county, Wisconsin, 
and one son, Oswin, has been born to this union. He is now a student 
in the class of 1912 at the St. Paul Central high school. Mr. Reeves is 
a Republican in politics, but his business interests have so occupied his 
time that he has not actively entered public life. However, his adopted 
city's interests have always found in him an interested adherent and any 
measure that promises to be of benefit to the community will be earnestly 
supported by him. Mr. and Mrs. Reeves and their son are members of 
the St. Anthony Congregational church, where Mr. Reeves is a member 
of the board of trustees. He was one of the organizers, in 1907, of the 
Twin City State Bank, becoming its first president, and has held that 
office to the present time. In addition to his offices in the Ryan building, 
he maintains an office at 505-6-7-8 Plymouth Building, Minneapolis, Min- 
nesota. Aside from his business interests, Mr. Reeves is well known in 
social circles, and he and Mrs. Reeves have a host of warm personal 

Charles J. Humason. Prominent among the honored citizens of 
St. Paul, Minnesota, the greater portion of whose life has been spent 
within the confines of this state, is Charles J. Humason, old pioneer and 
veteran of the Civil war, and now a faithful employe of the government 
which he so bravely supported during the rebellion. Mr. Humason was 
born in Turin, Lewis county, New York, November 4, 1841, and is a 
son of John Sykes, who was probably born in Hartford, Connecticut, as 
was the latter's father, Leonard H. Humason. Up to the time he was 
ten years of age Mr. Humason lived with his parents in Turin, Rome, 
New York City and Brooklyn. His mother, up to the time of her mar- 
riage, was Vienna Goff, her people living at Houseville, New York. 

At the age of ten years young Humason was sent to Ohio to live with 
his paternal grandfather on a farm, and remained there for two years. 
In the meantime his parents removed to Racine, Wisconsin, and in 1854 
he was sent to Racine, remaining there two years and attending the 
public schools. In 1856 his grandfather Humason came from Ohio and 
prevailed upon his father to take his family and go to Minnesota, there 
to take up a quarter-section of land and go to farming. The grandfather 
went first and located the land in the township of Rock Dell. Olmsted 
county, and in July of that year Mr. Humason's uncle, Henry Gear, who 
married his mother's sister, and a hired man and Mr. Humason started 
west to the new home, Mr. Humason's father, mother and sister to follow 
in September. First taking a train for Chicago, from that point they 
went to Dunlieth, on the Mississippi river, where they took a boat for 
Winona, Minnesota. They stayed at the small village, as it was at that 
time, only overnight, and the next day started on foot for High Forest, 
the nearest town of Rock Dell township, where they had some acquain- 
tances. The first day out they made St. Charles, where they stayed for 
the night, and the next day arrived at Marion, where they found an old 
acquaintance from Racine named Messingham, who was keeping a hotel, 
and remained at his hostelry until the next day, when they continued on 
their journey and found their grandfather at High Forest. After resting 
for several days they went on to the farm, a journey of some seven miles. 


"Of course," relates Mr. Humason, "we had no house to live in so 
we camped in a small grove on grandfather's land, using the wagons he 
had brought with him to sleep in, while the cooking was done at a camp 
fire. I was detailed to do the cooking. My life as a pioneer had now 
really commenced ; it was what I had longed for for some years, to get 
mto a new country and make a home. After my work in camp was done 
I was sent out to round up the oxen, of which we had four yoke. Fre- 
quently I was obliged to wade through wet slough grass nearly as high 
as my head before I could get our team into camp. Then they were 
yoked and we started for the field to break up ground for the next sum- 
mer's crop. I did the driving and grandfather held the plow. We broke 
twenty-live acres that fall and uncle and the hired man put up thirty 
tons of hay. In September, father and his family came, grandfather and 
I meeting them in Winona with two ox-teams. We got them all in, with 
what goods we could carry, and started back to our new home. Of course, 
no house was ready for them and they were landed beside the hay-stacks. 
With a few boards, which we had hauled from a mill some fifteen miles 
away, a shelter was provided to keep off the rain until a house could be 
put up. Of course we now were very busy, getting up a house, procuring 
lumber and provisions to carry us through the winter, there being ten to 
provide for, these including my grandfather, father and mother, seven 
children, my uncle, his wife and one child, and the hired man. Before 
cold weather set in we had a house and stable, the house being small, 
sixteen by twenty-four feet, one room below and one above, boarded up 
and down and battened, with a board roof. There was no ceiling or 
plastering on the house and of course it was very cold. Being the oldest 
boy, it devolved upon me to build the morning fires, and many times I 
found snow all over my bed and chamber floor that had blown in during 
the night. As winter came in upon us it was necessary to have sleds to 
haul wood and rails, so father set to work to build one, and when finished 
tlie hauling began, the distance to the timber being seven miles. Father 
and the hired man did the cutting and hauling while I remained at home 
to do the chores and cut fire-wood. 

"Before winter set in, however, my grandfather went back to Ohio 
to spend the winter and get his wife and household goods, and as my 
uncle and aunt had seen enough of the West they also returned. That 
left just our own family and the hired man. It was a long and lonesome 
winter for my parents, who were not used to such a life. A few neigh- 
bors in the meantime moved in and settled from one to two miles from 
us and two young couples from Iowa came and took up land about two 
miles away, put up a shack and the first snowstorm nearly covered them 
up. They finally persuaded father to take them in until spring, and as 
each had a yoke of o.xen they all made trips to the timber for wood 
whenever father went. The winter finally came to an end, as all winters 
do, and the warm spring cheered us up and we all went to work to get 
in our crop. The next year father built a more substantial house, into 
which we moved, and thus passed on until the summer of 1861. 

"I had lived and worked on the farm for five years, settlers had come 
in on everv <|uarter section, good farms were opened up in our township, 
and all did well. In the spring of 1861 the Civil war broke out and I 
was anxious to enlist, but being very small thought they would not take 
me. I got somewhat sick of farming as I read the war news, and per- 
suaded my parents to let me go into a mill at Rochester with a cousin. 
Of course it was all excitement at Rochester during the summer, com- 


panics were being raised and going to the front continually and I soon 
concluded that if they would take me I would enlist. I called upon C. H. 
Blakeley, who was to be lieutenant in a company then recruiting, and in- 
formed him of my desire, told him I was under age and had no consent 
from my parents, and as I was so small I did not know whether they 
would accept me. He told me to go with him up to the fort and he 
could pull me through, so I sat down and wrote to my father that I had 
concluded to enlist and for him and mother to come over. They came and 
as they found I was so anxious they made no objections. Father went 
to see the lieutenant and had a talk with him and matters were made all 
right. In a few days I bade farewell to Rochester and by wagon went 
to Fort Snelling, where I found many boys I was acquainted with. I 
was accredited to Rock Dell town, being the first to enlist from there. 
Now mv life as a soldier had begun and I was mustered into Company 
K, Third Regiment, Minnesota Volunteer Infantry, for three years. The 
time at the fort was spent in drilling and getting our uniforms, the date 
of my enlistment being October 26, 1861. On November 17 we embarked 
on a steamer for the South, were landed at the Upper Levee, St. Paul, 
disembarked, marched up Eagle Street to Third and down Third to the 
lower landing amid the cheers of the patriotic people of St. Paul. Once 
more we embarked and then realized that we were leaving home and 
friends perhaps never to return. Nothing of special mention happened 
on our journey to Louisville, Kentucky, by way of La Crosse and Chi- 
cago, and our first camp was made five miles out of Louisville. 

"Our regiment during the nearly four years' service participated in 
the following engagements : Murf reesboro, Vicksburg. Fitzhugh's Woods, 
and Wood Lake, and a few other small skirmishes. While our regiment 
laid at Pine Bluff, Arkansas, I was detailed by General Steele to report 
at the military prison at Little Rock for duty as commissary sergeant of 
that institution. This was in the summer of 1864 and I remained there 
until the close of the war, was mustered out September 16, 1865, and 
returned home with the regiment. 

"I had been married September i, 1862, while home on furlough, so 
upon my return from the army I located in Rochester and was employed 
as a clerk in a wholesale and retail grocery store, in which position I re- 
mained about one year. I then moved to Stewartville, and went into the 
mill again with my cousin, but remained only a short time as the dust 
of the mill did not agree with me and then concluded to go on my farm, 
which was located near the old town from which I enlisted. For three 
years I worked as hard as I knew how to make a success of farming, but 
failed, as many others did at that time. In the spring of 1871 I moved 
into High Forest, where I went into the hotel business and for two years 
did fairly well. In March, 1873, I received word from my brother that 
I was wanted at Dodge Center as a clerk in the railroad eating house and 
hotel combined, went there and remained about six months, when I was 
employed by E. C. Severance in the lumber business at Dodge Center. 
In this business I remained for seven years, when the yard was sold to 
Laid, Norton & Company, of Winona. I still continued in business there 
for eight more years, and during this time held the offices of town clerk 
and city clerk for ten years. In the summer of 1883 I was appointed 
county auditor for Dodge county, to fill out the unexpired term of Arnold 
Alder, who had died, and was afterwards elected and served two years. 
I then gave it up and continued the lumber business until the yard was 
sold and afterward kept books for the Dodge Center Roller Mills until 


1889, when I received the appointment of chief clerk in the adjutant 
general's office under General Mullin, then adjutant general, and in 1891 
I was appointed assistant adjutant general and served two years. In 
1893 General JMullin was appointed surveyor general of logs for Wabasha 
and I received the appointment from him as his bookkeeper for that 
season. In 1894 I was sent by Tams Bi.xby and Governor Merriam to 
Pierre, South Dakota, to take charge of the property known as the Pierre 
Water Light and Power Company, in which they were interested, and 
remained there one year, resigning in 1895." 

While in South Dakota, Mr. Humason's residence was still main- 
tained in St. Paul, and at the time of his resignation he returned to this 
city and during the following fall went to Woodruff, where he opened 
a lumber yard, remaining there for three years, .^t this time, however, 
his health failed and he returned to St. Paul, becoming bookkeeper for 
A. C. Johnson, who was then an auctioneer. Subsequently he held a like 
position with the Dodge Land and Investment Company, and while in 
the employ of that firm received an offer from O. A. Robertson to go to 
Campbell. Minnesota, in a like capacity. He remained there in a general 
implement business for some time, when he was called to Minneapolis 
to take a position with the Crane-Ordeway Company, but after six months 
with that concern received notice from Governor \'anSant of his appoint- 
ment to the position of Civil war record clerk, and he has since served 
in that capacity. Mr. Humason's duties include the filling out on blank 
sheets of the record of every Civil war soldier that enlisted from Minne- 
sota, these sheets being bound to become a part of a permanent record. 

Mr. Humason became a member of the A. F. & A. M., Lodge No. 
85, at High Forest, and later transferred his membership to Dodge 
Center Lodge, No. 108. He belongs to Joseph Garrison Post, No. 131, 
Dodge Center, serving as commander of the post for two terms and at- 
tending national reunions at Washington, Detroit. Chicago, St. Paul and 

On September i, 1862, Mr. Humason was married at High Forest, 
Olmsted county, Minnesota, to Miss Caroline A. Tattersall, who was born 
in New York City, February 17, 1845, daughter of William H. and 
Elizabeth C. (Winter) Tattersall. Her parents had moved to Minne- 
sota in 1856. and her father kept a hotel at High Forest until enlisting 
in the Civil war as captain of Company H, Sixth ^Minnesota \'olunteers, 
which he had recruited in Olmsted county. Mr. and Mrs. Humason 
have had three children : Charles Henry, who is married and has one 
child, Harry L. ; Wilhelmina L., who married Edward J. Conroy, and 
lives in Minneapolis and has a daughter, Caroline M. ; and Harry B., who 
married Mary E. Coles and lives in Merriam Park. He is cashier of the 
.American National Bank of St. Paul, and has one son, Sherman C. 

Mr. Humason has seen many changes take place in this part of Min- 
nesota, and has participated actively in them, doing his full duty as a 
citizen in times of peace as he did as a soldier during the dark days of 
the Civil war. Known as a man of the highest principles and strictest 
integrity, he is esteemed and respected by all with whom he has had 
dealings, while his genial, kindly manner has made him hosts of friends 
in whatever community he has found his services needed. 

Sheridan Grant Cobb, M. D. The modern hospital is too often 
looked upon as a convenience or a luxury of the well-to-do. The modern 
hospital is not only the highest development of science for the alleviation 


and cure of the swarming bodily ills of mankind, a wonderful organization 
into which the best thought and experience of experts at work the world 
■over have entered, it is also a great philanthropic enterprise. Few people 
realize the strain of mind and body ; what toil, what wealth of experience, 
zeal, watchfulness, knowledge, supremacy of skill and talent is necessary 
in conducting an institution of this kind, and those who have been the 
founders of these great enterprises have erected monuments for them- 
selves more lasting than those that could be devised in any other way. 
Sheridan Grant Cobb, M. D., of Merriam Park, St. Paul, is accomplishing 
his life work in establishing one of the finest hospitals in this part of the 
city, and his ambition to become one of the public benefactors is rapidly 
being realized. Born August 14, 1862, Dr. Cobb is a native of Cascade, 
Minnesota, and is a son of Ephraim Drake and Mary (Stevens) Cobb. 

Ephraim Drake Cobb was born in Massachusetts and came to Minne- 
sota in 1853 as a pioneer of Olmsted county, settling at Rochester as an 
architect and builder and dealing largely in real estate. Later he went to 
Cascade and engaged in farming, and became one of his community's 
prominent and highly esteemed citizens, serving in a number of township 
offices. He died there in 1889, when seventy-eight years of age. His 
wife, who bore the maiden name of Mary Stevens, was a native of Mas- 
sachusetts, and died when Sheridan G. Cobb was three years of age. 

Sheridan Grant Cobb received his education in the Rochester public 
schools and Niles Acadmey at that place, and after attendance in the 
Winona Normal school, taught school for one year. He commenced the 
study of medicine with Dr. Westfall of Rochester, when a boy, and when 
he was only eighteen years of age began practice with that well known 
physician. In 1884 he was graduated from Hahnemann College, Chicago, 
and at once began practice at Faribault, Minnesota, but after a few 
months removed to Plainview. During the summer of 1889 Dr. Cobb 
came to St. Paul, and began practice in Merriam Park, where he is now 
the oldest practicing physician. He is a member of the City, State and 
National Homeopathic Societies, holding the office of president of the 
state organization. He is surgeon for the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
Railway and chief for the Minnesota Transfer Railway. He has at- 
tained to the thirty-second degree of Masonry and he organized Triune 
Lodge here in 1890. He is a member of all the bodies of the York and 
Scottish Rite, and a life member of Zurah Temple, Minneapolis. 
He is a life member also of the Minnesota Historical Society and the 
St. Paul Institute; and belongs to the Automobile Club of St. Paul, the 
Young Men's Christian Association, the Lake Pepin Country Club and 
the St. Paul City Club. 

For some years Dr. Cobb had in mind the founding of a hospital, and 
in 1898 the nucleus of his present institution was formed in the upper 
rooms of a private residence. In 1900 he gave up his practice and spent 
six months in Europe, visiting Vienna, Berlin, Paris, London, Edinburgh 
and other large cities, studying conditions and methods in hospital work, 
and in 1901, on his return to this country, felt that he was ready to engage 
in the work that has always meant so much to him. Purchasing the old 
Merriam Park schoolhouse, he remodeled it and fitted it up for hospital 
purposes, it being opened in 1902, since which time over 2,000 patients 
have been treated within its walls. It has filled a long-felt want in the 
neighborhood in which it is located, and Dr. Cobb has the gratitude of 
the people of Merriam Park, who have supported it to such an extent 


that Dr. Cobb feels justified in erecting a more commodious and modern 
structure, plans therefor now being under way. 

On June 30. 1886. Dr. Cobb was united in marriage with Miss E. 
Milicent Cutter, at Dover, Minnesota, she being a native of Boston, 
Massachusetts. Two children have been born to them : Francis Cutter 
and Mary. Francis C. Cobb married Gretchen Uttley. of .Minneapolis, 
and they reside in New York city. 

Dr. Eugene L. Mann is the son of a father who achieved distinction 
in another of the "learned professions." for Horatio E. Mann was an at- 
torney of prominence in both St. Paul and Minneapolis. He was born 
in X'ermont, and there married ]\Iary A. Williams. Together they came 
to Minneapolis in 1857. Here he practiced his profession with a high 
degree of success, and was influential in the councils of his ])olitical 
party. After some years he was made clerk of the United States circuit 
court and after that time made his home in St. Paul. He was also master 
in chancery, where his thorough accjuaintance with the law and also his 
knowledge of human nature made him a most valuable assistant to the 
court. For about twenty years he held these two offices but in the year 
of 1883 he retired from active work in his profession and lived in retire- 
ment until his death in 1907. He had served one term in the Minnesota 
legislature and was a man of more than usual ability. His wife died in 

Eugene ManTi is one of the two children born to Horatio and Mary 
Mann. Laura, the daughter, is now Mrs. Whitacre, of St. Paul. Dr. 
Mann was born in Minneapolis, on May 20, 1861. His elementary edu- 
cation was received in the Jefiferson school of St. Paul and after gradu- 
ating from the high school he entered Hobart College in Geneva, New 
York. He graduated from there in 1883 and then having the desirable 
foundation of general training, began his special professional studies in 
the Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia. He graduated from 
the medical school in 1886 and then secured that training so valuable to 
the young physician by being interne at Wards Island Hospital, New 
York. At the expiration of his term there Dr. Mann returne